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Risk taking behaviour

Alison Avenell, Clare Robertson, Zoë Skea, Elisabet Jacobsen, Dwayne Boyers, David Cooper, Magaly Aceves-Martins, Lise Retat, Cynthia Fraser, Paul Aveyard, Fiona Stewart, Graeme MacLennan, Laura Webber, Emily Corbould, Benshuai Xu, Abbygail Jaccard, Bonnie Boyle, Eilidh Duncan, Michal Shimonovich, Marijn de Bruin
BACKGROUND: Adults with severe obesity [body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 35 kg/m2 ] have an increased risk of comorbidities and psychological, social and economic consequences. OBJECTIVES: Systematically review bariatric surgery, weight-management programmes (WMPs) and orlistat pharmacotherapy for adults with severe obesity, and evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatment. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database were searched (last searched in May 2017)...
November 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Christopher Bunn, Craig Donnachie, Sally Wyke, Kate Hunt, Graham Brennan, Jemma Lennox, Alice Maclean, Cindy M Gray
BACKGROUND: Levels of obesity remain high in the UK. The Football Fans in Training (FFIT) randomised controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated that a 12-week, gender-sensitised weight management, physical activity and healthy eating group programme delivered through professional football clubs helped men aged 35-65 years with BMI at least 28 kg/m2 lose a clinically-significant amount of weight. We aimed to test the feasibility of a minimally-adapted FFIT programme for delivery to women by assessing recruitment and completion rates; determining if the programme content and delivery required further refinement; and evaluating the potential of FFIT for Women to deliver improvements in weight and other clinical, behavioural and psychological outcomes...
December 3, 2018: BMC Public Health
Kristel De Groot, Roy Thurik
Many studies claim to measure decision-making under risk by employing the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking (DOSPERT) scale, a self-report measure, or the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), a behavioural task. However, these tasks do not measure decision-making under risk but decision-making under uncertainty, a related but distinct concept. The present commentary discusses both the theoretical and empirical basis of the distinction between uncertainty and risk from the viewpoint of several scientific disciplines and reports how many studies wrongfully employ the DOSPERT scale and BART as risk-taking measures...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Caroline Lee, Tom Mellor, Peggye Dilworth-Anderson, Tiffany Young, Carol Brayne, Louise Lafortune
Plain English summary: Two goals of public health research are to understand what causes disease and ill health, and what can be done to prevent it. To develop appropriate and effective actions, we need to know what resources are available to communities, and what are the beliefs and values that influence behaviour. This means that research needs to be carried out close to the people it affects, to better understand context and environment, as well as people's understandings and interpretations of health and health risk...
2018: Research Involvement and Engagement
Rachel Jennings, Yang Kuang, Horst R Thieme, Jianhong Wu, Xiaotian Wu
Ixodid ticks are acknowledged as one of the most important hematophagous arthropods because of their ability in transmitting a variety of tick-borne diseases. Mathematical models have been developed, based on emerging knowledge about tick ecology, pathogen epidemiology and their interface, to understand tick population dynamics and tick-borne diseases spread patterns. However, no serious effort has been made to model and assess the impact of host immunity triggered by tick feeding on the distribution of the tick population according to tick stages and on tick population extinction and persistence...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Gábor Herczeg, Tamás János Urszán, Stephanie Orf, Gergely Nagy, Alexander Kotrschal, Niclas Kolm
Understanding how animal personality (consistent between-individual behavioural differences) arises has become a central topic in behavioural sciences. This endeavour is complicated by the fact that not only the mean behaviour of individuals (behavioural type), but also the strength of their reaction to environmental change (behavioural plasticity) varies consistently. Personality and cognitive abilities are linked and we suggest that behavioural plasticity could also be explained by differences in brain size (a proxy for cognitive abilities), since accurate decisions are likely essential to make behavioural plasticity beneficial...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Tõnis Tokko, Diva Eensoo, Mariliis Vaht, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Andreas Reif, Jaanus Harro
OBJECTIVE: Individual biological predispositions should play a role in risky driving behaviour. Platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) and neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) gene polymorphisms have been identified as markers of impulsivity, alcohol use and excessive risk-taking. We aimed to find out how this knowledge on neurobiology of impulsivity applies to drunk driving and traffic behaviour in general. METHODS: We have longitudinally examined the behaviour of drunk drivers (n = 203) and controls (n = 211) in traffic, in association with their alcohol-related problems, personality measures and the three biomarkers...
November 26, 2018: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Britt F Pados
Children with CHD often experience difficulty with oral feeding, which contributes to growth faltering in this population. Few studies have explored symptoms of problematic feeding in children with CHD using valid and reliable measures of oral feeding. The purpose of this study was to describe symptoms of problematic feeding in children with CHD compared to healthy children without medical conditions, taking into account variables that may contribute to symptoms of problematic feeding. Oral feeding was measured by the Pediatric Eating Assessment Tool, a parent report assessment of feeding with evidence of validity and reliability...
November 20, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Giulio Castelpietra, Leonardo Egidi, Marina Caneva, Sara Gambino, Tamara Feresin, Aldo Mariotto, Matteo Balestrieri, Diego De Leo, Lisa Marzano
The aim of this observational study was to assess rates of suicide and suicide attempts, in relation to gender, age, place of birth and security levels, in north-eastern Italian prisons during 2010-2016, and investigate associations with prison overcrowding, offence type and prior self-harm and suicide attempts. The study was based on individual data on suicides and suicide attempts from 16 prisons, with an average yearly number of 3900 inmates during the study period, for all prisons combined. Descriptive and binomial regression analyses were performed...
November 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Giancarlos Troncoso Parady, Bryan Tran, Stuart Gilmour
OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively evaluate the effect of seawalls on tsunami evacuation departure. METHODS: A mixed-effect Cox proportional-hazards regression model was applied to evacuation behavioural data obtained from a probability survey of survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in Iwate and Miyagi prefectures. FINDINGS: Presence of a seawall higher than the forecast tsunami height at any given time reduces the likelihood of prompt evacuation by 30%...
November 17, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
J Houdmont, M Elliott-Davies, J Donnelly
Background: Leaveism is a recently coined term for alternative attendance behaviours to sickness absence and sickness presence. Initial studies suggest that leaveism might mask the true extent of sickness in organizations and represent a response to perceived job insecurity, the belief that sickness absence could harm promotion prospects, and low job gratification. Aims: To generate baseline reference values for leaveism in English and Welsh police forces to facilitate benchmarking and risk-reduction activities...
November 15, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Mary Pegington, D Gareth Evans, Anthony Howell, Louise S Donnelly, Julia Wiseman, Jack M Cuzick, Michelle N Harvie
Women at increased breast cancer (BC) risk are eligible for chemoprevention. Healthy lifestyles are potentially important for these women to improve efficacy and minimise side effects of chemoprevention and reduce the risk of BC and other lifestyle-related conditions. We investigated whether women taking chemoprevention adhere to healthy lifestyle recommendations, how their lifestyle risk factors and health measures compare to women in the general population, and whether these change whilst taking chemoprevention...
November 15, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Orlando O Harris
This study explored the experiences of young Jamaican men who have sex with men who engaged in transactional sex as a result of homelessness, family neglect or limited financial resources. It further examined the circumstances that affect their immediate or delayed decisions around sexual risk and increased vulnerability for HIV infection. Barriers experienced when accessing condoms, healthcare, HIV testing and other prevention services are also described. Twenty in-depth interviews and one focus group with 10 participants in various parishes in Jamaica were conducted...
November 16, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Eugénie Khatcherian, Nicolas Zdanowicz
BACKGROUND: Many young patients who are cyberbullied maintain communication with their harasser, despite the fact that this behaviour perpetuates the harassment. Numerous studies describe coping strategies adopted by cyberbullied adolescents. None describe what motivates adolescents to continue to communicate with their harassers. METHODS: We conducted a literature review of cyberbullying, taking into account the challenges of adolescence. We used several search engines (Scopus, PsycINFO, Cairn and PubMed), using the following keywords: cyberbullying, teens, behaviour, coping strategies, social network, Facebook, counterpart...
November 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Jean Morrissey, Agnes Higgins
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To develop a grounded theory to explain mental health nurses' responses to clients with suicidal behaviour BACKGROUND: Mental health nurses are an integral part of the multi-disciplinary teams supporting people who experience suicidal behaviour, yet limited research is available that explores how nurses respond to the needs of people at risk of suicide and what factors influence their responses and actions. METHODS: Grounded theory was the methodology for this study...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Jinhee Lee, Tae Hui Kim, Seongho Min, Min-Hyuk Kim, Ki Chang Park, Jin Sil Moon, Joung-Sook Ahn
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to investigate the association of non-daily smoking with depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviours among adolescents by analysing data from the 2016 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS), a national school-based survey. METHODS: We analysed data from a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents aged 12-18 years (n = 65,528). We investigated the risks of depressive symptoms, suicide ideation, plan and attempt in adolescent non-daily smokers using multiple logistic regression analyses after adjusting for confounding factors...
2018: PloS One
B Sudholz, J Salmon, A J Mussap
Background: Sedentary behaviour (SB) in the form of uninterrupted sitting constitutes a risk factor for chronic disease that is independent of the risks associated with insufficient physical activity (PA). However, little is known about employee and manager health beliefs concerning SB and PA. Aims: We assess health beliefs of desk-based workers concerning PA and SB accrued at work versus during leisure. We ask whether recreational PA attenuates the perceived ill-health effects of prolonged occupational SB, and compare attitudes of employees and managers to interventions aimed at reducing/interrupting workplace sitting...
November 9, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Rafał Muda, Paweł Niszczota, Paweł Augustynowicz, Łukasz Markiewicz
Earlier research shows that delaying the realization of a lottery (temporal distance) increases risk tolerance. Presumably, this happens because temporal distance protects one from encountering the negative emotions produced when facing risk. However, no study has tested whether people that made a choice in the presence of temporal distance would actually change their decision later on (in the absence of temporal distance), towards the safer choice. To test this, 137 participants were subject to actual temporal distance, consisting of a four-week waiting period...
November 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lea Sletting Jakobsen, Stylianos Georgiadis, Bo Friis Nielsen, Bas G H Bokkers, Elena Boriani, Lene Duedahl-Olesen, Tine Hald, Maarten J Nauta, Anders Stockmarr, Sara M Pires
BACKGROUND: Consumption of meat prepared by barbecuing is associated with risk of cancer due to formation of carcinogenic compounds including benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Assessment of a population's risk of disease and people's individual probability of disease given specific consumer attributes may direct food safety strategies to where impact on public health is largest. The aim of this study was to propose a model that estimates the risk of cancer caused by exposure to BaP from barbecued meat in Denmark, and to estimate the probability of developing cancer in subgroups of the population given different barbecuing frequencies...
2018: PloS One
Melissa Stepney, Paul Aveyard, Rachna Begh
BACKGROUND: Reports from royal colleges and organisations such as Public Health England suggest that GPs and nurses should advise patients to switch to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) if they do not want to stop smoking using licensed medication. However, there are no data on what practitioners think, feel, or do about e-cigarettes. AIM: To explore practitioners' perceptions and attitudes towards e-cigarettes, and their experiences of discussing e-cigarettes with patients...
November 5, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
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