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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632500/photon-detection-efficiency-of-laboratory-based-x-ray-phase-contrast-imaging-techniques-for-mammography-a-monte-carlo-study
#1
Somayeh Saghamanesh, Seyed Mohammad Reza Aghamiri, Alireza Kamali-Asl, Wataru Yashiro
An important challenge in real-world biomedical applications of X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) techniques is the efficient use of the photon flux generated by an incoherent and polychromatic X-ray source. This efficiency can directly influence dose and exposure time and ideally should not affect the superior contrast and sensitivity of XPCI. In this paper, we present a quantitative evaluation of the photon detection efficiency of two laboratory-based XPCI methods, grating interferometry (GI) and coded-aperture (CA)...
June 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628467/juvenile-and-adult-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-comparative-study-in-a-large-cohort-from-the-spanish-society-of-rheumatology-lupus-registry-relesser
#2
Vicenç Torrente-Segarra, Tarek Carlos Salman Monte, Iñigo Rúa-Figueroa, Fernando Sánchez-Alonso, Francisco Javier López-Longo, María Galindo-Izquierdo, Jaime Calvo-Alén, Alejandro Olivé-Marqués, Jesús Ibañez-Ruán, Loreto Horcada, Ana Sánchez-Atrio, Carlos Montilla, Rafael Benito Melero González, Elvira Díez-Álvarez, Victor Martinez-Taboada, José Luis Andreu, Olaia Fernández-Berrizbeitia, José Ángel Hernández-Beriain, Marian Gantes, Blanca Hernández-Cruz, Ángela Pecondón-Español, Carlos Marras, Gema Bonilla, José M Pego-Reigosa
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (jSLE) features and to establish its differences compared to adult-onset SLE (aSLE) from a large national database. METHODS: Data from patients (≥4 ACR criteria) included in Spanish Society of Rheumatology Lupus Registry (RELESSER) were analysed. Sociodemographic, clinical, serological, activity, treatment, cumulative damage, comorbidities and severity data were collected. Patients with disease onset <18 years were described and compared to those with disease onset ≥18 years...
June 12, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617841/height-diameter-allometry-and-above-ground-biomass-in-tropical-montane-forests-insights-from-the-albertine-rift-in-africa
#3
Gérard Imani, Faustin Boyemba, Simon Lewis, Nsharwasi Léon Nabahungu, Kim Calders, Louis Zapfack, Bernard Riera, Clarisse Balegamire, Aida Cuni-Sanchez
Tropical montane forests provide an important natural laboratory to test ecological theory. While it is well-known that some aspects of forest structure change with altitude, little is known on the effects of altitude on above ground biomass (AGB), particularly with regard to changing height-diameter allometry. To address this we investigate (1) the effects of altitude on height-diameter allometry, (2) how different height-diameter allometric models affect above ground biomass estimates; and (3) how other forest structural, taxonomic and environmental attributes affect above ground biomass using 30 permanent sample plots (1-ha; all trees ≥ 10 cm diameter measured) established between 1250 and 2600 m asl in Kahuzi Biega National Park in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615857/alteration-of-direct-agglutination-test-dat-results-in-iranian-kala-azar-patients-a-case-series
#4
Soheila Molaie, Mehdi Mohebali, Mohamad-Reza Abai, Akbar Molaie, Behnaz Akhoundi, Eslam Moradi Asl
The early diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) using Direct Agglutination Tests (DAT) and its treatment and control are essential actions taken in rural health centers in endemic foci of the infection based on the national protocols set by the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Eleven clinically confirmed VL patients with typical VL symptoms and negative results of DAT, admitted to the pediatrics department of Valiasr Hospital in Meshkinshahr underwent parasitological tests. 7 of the total of 11 patients had positive result of bone marrow puncture smears and all of them had negative results of DAT...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612273/treadmill-exercise-alters-ecstasy-induced-long-term-potentiation-disruption-in-the-hippocampus-of-male-rats
#5
Azam Sajadi, Iraj Amiri, Alireza Gharebaghi, Alireza Komaki, Masoumeh Asadbeigi, Siamak Shahidi, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Sara Soleimani Asl
3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy is a derivative of amphetamine that leads to long term potentiation (LTP) disruption in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Exercise has been accepted as a treatment for the improvement of neurodegenerative disease. Herein, the effects of exercise on the MDMA- induced neurotoxicity were assessed. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injection of MDMA (10 mg/kg) and exercised for one month on a treadmill (Simultaneously or asynchronously with MDMA). LTP and expression of BDNF were assessed using electrophysiology and western blotting methods, respectively...
June 13, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611027/the-intestinal-renal-axis-for-arginine-synthesis-is-present-and-functional-in-the-neonatal-pig
#6
Juan C Marini, Umang Agarwal, Jason L Robinson, Yang Yuan, Inka Cajo Didelija, Barbara Stoll, Douglas G Burrin
The intestinal-renal axis for endogenous arginine synthesis is an interorgan process in which citrulline produced in the small intestine is utilized by the kidney for arginine synthesis. The function of this axis in neonates has been questioned because during this period the enzymes needed for arginine synthesis argininosuccinate synthase and lyase (ASS1 and ASL) are present in the gut. However, evidence of high plasma citrulline concentrations in neonates suggests otherwise. We quantified in vivo citrulline production in premature (10 d preterm), neonatal (7 d old) and young pigs (35 d old) using citrulline tracers...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610911/airway-glucose-homeostasis-a-new-target-in-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-pulmonary-infection
#7
REVIEW
Emma H Baker, Deborah L Baines
In health, the glucose concentration of airway surface liquid (ASL) is 0.4mM, around 12 times lower than blood glucose concentration. Airway glucose homeostasis is a set of processes that actively maintain low ASL glucose concentration against the transepithelial gradient. Tight junctions between airway epithelial cells restrict paracellular glucose movement. Epithelial cellular glucose transport and metabolism removes glucose from ASL. Low ASL glucose concentrations make an important contribution to airways defence against infection, limiting bacterial growth by restricting nutrient availability...
June 10, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610902/post-stimulus-fmri-and-eeg-responses-evidence-for-a-neuronal-origin-hypothesised-to-be-inhibitory
#8
K J Mullinger, M T Cherukara, R B Buxton, S T Francis, S D Mayhew
Post-stimulus undershoots, negative responses following cessation of stimulation, are widely observed in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) data. However, the debate surrounding whether the origin of this response phase is neuronal or vascular, and whether it provides functionally relevant information, that is additional to what is contained in primary response, means that undershoots are widely overlooked. We simultaneously recorded electroencephalography (EEG), BOLD and cerebral blood-flow (CBF) [obtained from arterial spin labelled (ASL) fMRI] fMRI responses to hemifield checkerboard stimulation to test the potential neural origin of the fMRI post-stimulus undershoot...
June 10, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610380/a-cryptic-new-species-of-hummingbird-of-the-campylopterus-largipennis-complex-aves-trochilidae
#9
Leonardo Esteves Lopes, Marcelo Ferreira DE Vasconcelos, Luiz Pedreira Gonzaga
A new species of Campylopterus sabrewing is described from eastern Brazilian tropical dry forests occurring below 900 m asl. Its holotype (MZUSP 99024) is an adult female from Sítio Duboca (16°43'19''S, 43°58'20''W, elevation 840 m), municipality of Montes Claros, state of Minas Gerais. A taxonomic revision based on more than 1,000 museum specimens revealed that the new taxon, together with C. largipennis, C. diamantinensis and C. obscurus (with C. aequatorialis considered as a subjective junior synonym) should be ranked as species...
May 15, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606767/model-identifies-causes-of-nasal-drying-during-pressurised-breathing
#10
David E White, Roy J Nates, Jim Bartley
Patients nasally breathing pressurised air frequently experience symptoms suggestive of upper airway drying. While supplementary humidification is often used for symptom relief, the cause(s) of nasal drying symptoms remains speculative. Recent investigations have found augmented air pressure affects airway surface liquid (ASL) supply and inter-nasal airflow apportionment. However the influence these two factors have on ASL hydration is unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine how ASL supply and airflow apportionment affect ASL hydration status for both ambient and pressurised air breathing conditions...
June 9, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604888/breaking-the-electrical-barrier-between-copper-and-carbon-nanotubes
#11
Karolina Z Milowska, Mahdi Ghorbani-Asl, Marek Burda, Lidia Wolanicka, Nordin Ćatić, Paul D Bristowe, Krzysztof K K Koziol
Improving the interface between copper and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offers a straightforward strategy for the effective manufacturing and utilisation of Cu-CNT composite material that could be used in various industries including microelectronics, aerospace and transportation. Motivated by a combination of structural and electrical measurements on Cu-M-CNT bimetal systems (M = Ni, Cr) we show, using first principles calculations, that the conductance of this composite can exceed that of a pure Cu-CNT system and that the current density can even reach 10(11) A cm(-2)...
June 12, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603687/prematurity-and-brain-perfusion-arterial-spin-labeling-mri
#12
Domenico Tortora, Peter Angelo Mattei, Riccardo Navarra, Valentina Panara, Rita Salomone, Andrea Rossi, John A Detre, Massimo Caulo
PURPOSE: Abnormal brain perfusion is a critical mechanism in neonatal brain injury. The aim of the present study was to compare Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) evaluated with ASL MRI in three groups of neonates: preterms without brain lesions on MRI (PN), preterms with periventricular white matter lesions (PNp) and term neonates with normal MRI (TN). The correlation between CBF and clinical outcome was explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional review board approved this prospective study and waived informed consent...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601219/the-importance-of-being-modified-the-role-of-rna-modifications-in-translational-fidelity
#13
Paul F Agris, Amithi Narendran, Kathryn Sarachan, Ville Y P Väre, Emily Eruysal
The posttranscriptional modifications of tRNA's anticodon stem and loop (ASL) domain represent a third level, a third code, to the accuracy and efficiency of translating mRNA codons into the correct amino acid sequence of proteins. Modifications of tRNA's ASL domain are enzymatically synthesized and site specifically located at the anticodon wobble position-34 and 3'-adjacent to the anticodon at position-37. Degeneracy of the 64 Universal Genetic Codes and the limitation in the number of tRNA species require some tRNAs to decode more than one codon...
2017: Enzymes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598243/advances-in-arterial-spin-labelling-mri-methods-for-measuring-perfusion-and-collateral-flow
#14
Matthias Jp van Osch, Wouter M Teeuwisse, Zhensen Chen, Yuriko Suzuki, Michael Helle, Sophie Schmid
With the publication in 2015 of the consensus statement by the perfusion study group of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM) and the EU-COST action 'ASL in dementia' on the implementation of arterial spin labelling MRI (ASL) in a clinical setting, the development of ASL can be considered to have become mature and ready for clinical prime-time. In this review article new developments and remaining issues will be discussed, especially focusing on quantification of ASL as well as on new technological developments of ASL for perfusion imaging and flow territory mapping...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597398/determination-of-brain-regional-blood-perfusion-and-endogenous-cpkc%C3%AE-impact-on-ischemic-vulnerability-of-mice-with-global-ischemia
#15
Shuiqiao Liu, Qingqing Dai, Rongrong Hua, Ting Liu, Song Han, Shujuan Li, Junfa Li
Conventional protein kinase C (cPKC)γ participated in cerebral hypoxic preconditioning-induced neuroprotection and affected the neurological outcome of ischemic stroked mice. As an independent predictor of ischemic stroke, the internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO)-caused brain-regional ischemic injury may worsen the neurological outcome of patients. However, the brain-regional ischemic vulnerability and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. In this study, the bilateral ICAO (BICAO) model was applied in cPKCγ wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice to determine the cPKCγ impact on brain-regional ischemic vulnerability...
June 8, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596654/is-there-a-relationship-between-cxcr4-gene-expression-and-prognosis-of-immune-thrombocytopenia-in-children
#16
Sajedeh Saeidi, Javad Mohammadi-Asl, Mohammad Ali Jalali Far, Ali Amin Asnafi, Firouzeh Dehuri, Yousef Tavakolifar, Najmaldin Saki
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common autoimmune disorder characterized by decreased platelet count (thrombocytopenia) and bleeding symptoms due to production of autoantibodies against platelets. Chemokines are molecules inducing chemotaxis and play an important role in megakaryopoiesis, including CXCR4 chemokine receptor. CXCR4 is expressed on cells of megakaryocytic series, especially platelets, and triggers several mechanisms in these cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pattern of CXCR4 gene changes upon diagnosis and after treatment and its comparison with laboratory findings in peripheral blood samples from newly diagnosed ITP patients...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591773/ethyl-glucuronide-elimination-kinetics-in-fingernails-and-comparison-to-levels-in-hair
#17
Jan Toralf Fosen, Luca Morini, Cristina Sempio, Nefele Giarratana, Asle Enger, Jørg Mørland, Gudrun Høiseth
Aims: Measurement of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in nail, as a biomarker for alcohol intake, has recently been suggested as alternative to measurement in hair. The aim of this study was to compare levels of EtG in nail and hair, and to investigate the elimination kinetics of EtG in fingernails during an alcohol abstinent period. Methods: Overall, 40 subjects (median estimated daily intake of ethanol (EDI) 92.5 g/day) were recruited from an alcohol rehabilitation clinic...
June 7, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587332/three-dimensional-arterial-spin-labeling-imaging-and-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-perfusion-weighted-imaging-value-in-diagnosing-glioma-grade-prior-to-surgery
#18
Hong Ma, Zizheng Wang, Kai Xu, Zefeng Shao, Chun Yang, Peng Xu, Xiaohua Liu, Chunfeng Hu, Xin Lu, Yutao Rong
The current study aimed to investigate whole-brain three-dimensional arterial spin labeling imaging (3D ASL) and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI), in regards to their diagnostic value of preoperative glioma grade. The parameter values obtained after correction will be correlated with the diagnostic value of 3D ASL and DSC-PWI perfusion. In the current study, 50 patients with gliomas confirmed by pathology were used, including 27 low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and 23 high-grade gliomas (HGGs)...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585234/interpulse-phase-corrections-for-unbalanced-pseudo-continuous-arterial-spin-labeling-at-high-magnetic-field
#19
Lydiane Hirschler, Clément S Debacker, Jérôme Voiron, Sascha Köhler, Jan M Warnking, Emmanuel L Barbier
PURPOSE: To evaluate a prescan-based radiofrequency phase-correction strategy for unbalanced pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) at 9.4 T in vivo and to test its robustness toward suboptimal shim conditions. METHODS: Label and control interpulse phases were optimized separately by means of two prescans in rats. The mean perfusion as well as the interhemispherical symmetry were measured for several phase combinations (optimized versus theoretical phases) to evaluate the correction quality...
June 6, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584887/intramedullary-tibial-nailing-of-distal-tibiofibular-fractures-additional-fibular-fixation-or-not
#20
M Van Maele, B Molenaers, E Geusens, S Nijs, H Hoekstra
INTRODUCTION: The anatomy of the distal tibia accounts for reduced biomechanical stability and higher complication rates when treating distal tibiofibular fractures with an intramedullary tibia nail (IMTN). The goal of this study was to identify variables that affect the stability of IMTN. We assessed the value of additional fibular fixation, angular stable interlocking screws (ASLS) and multiplanar screw configuration in IMTN. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed including 184 distal tibial fractures and associated fibula fracture treated with IMTN...
June 5, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
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