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Risk taking behaviour

Michael J Lawrence, Jean-Guy J Godin, Steven J Cooke
The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis is centrally implicated in stressor mitigation in teleost fishes. Sustained HPI axis activation can be detrimental to the physiological functioning of an organism and can result in fitness-related trade-offs. Predator-induced mortality is known to be higher in stressed fish than in unstressed conspecifics, suggesting a role for the HPI axis in mediating fish behaviour. However, the underlying specific mechanism(s) for this phenomenon is(are) unknown. The purpose of the current study was to address how the HPI axis influences risk-taking and antipredator behaviours in a wild teleost, the pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus)...
August 9, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Giuseppina Novo, Francesca Macaione, Lydia Giannitrapani, Maria Giovanna Minissale, Vito Bonomo, Francesco Indovina, Salvatore Petta, Maurizio Soresi, Giuseppe Montalto, Salvatore Novo, Antonio Craxi, Anna Licata
BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis is associated with morpho-functional cardiovascular alterations. AIMS: To detect early features of cardiovascular damage in HCV-compensated cirrhotic patients using myocardial deformation indices and carotid arterial stiffness, and further, to evaluate their short-term behaviour after HCV eradication with direct antiviral agents (DAAs). METHODS: Thirty-nine consecutive patients with HCV cirrhosis, without previous cardiovascular events, were studied and matched for age, gender and cardiovascular risk factors to 39 controls without liver or cardiovascular disease...
August 10, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Shaelyn M Strachan, Corliss Bean, Mary E Jung
Prediabetes, a condition characterised by impaired glucose regulation, is on the rise worldwide. This condition puts people at risk for cardiovascular disease, and 50% of people with prediabetes will develop type 2 diabetes (T2D). People with prediabetes can reduce their risk of developing T2D through lifestyle changes such as regular physical activity and healthy eating. However, the experience of health risks can be associated with negative reactions that can undermine people's ability to self-regulate the health behaviours that would reduce such risk...
August 3, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Elizabeth Sturgiss, Claire Deborah Madigan, Doug Klein, Nicholas Elmitt, Kirsty Douglas
Lifestyle behaviours are contributing to the increasing incidence of chronic disease across all developed countries. Australia, Canada and the UK have had different approaches to the role of primary care in the prevention and management of lifestyle-related diseases. Both obesity and metabolic syndrome have been targeted by programs to reduce individual risk for chronic disease such as type 2 diabetes. Three interventions are described - for either obesity or metabolic syndrome - that have varying levels of involvement of GPs and other primary care professionals...
July 30, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Pierre-Julien Coulaud, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Bakridine M'madi Mrenda, Gwenaëlle Maradan, Marion Mora, Michel Bourrelly, Bintou Dembélé Keita, Abdoul Aziz Keita, Camille Anoma, Stéphane-Alain Babo Yoro, Ter Tiero Elias Dah, Christian Coulibaly, Ephrem Mensah, Selom Agbomadji, Adeline Bernier, Clotilde Couderc, Christian Laurent, Bruno Spire
OBJECTIVE: To explore the interest in taking PrEP among Western-African Men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was implemented at enrolment of HIV-negative MSM in a multiple-centre community-based cohort study in four West-African countries (Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Togo). A standardised face-to-face questionnaire collected data on socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics over the previous 6 months. Descriptive analysis and multivariate logistic regression helped identify factors associated with the interest in taking PrEP...
July 28, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Jack S Benton, Jamie Anderson, Sarah Cotterill, Matthew Dennis, Sarah J Lindley, David P French
BACKGROUND: Creating or improving urban green space has the potential to be an effective, sustainable and far-reaching way to increase physical activity and improve other aspects of wellbeing in the population. However, there is a dearth of well-conducted natural experimental studies examining the causal effect of changing urban green space on physical activity and wellbeing. This is especially true in older adults and in the United Kingdom. This paper describes a natural experimental study to evaluate the effect of four small-scale urban street greening interventions on older adults' physical activity and wellbeing over a 1-year period, relative to eight matched comparison sites...
July 27, 2018: BMC Public Health
Rikke Larsen Rasmussen, Charlotte Overgaard, Henrik Bøggild, Louise Lund Holm Thomsen
Health-risk behaviour like physical inactivity is more evident in deprived neighbourhoods than in nondeprived neighbourhoods, and in the former knowledge is lacking as to what causes effects in interventions on physical activity. A possible contribution to physical activity interventions is community engagement, which has been shown to be effective for changing health-risk behaviour, but more knowledge is needed on "the active ingredients" or mechanisms that make interventions work. The aim of this study was to give more insight into the possible mechanisms within an intervention on physical activity using community engagement...
July 26, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Alexander N Häusler, Camelia M Kuhnen, Sarah Rudorf, Bernd Weber
People differ greatly in their financial risk taking behaviour. This heterogeneity has been associated with differences in brain activity, but only in laboratory settings using constrained behaviours. However, it is important to understand how these measures transfer to real life conditions, because the willingness to invest in riskier assets has a direct and considerable effect on long-term wealth accumulation. In a large fMRI study of 157 working age men (39.0 ± 6.4 SD years), we first show that activity in the anterior insula during the assessment of risky vs...
July 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Haseena Hussain, Bernadka Dubicka, Paul Wilkinson
Major depressive disorder in adolescents is an important public health concern. It is common, a risk factor for suicide and is associated with adverse psychosocial consequences. The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommend that children and young people with moderate-to-severe depression should be seen within Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and receive specific psychological interventions, possibly in combination with antidepressant medication. Cognitive behavioural therapy (in some studies) and interpersonal psychotherapy have been demonstrated to be more effective than active control treatments for depressed adolescents...
August 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
Cornelia Betsch, Constanze Rossmann, Mathias W Pletz, Horst C Vollmar, Antje Freytag, Ole Wichmann, Regina Hanke, Wolfgang Hanke, Dorothee Heinemeier, Philipp Schmid, Sarah Eitze, Winja Weber, Anne Reinhardt, Nora K Küpke, Christina Forstner, Carolin Fleischmann-Struzek, Anna Mikolajetz, Josephine Römhild, Julia Neufeind, Thorsten Rieck, Kasia Suchecka, Konrad Reinhart
BACKGROUND: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccination can prevent disease and potentially life-threatening complications like sepsis. Elderly people have an increased risk of severe disease and therefore constitute a major target group for vaccination. To increase vaccination coverage, targeted interventions are needed that take theory-based specific determinants of vaccination behaviour into account. Moreover, message and campaign design should consider specific age-related characteristics (e...
July 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Angela Jury, Jennifer Lai, Charito Tuason, Ashley Koning, Mark Smith, Lois Boyd, Caro Swanson, David Fergusson, Angela Gruar
The Health of the Nation Outcomes Scales (HoNOS) provides an overview of a person's behaviour, impairment, clinical symptoms, and social functioning. This study investigated the profile of people who had been secluded in New Zealand's adult mental health inpatient services using 12 individual HoNOS ratings. Routinely collected clinical data were extracted from the Programme for the Integration of Mental Health Data (PRIMHD). This is the national data set for mental health and addiction services. A logistic regression model was fitted to the data which adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, bed nights, compulsory treatment, and district health board...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
R C H Brown, H Maslen, J Savulescu
This article considers the role of responsibility in public health promotion. Efforts to tackle non-communicable diseases which focus on changing individual behaviour and reducing risk factor exposure sometimes invoke individual responsibility for adopting healthy lifestyles. We provide a critical discussion of this tendency. First, we outline some key distinctions in the philosophical literature on responsibility, and indicate how responsibility is incorporated into health promotion policies in the UK. We argue that the use of some forms of responsibility in health promotion is inappropriate...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Jozo Grgic, Dorothea Dumuid, Enrique Garcia Bengoechea, Nipun Shrestha, Adrian Bauman, Timothy Olds, Zeljko Pedisic
BACKGROUND: During a 24-h day, each given period is spent in either sedentary behaviour, sleeping, light physical activity (LPA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In epidemiological research most studies have traditionally analysed the associations of these behaviours in isolation from each other; that is, without taking into account the displacement of time spent in the remaining behaviours. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in exploring how all the behaviours across the energy expenditure spectrum influence health outcomes...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Jodie Smith, Tricia Eadie, Penny Levickis, Lesley Bretherton, Sharon Goldfeld
BACKGROUND: Parent-reported measures of early communication have limitations for use with infants experiencing adversity. Observational measures of early non-verbal and verbal communicative behaviours and mother-child turn-taking may provide a complementary method of capturing early communication skills for these children. AIMS: To explore the predictive validity of verbal and non-verbal behaviours and mother-child conversational turn-taking (fluency and connectedness) at child age 12 months in relation to language measures at 24 and 36 months in a cohort of infants experiencing adversity...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
N Courtier, S Gaze, J Armes, A Smith, L Radley, J Armytage, M Simmonds, A Johnson, T Gambling, J Hopkinson
Background: Fatigue is rated as the most distressing side effect of radiotherapy treatment for curable breast cancer. About four in ten women treated experience fatigue, which can last for years after treatment. The impact of this debilitating tiredness is loss of independence and impaired physical and mental function. Our study will take a behavioural intervention with demonstrated effect in treating fatigue in a mixed group of chemotherapy patients and adapt it for women undergoing radiotherapy for early breast cancer...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Emma Howarth, Theresa Hm Moore, Nicky Stanley, Harriet L MacMillan, Gene Feder, Alison Shaw
Children who grow up in homes affected by domestic violence and abuse (DVA) are at risk of poor outcomes across the lifespan, yet there is limited evidence on the acceptability and effectiveness of interventions for them. A recent review of child-focused interventions highlighted a gap in understanding the factors influencing the willingness of parents and children to engage with these programmes. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative evidence on the experiences of receiving and delivering interventions with the aim of identifying factors at different levels of the social-ecological context that may influence parent and child readiness to take up interventions...
July 10, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Yunxin He, Eng Hooi Tan, Andrea Li Ann Wong, Chuan Chien Tan, Patrick Wong, Soo Chin Lee, Bee Choo Tai
BACKGROUND: Medication adherence refers to whether a patient takes medication according to the frequency prescribed, or continues to take a prescribed medication. Inadequate adherence to medication may cause alterations in risk-benefit ratios, resulting in reduced benefits, increased risks or both, and is significantly associated with adverse clinical outcomes and higher healthcare costs. We aim to examine the effect of a computer generated short message service (SMS) reminder in improving medication adherence, and inhibiting the aromatisation process amongst breast cancer women receiving oral aromatase inhibitor therapy...
July 9, 2018: BMC Cancer
Karen Luetsch
BACKGROUND: Pharmacists are extending their engagement in health care beyond the supply and monitoring of medicines. Extended roles for pharmacists propose participation in health promotion, disease monitoring and other health surveillance activities, involving them more closely in the lives of patients. OBJECTIVES: To explore pharmacists' written reflections on patient-centred practice after interactions with people who experience complexity and difficulties to participate in their health care, using a Foucauldian approach...
June 30, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Xiuli Chen, Robb B Rutledge, Harriet R Brown, Raymond J Dolan, Sven Bestmann, Joseph M Galea
Motor decision-making is an essential component of everyday life which requires weighing potential rewards and punishments against the probability of successfully executing an action. To achieve this, humans rely on two key mechanisms; a flexible, instrumental, value-dependent process and a hardwired, Pavlovian, value-independent process. In economic decision-making, age-related decline in risk taking is explained by reduced Pavlovian biases that promote action toward reward. Although healthy ageing has also been associated with decreased risk-taking in motor decision-making, it is currently unknown whether this is a result of changes in Pavlovian biases, instrumental processes or a combination of both...
July 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Tanvir M Huda, Alison Hayes, Michael J Dibley
Background: The utilization of maternal health care services has increased in many developing countries, but persistent wealth-related inequalities in use of maternal services remained an important public health issue. The paper examined the horizontal inequities and identified the key social determinants that can potentially explain such wealth-related inequalities in use of facility delivery services. Methods: The countries studied are Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
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