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Risk taking behaviour

Ali Judd, Caroline Foster, Lindsay C Thompson, Kate Sturgeon, Marthe Le Prevost, Eva Jungmann, Katie Rowson, Hannah Castro, Diana M Gibb
As adolescents with perinatal HIV (PHIV) survive into adulthood, gaining insight into sexual behaviour and risk-taking is important. Between 2013-2015, 296 PHIV aged 13-21 years and 96 HIV negative affected adolescents (13-23 years) were recruited to the Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV (AALPHI) cohort in England. Sexual health data were collected through computer-assisted self-interview questionnaires. Quality of life and household deprivation were also measured. T-tests compared means, and χ2 proportions; logistic regression examined predictors of ever having sex...
2018: PloS One
D Bonetti, L Young, L Hempleman, J Deas, S Shepherd, J Clarkson
Introduction Despite UK dental guidance recommending opportunistic health promotion, it's rare for GDPs to discuss more than oral hygiene with their patients. The ENGAGE intervention incorporates UK guidance and evidence-based behaviour change techniques to motivate patients to make lifestyle changes (reduce smoking, alcohol consumption and/or improve diet). It was designed to take less than five minutes and be delivered during a routine dental check-up, and includes a take-home patient handout signposting to free NHS lifestyle counselling helpline services...
October 12, 2018: British Dental Journal
Naseer A Bhat, Bangalore N Roopesh, Binukumar Bhaskarapillai, Vivek Benegal
BACKGROUND: Impulsivity is widely assessed with a 30 item self-report measure known as the Barrratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Further development involved creation of an abbreviated version, called Barratt Impulsiveness Scale- short form (BIS-15; Spinella, 2007) from the original BIS-11. Unlike the original BIS-11, BIS-15 has not undergone sufficient cross cultural validation especially among the adolescent population. AIM: To evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of BIS-15 among school and college attending Indian adolescents...
October 3, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Mitzy Gafos, Rob Horne, Will Nutland, Gill Bell, Caroline Rae, Sonali Wayal, Michael Rayment, Amanda Clarke, Gabriel Schembri, Richard Gilson, Alan McOwan, Ann Sullivan, Julie Fox, Vanessa Apea, Claire Dewsnap, David Dolling, Ellen White, Elizabeth Brodnicki, Gemma Wood, David Dunn, Sheena McCormack
There are still important gaps in our understanding of how people will incorporate PrEP into their existing HIV prevention strategies. In this paper, we explore how PrEP use impacted existing sexual risk behaviours and risk reduction strategies using qualitative data from the PROUD study. From February 2014 to January 2016, we conducted 41 in-depth interviews with gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) enrolled in the PROUD PrEP study at sexual health clinics in England. The interviews were conducted in English and were audio-recorded...
October 10, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
E F Sprake, J M Russell, J E Cecil, R J Cooper, P Grabowski, L K Pourshahidi, M E Barker
BACKGROUND: University represents a key transition into adulthood for many adolescents but there are associated concerns about health and behaviours. One important aspect relates to diet and there is emerging evidence that university students may consume poor quality diets, with potential implications for body weight and long-term health. This research aimed to characterise dietary patterns of university students in the UK and their sociodemographic and lifestyle antecedents. METHODS: An online, cross-sectional survey was undertaken with a convenience sample of 1448 university students from five UK universities (King's College London, Universities of St Andrews, Southampton and Sheffield, and Ulster University)...
October 5, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Mark S Tremblay, Christa Costas-Bradstreet, Joel D Barnes, Brett Bartlett, Diana Dampier, Chantal Lalonde, Reg Leidl, Patricia Longmuir, Melanie McKee, Rhonda Patton, Richard Way, Jennifer Yessis
BACKGROUND: Healthy movement behaviours of Canadian children and youth have been found to be suboptimal; this is associated with declines in physical fitness, increases in obesity, and elevated chronic disease risk. Physical literacy is an evolving construct representing foundational domains upon which physically active lifestyles are based. Many sectors and organizations in Canada are embracing physical literacy in their programs, practices, policies, and research; however, the use of inconsistent definitions and conceptualizations of physical literacy had been identified by stakeholders as hindering promotion and advancement efforts...
October 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Iryna B Zablotska, Stefanie J Vaccher, Mark Bloch, Andrew Carr, Rosalind Foster, Andrew E Grulich, Rebecca Guy, Anna McNulty, Catriona Ooi, Catherine Pell, Isobel M Poynten, Garrett Prestage, Nathan Ryder, David Templeton
PrELUDE study evaluated daily pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in high-risk individuals in Australia. This open-label, single-arm study tested participants for HIV/STI and collected behavioural information three-monthly. We report trends over 18 months in medication adherence, side-effects, HIV/STI incidence and behaviour. 320 gay/bisexual men (GBM), 4 women and 3 transgender participants, followed on average 461 days, reported taking seven pills/week on 1,591 (88.5%) occasions and 4-6 pills/week on 153 (8.5%) occasions...
October 4, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Nicolas Courbin, Andrew J Loveridge, Hervé Fritz, David W Macdonald, Rémi Patin, Marion Valeix, Simon Chamaillé-Jammes
1.Diel migrations (DM; back and forth diel movements along an ecological gradient) undertaken by prey to avoid predators during the day have been demonstrated in many taxa in aquatic ecosystems. In terrestrial ecosystems, prey often shift between various vegetation types whose cover determine their vulnerability (i.e. likelihood of being killed when attacked). 2.We conceptualized that in terrestrial ecosystems DM could also occur, and that the contribution of DM and shifts in vegetation cover use in reducing predation risk should depend upon the predator behaviour and the correlation between encounter risk and vulnerability across vegetation types...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Emma A D Clifton, John R B Perry, Fumiaki Imamura, Luca A Lotta, Soren Brage, Nita G Forouhi, Simon J Griffin, Nicholas J Wareham, Ken K Ong, Felix R Day
Risk-taking propensity is a trait of significant public health relevance but few specific genetic factors are known. Here we perform a genome-wide association study of self-reported risk-taking propensity among 436,236 white European UK Biobank study participants. We identify genome-wide associations at 26 loci ( P  < 5 × 10-8 ), 24 of which are novel, implicating genes enriched in the GABA and GABA receptor pathways. Modelling the relationship between risk-taking propensity and body mass index (BMI) using Mendelian randomisation shows a positive association (0...
2018: Communications biology
Rhonda J Boorman, Debra K Creedy, Jennifer Fenwick, Olav Muurlink
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review explores changes in perinatal empathy and influence on maternal behaviours and child development. BACKGROUND: The well-being and development of infants are commonly linked to their mothers' capacity for empathy. However, characteristic changes during pregnancy and childbirth including sleep deprivation, mood and cognitive difficulties may disrupt empathic processing. METHODS: Original research papers (n = 7413) published in English language peer-reviewed academic journals were obtained by searching four electronic databases PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and CINAHL...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Carmen Anthonj, Bernd Diekkrüger, Christian Borgemeister, Thomas Kistemann
BACKGROUND: Risk perceptions have the potential of motivating and shaping health-related behaviour, i.e. the application of protective health measures. They may reduce or accelerate the risk and exposure to diseases and are therefore valuable, particularly in environments such as wetlands that entail multiple risk factors exposing humans to disease-causing infectious agents. METHODS: We assessed the risk perceptions towards infectious disease exposure in the Kenyan Ewaso Narok Swamp and evaluated whether the perceived risks reflect the actual risk factors...
September 24, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
David Newcombe, Rachel Humeniuk, Victoria Dennington, Robert Ali
This study explored the experience and self-reported changes in health behaviours of people in a primary healthcare setting who received a brief intervention (BI) for illicit drugs linked to the Alcohol Smoking Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Eighty-two participants from a sexual health clinic in Adelaide, South Australia, who were involved in a randomised controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of an ASSIST-linked BI delivered at baseline, were re-interviewed 3 months later and were administered a semi-structured questionnaire designed to elicit participant perspectives on the BI...
September 27, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Holly C Standing, Helen Jarvis, James Orr, Catherine Exley, Mark Hudson, Eileen Kaner, Barbara Hanratty
BACKGROUND: The incidence of liver disease is increasing in the UK and primary care is a key setting where improvement in the detection and management of liver disease is required. Little is known about GPs' understanding and confidence in detecting liver disease. AIM: To explore GPs' experiences of liver disease with a focus on early detection and interpretation of liver function tests (LFTs). DESIGN AND SETTING: A qualitative study employing semi-structured interviews of a purposive sample of GPs from five UK primary care study sites...
September 24, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Abigail Tien, Peter Chu, Lorraine Tremblay
Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death among young adults. Social media and television have been shown to affect the likelihood that young adults will engage in risk-taking behaviour. We watched 216 episodes of five popular television series on Netflix and identified 333 separate driving scenes, of which 271 (81.4%) portrayed at least one risky driving behaviour. Unsafe driving (not wearing a seat belt) was the most common risky driving behaviour noted, occurring in 245 (73.6%) of driving scenes...
October 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
R F Slykerman, J Kang, N Van Zyl, C Barthow, K Wickens, T Stanley, C Coomarasamy, G Purdie, R Murphy, J Crane, E A Mitchell
AIM: To determine whether probiotic supplementation in early life improves neurocognitive outcomes assessed at 11 years of age. METHODS: 474 children who were born March 2004-Aug 2005 participated in a two-centre randomized placebo-controlled trial of infants at risk of developing allergic disease. Pregnant women were randomized to take Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain HN001, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain HN019 or placebo daily from 35 weeks gestation until 6 months if breastfeeding, and their infants the same treatment from birth to 2 years...
September 24, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Inés Gómez-Acebo, Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos, María de Pedro, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Tania Fernández-Villa, Camilo Palazuelos-Calderón, Pilar Amiano, Jaione Etxeberria, Yolanda Benavente, Guillermo Fernández-Tardón, Inmaculada Salcedo-Bellido, Rocío Capelo, Rosana Peiró, Rafael Marcos-Gragera, José M Huerta, Adonina Tardón, Aurelio Barricarte, Jone-Miren Altzibar, Jessica Alonso-Molero, Verónica Dávila-Batista, Nuria Aragonés, Marina Pollán, Manolis Kogevinas, Javier Llorca
BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used despite their risk of gastrointestinal bleeding or cardiovascular events. We report the profile of people taking NSAIDs in Spain, and we include demographic factors, health-related behaviours and cardiovascular disease history. METHODS: Four thousand sixtyparticipants were selected using a pseudorandom number list from Family Practice lists in 12 Spanish provinces. They completed a face-to-face computerized interview on their NSAID consumption, demographic characteristics, body mass index, alcohol and tobacco consumption and medical history...
September 21, 2018: BMC Public Health
R H J M Kurvers, J Drägestein, F Hölker, A Jechow, J Krause, D Bierbach
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a major form of anthropogenic pollution. ALAN is well known to affect different behaviours during nighttime, when changes in light conditions often have immediate consequences for the trade-offs individuals experience. How ALAN affects daytime behaviours, however, has received far less attention. Here we studied how ALAN affected daytime personality traits and learning ability. We exposed Trinidadian guppies, Poecilia reticulata, for 10 weeks to different ALAN levels: bright light (24 hrs bright light, ~5,000 lx), dim light (12 hrs bright light; 12 hrs dim light, ~0...
September 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mu-Yun Wang, Lars Chittka, Thomas C Ings
A speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) in behavioural decisions is known to occur in a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate taxa. Accurate decisions often take longer for a given condition, while fast decisions can be inaccurate in some tasks. Speed-accuracy tactics are known to vary consistently among individuals, and show a degree of flexibility during colour discrimination tasks in bees. Such individual flexibility in speed-accuracy tactics is likely to be advantageous for animals exposed to fluctuating environments, such as changes in predation threat...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Peter Mikula, Mario Díaz, Tomáš Albrecht, Jukka Jokimäki, Marja-Liisa Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki, Gal Kroitero, Anders Pape Møller, Piotr Tryjanowski, Reuven Yosef, Martin Hromada
Life-history theory predicts that current behaviour affects future reproduction, implying that animals should optimise their escape strategies to reflect fitness costs and benefits of premature escape. Both costs and benefits of escape may change temporally with important consequences for the evolution of escape strategies. Moreover, escape strategies of species may differ according to their positions on slow-fast pace of life gradients. We studied risk-taking in long-distance migratory animals, waders (Charadriiformes), during the annual cycle, i...
September 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marc W Holderied, Liam A Thomas, Carmi Korine
The acoustic arms race between insectivorous bats and their invertebrate prey has led to the convergent evolution of ultrasound hearing in seven orders of nocturnal insects. Upon hearing the echolocation calls of an approaching bat such insects take defensive action. Here we document an unknown sense of ultrasound hearing and phonotactic flight behaviour in the neuropteran family Myrmeleontidae (antlions). The antlion Myrmeleon hyalinus was presented with sound pulses at ultrasonic frequencies used by echolocating bats and its response thresholds in tethered flight determined...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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