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CT aorta

Sabrina Dorn, Shuqing Chen, Stefan Sawall, Joscha Maier, Michael Knaup, Monika Uhrig, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Andreas Maier, Michael Lell, Marc Kachelrieß
PURPOSE: To establish a novel paradigm to facilitate radiologists' workow: combining mutually exclusive CT image properties that emerge from different reconstructions, display settings and organ-dependent spectral evaluation methods into a single context-sensitive imaging by exploiting prior anatomical information. METHODS: The CT dataset is segmented and classified into different organs, e.g. the liver, left and right kidney, spleen, aorta and left and right lung, as well as into the tissue types bone, fat, soft tissue and vessels using a cascaded 3D fully convolutional neural network (CNN) consisting of two successive 3D U-nets...
August 11, 2018: Medical Physics
Matthew Brown, Patrick Browning, M Wasil Wahi-Anwar, Mitchell Murphy, Jayson Delgado, Hayit Greenspan, Fereidoun Abtin, Shahnaz Ghahremani, Nazanin Yaghmai, Irene da Costa, Moshe Becker, Jonathan Goldin
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to describe the integration of a commercial chest CT computer-aided detection (CAD) system into the clinical radiology reporting workflow and perform an initial investigation of its impact on radiologist efficiency. It seeks to complement research into CAD sensitivity and specificity of stand-alone systems, by focusing on report generation time when the CAD is integrated into the clinical workflow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A commercial chest CT CAD software that provides automated detection and measurement of lung nodules, ascending and descending aorta, and pleural effusion was integrated with a commercial radiology report dictation application...
August 8, 2018: Academic Radiology
Emanuela Viviani, Claudia De Gregorio, Antonio De Capua, Anna Maria Giribono, Umberto Bracale, Luca Del Guercio, Maurizio Sodo, Umberto Marcello Bracale
INTRODUCTION: Ruptured mycotic aneurysms are an extremely rare complication of intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy. Several cases involving various arterial sites, mostly in the thoracic or abdominal aorta,have been described in the literature. BCG immunotherapy rarely causesfalse aneurysms and open surgical repair using an in situ prosthetic graft is most commonly performed.Further to this, targetedantituberculous treatmentis required for at least one yearfollowing surgery...
August 7, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Markus M Obmann, Vanessa Kelsch, Aurelio Cosentino, Verena Hofmann, Daniel T Boll, Matthias R Benz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the reliability and comparability of virtual unenhanced (VUE) attenuation values derived from scans of a single-source, dual-energy computed tomography using a split-filter (tbDECT) to a dual-source dual-energy CT (dsDECT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, comparisons for tbDECT and dsDECT were made within and between different dual-energy platforms. For the interscanner comparison, 126 patients were scanned with both scanners within a time interval of 224 ± 180 days; for the intrascanner comparison, another 90 patients were scanned twice with the same scanner within a time interval of 136 ± 140 days...
August 9, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Farhad Rikhtegar Nezami, Lambros S Athanasiou, Junedh M Amrute, Elazer R Edelman
Management of aortic dissections (AD) is still challenging, with no universally-approved guideline among possible surgical, endovascular or medical therapies. Approximately 25% of AD patients suffer post-intervention malperfusion syndrome or hemodynamic instability, with the risk of sudden death if left untreated. Part of the issue is that vascular implants may themselves induce flow disturbances that critically impact vital organs. A multilayer mesh construct might obviate the induced flow disturbances and it is this concept we investigated...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
K Schürmann
CLINICAL ISSUE: Aortic bifurcation disease is a manifestation of arteriosclerosis in about 95% of cases. Stenotic disease of the aortic bifurcation is a special form of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Men older than 60 years are particularly affected. STANDARD TREATMENT: The potential of endovascular therapy has continued to increase. Hereby, the increased availability of hybrid operating suites which allow for a combined use of endovascular techniques and open surgery plays an important role...
August 9, 2018: Der Radiologe
Dustin G Mark, Justin A Davis, Yun-Yi Hung, David R Vinson
OBJECTIVE: To determine if ascending aorta (AscAo) diameters measured by non-contrast computed tomography (CT) allow for meaningful discrimination between patients with and without type A aortic dissection (TAAD), ideally with 100% sensitivity. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of cases of TAAD, as well as controls undergoing evaluation for TAAD with CT aortography, presenting to 21 emergency departments within an integrated health system between 2007 and 2015. AscAo diameters were determined using axial non-contrast CT images at the level of the right main pulmonary artery by two readers...
August 9, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
M Gschwendtner
BACKGROUND: Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) are predominantly atherosclerotic related and are usually asymptomatic. Treatment is necessary from a size greater 6.5 cm, while patients with rapidly growing, compression of organ structures, aneurysm-related connecting tissue orders must be treated from a diameter of 6 cm. METHODS: Elective interventions may be performed with fenestrated and/or branched grafts. Another possibility is the chimney, sandwich or periscop technique for treating TAAA...
August 8, 2018: Der Radiologe
Saravanabavaan Suntharalingam, Elena Stenzel, Axel Wetter, Nika Guberina, Lale Umutlu, Thomas Schlosser, Kai Nassenstein
Background Dual-energy CT (DECT) provides additional image datasets which enable improved tumor delineation or reduction of beam hardening artifacts in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Purpose To assess radiation dose and image quality of third-generation DECT of the head and neck in comparison to single-energy CT (SECT). Material and Methods Thirty patients with SCC who underwent both SECT (reference tube voltage 120 kVp) and DECT (80/150 Sn kVp) of the head and neck region for staging were retrospectively selected...
August 8, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Tohru Ishimine, Toshiho Tengan, Hiroshi Yasumoto, Akio Nakasu, Hidemitsu Mototake, Yuya Miura, Kyohei Kawasaki, Takashi Kato
BACKGROUND: Primary aortoduodenal fistula (PADF) is an abnormal connection between the aorta and the duodenum and is a life-threatening condition. It is a very rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding, which often leads to delay in its diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment are crucial to improve the outcome of patients with PADF. PRESENTATION OF CASE: An 82-year-old man with a history of untreated abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) presented to the emergency department with hematemesis...
July 26, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Jacek Wojciechowski, Lukasz Znaniecki, Mariusz Kaszubowski, Jan Rogowski
INTRODUCTION: TEVAR is the preferred way of treatment of complicated type B aortic dissection. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of TEVAR on aortic remodelling in the thoracic and abdominal segment in long-term follow-up. METHODS: 23 patients with complicated type B aortic dissection were treated by TEVAR in years 2004-2012 in our Department. Aortic remodelling was rated based on preoperative and final follow-up CT angiography. Aorta was measured at the level of left bronchus (A), at the level of the diaphragm (B), celiac trunk (C) and the aorta below the renal arteries (D)...
August 3, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Ibrahim Sultan, Keith Dufendach, Arman Kilic, Valentino Bianco, Dhaval Trivedi, Andrew D Althouse, Floyd Thoma, Forozan Navid, Thomas Gleason
BACKGROUND: Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is increasingly utilized in acute complicated type B aortic dissection (TBAD). The objective of this study is to demonstrate evidence of aortic remodeling using a PETTICOAT (Proximal ExTension to Induce COmplete ATtachment) system in patients with acute complicated type B aortic dissections. METHODS: From 2013 to 2016, 213 patients with type B aortic dissection were seen at our institution. 33 of those patients underwent thoracic endografting for complicated acute type B aortic dissection...
August 2, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Hao Lin, Yukui Du, Cuntao Yu, Xiangyang Qian, Xiaogang Sun, Chuan Tian, Yanhai Meng, Huawei Pei, Chunmao Wang, Penghong Liu, Xiaobo Guo, Mingxing Ma, Qian Chang
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of the less invasive hybrid zone 0 (Z0) total aortic arch repair (HAR, ascending repair + complete debranching + thoracic endovascular aortic repair [TEVAR]) without deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in management of DeBakey type I aortic dissection (IAD). The adverse outcome was defined as a single composite endpoint comprising peri-operative mortality, permanent neurological deficit, and renal failure necessitating haemodialysis at discharge...
August 1, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Anne-Lise Hachulla, Stéphane Noble, Maxime Ronot, Gabriel Guglielmi, Thomas de Perrot, Xavier Montet, Jean-Paul Vallée
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To assess both the complete aorta and coronary artery disease (CAD) using low iodine contrast computed-tomography angiography before transcatheter aortic valve replacement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 84 patients underwent computed-tomography angiography before transcatheter aortic valve replacement: 42 with standard iodine injection protocol (P1:120 mL); 42 with a low dose iodine injection protocol (P2:60 mL). Mean attenuation and subjective image quality were rated at different levels of the aorta, iliac and coronary arteries...
August 1, 2018: Academic Radiology
Xiaojun Li, Wenlong He, Jinhua Li, Ruoyun Ouyang, Ping Chen, Hong Peng, Dandan Zong
RATIONALE: Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is a congenital pulmonary malformation wherein a piece of tissue that ultimately develops into lung tissue is not attached to the pulmonary arterial blood supply, sometimes it is difficult to diagnosis with no specific laboratory tests, discover an abnormal blood supply from aorta by imaging tests is a key step in diagnose. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 54-year-old male smoker presented with cough, expectoration and blood in the sputum...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Cammillo R Talei Franzesi, Davide Ippolito, Luca Riva, Davide Fior, Cecilia Cangiotti, Sandro Sironi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate image quality and radiation dose exposure of low-kV (100kV) and low contrast medium (CM) volume CT angiography (CTA) in patients candidate to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI), in comparison with standard CTA protocol. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients candidate for TAVI were prospectively enrolled in this study and examined with 256-MDCT. Forty-two patients were evaluated using study-group protocol (100kV; whole-body retrospective ECG-gating; with 50 ml of CM; iterative reconstruction algorithm) while 37 patients underwent a standard CTA study (120kV; ECG-gating for chest; 100 ml of CM; FBP reconstruction)...
August 3, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Hassan Ghobadi, Hamid Janbazi, Somaieh Matin, Shahrzad M Lari, Khalil Ansarin
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the relationship between health status and pulmonary artery diameter in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlation between Pulmonary artery-Aorta ratio (P-A ratio) and health status of the individuals, using COPD assessment test (CAT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 112 COPD patients were recruited. The severity of COPD was determined by global initiative for obstructive lung disease (GOLD)...
August 2, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Duo Wang, Rui Zhang, Jin Zhu, Zhongzhao Teng, Yuan Huang, Filippo Spiga, Michael Hong-Fei Du, Jonathan H Gillard, Qingsheng Lu, Pietro Liò
Medical imaging examination on patients usually involves more than one imaging modalities, such as Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Positron Emission Tomography(PET) imaging. Multimodal imaging allows examiners to benefit from the advantage of each modalities. For example, for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, CT imaging shows calcium deposits in the aorta clearly while MR imaging distinguishes thrombus and soft tissues better.1 Analysing and segmenting both CT and MR images to combine the results will greatly help radiologists and doctors to treat the disease...
March 2, 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
Alexandra Grosse, Claudia Grosse, Irene Lang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the vascular and parenchymal CT imaging findings, including vessel and cardiac chamber diameter measurements, in patients newly diagnosed with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The CT imaging findings were correlated with hemodynamic measurements and patient outcome. METHODS: Vascular and parenchymal CT findings were assessed on retrospectively ECG-gated MDCT angiography scans in 76 patients newly diagnosed with CTEPH...
2018: PloS One
A Szczurowska, M Guziński, W Krajewski, D Kamińska, K Kościelska-Kasprzak, A Arruza Echevarria, B Małkiewicz, P Dębinski, O Mazanowska, M Klinger, M Sąsiadek
INTRODUCTION: After living kidney donation, a decrease of kidney function (described as estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) is observed in majority of donors. However, the loss is more significant in some patients without an explicable reason. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative parameters in computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen that would predict greater eGFR reduction after kidney removal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and ten preoperative multiphase CT examinations of the abdomen of kidney donors were analyzed for the following renal parameters: cortex, parenchyma and pyramids volume, scarring thickness (low grade: <1 cm, high grade: >1 cm), cortical gaps, vascularisation, and cortex-to-aorta enhancement index (CAEI)...
July 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
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