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Ganna Flanagan, Anastasia A Andrianova, Jana Casey, Eric Hellrung, Bonnie A Diep, Wayne S Seames, Alena Kubátová
Triacyl-, diacyl- and monoacylglycerols (TAGs, DAGs, MAGs) along with monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) are intermediate products in many triacylglycerol oil-to-biofuel conversion pathways. Accumulation of these compounds leads to poor biofuel characteristics and may result in fuel system damage. We developed a method for simultaneous identification and quantification of a wide range of MCAs (C4 -C18 ), MAGs, DAGs, and TAGs. The method is based on trimethylsilylation followed by high temperature GC with programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) injection coupled to parallel FID and MS detectors (HTGC-FID/MS)...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Reza Manzuoerh, Mohammad Reza Farahpour, Ahmad Oryan, Ali Sonboli
Medicinal plants are conventionally used for wound healing, but their action mechanisms are still unknown. The present study evaluated the effect of topical administration of ointment containing dill (Anethum graveolens) essential oil (DEO) in the management of apoptosis and cell proliferation during MRSA-infected experimentally induced wound healing process in BALB/c mice model. The GC-FID and GC-MS techniques were used to analyze chemical composition of the essential oil. The mice were randomly divided into four treatment groups including negative control (sham), 2% and 4% DEO and mupirocin® -treated animals...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ali Medbouhi, Aura Tintaru, Claire Beaufay, Jean-Valère Naubron, Nassim Djabou, Jean Costa, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq, Alain Muselli
The chemical composition of a hexanic extract of Eryngium campestre , obtained from its aerial parts, was investigated by GC-FID, GC/MS, HRMS, NMR and VCD analyses. The main compounds were germacrene D (23.6%), eudesma-4(15)-7-dien-1-β-ol (8.2%) and falcarindiol (9.4%), which are associated with a new uncommon and naturally found 17-membered ring lactone. This 17-membered ring features conjugated acetylenic bonds, named campestrolide (23.0%). The crude extract showed moderate antitrypanosomal ( Trypanosoma brucei brucei ), antileishmanial ( Leishmania mexicana mexicana ) and anticancer (cancerous macrophage-like murine cells) activities, and also displayed cytotoxicity, (human normal fibroblasts) in similar concentration ranges (IC50 = 3...
December 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Daniel T Blumstein, Alexis Diaz, Lijie Yin
In many vertebrates, the brain's right hemisphere which is connected to the left visual field specializes in the processing of information about threats while the left hemisphere which is connected to the right visual field specializes in the processing of information about conspecifics. This is referred to as hemispheric lateralization. But individuals that are too predictable in their response to predators could have reduced survival and we may expect selection for somewhat unpredictable responses. We studied hemispheric lateralization in yellow-bellied marmots Marmota flaviventer , a social rodent that falls prey to a variety of terrestrial and aerial predators...
December 2018: Current Zoology
Huihua Guo, Gang Chen, Jiutong Ma, Qiong Jia
A dual-pore covalent organic framework (COF) that contains micropores and mesopores was prepared from 2,4,6-triphenoxy-1,3,5-triazine (TPT). A building block is used in which double linking sites were introduced at each branch of a C3 -symmetric skeleton. The COF is shown to be a viable coating for fibers for solid-phase microextraction of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). Its high specific surface, high hydrophobicity, and wide pore size distribution of a TPT-COF coated fiber result in extraordinarily powerful extraction of PAEs...
December 7, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Mina Yazdanpanah, Saeed Nojavan
Previous studies have demonstrated the excellent capability of the cyclodextrins in pre-concentration of the organic pollutants from the aqueous solutions. In this work, β-cyclodextrin- multiwalled carbon nano-tube composite was produced from the reaction of oxidized carbon nano-tube with cyclodextrin in the presence of the hydrazine hydrate, and subsequently attaching this composite to the iron oxide nano-particles. Prepared magnetic nano-composite was characterized by the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and the X-ray diffraction (XRD)...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Mouna Hanachi, Chaysavanh Manichanh, Andreu Schoenenberger, Victoria Pascal, Florence Levenez, Nicole Cournède, Joël Doré, Jean-Claude Melchior
BACKGROUND: Functional intestinal disorders (FIDs) are frequently observed in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Relationship between FIDs and a potential gut microbiota dysbiosis has been poorly explored. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine an association between FIDs severity and dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota in a severely malnourished patient population with AN undergoing enteral nutrition. DESIGN: Faecal microbiota of AN (DSM IVr criteria) female inpatients were collected and compared to healthy controls based on 16S rRNA profiling...
October 9, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Imen Jaballi, Imen Sallem, Amal Feki, Boutheina Cherif, Choumous Kallel, Ons Boudawara, Kamel Jamoussi, Lotfi Mellouli, Moncef Nasri, Ibtissem Ben Amara
The present study aims to investigate the physicochemical and the structural features of polysaccharide isolated from the red marine macro alga Chondrus canaliculatus (C.C.P) using FT-IR, gel filtration high-pressure chromatograph, HPLC-FID and solid state 13 C NMR analysis. C.C.P was even more tested in vitro for its potential antioxidant properties and in vivo for its hemato-nephroprotective effects against fungicide - maneb (MB) - induced toxicity. Animals treated for 20 days were allocated into six groups per six rats each: group 1 served as vehicle control, group 2 received MB, group 3 received MB + C...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Agnieszka Kicel, Joanna Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Aleksandra Owczarek, Magdalena Rutkowska, Anna Wajs-Bonikowska, Sebastian Granica, Pawel Nowak, Monika A Olszewska
The work presents the results of an investigation into the molecular background of the activity of Cotoneaster fruits, providing a detailed description of their phytochemical composition and some of the mechanisms of their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. GS-FID-MS and UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3 methods were applied to identify the potentially health-beneficial constituents of lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, leading to the identification of fourteen unsaturated fatty acids (with dominant linoleic acid, 375...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Cinny Makkar, Jaswinder Singh, Chander Parkash
Vermicompost, recommended inorganic fertiliser, vermiwash and their combinations were used in the present study to know their impact on the germination, growth, yield, oil content and nutritional status in seeds of two varieties of Linum usitatissimum L. LC-54 and LC-2063. Eight treatments, in 48 plots with three replicates, were studied and compared with control. Application of vermicompost enhanced growth and yield in both varieties of Linum. Vermicompost modulated the ratio of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids in seeds of Linseed...
November 30, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Alexandra E Morrison, Charvanaa Dhoonmoon, Helen K White
Oil residues originating from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) incident persist on Gulf of Mexico beaches alongside oil from offshore industrial activity, natural seepage, and asphalt from parking lots and roads. To determine the primary differences in the chemical composition of these oil residues, a variety of samples were collected from beaches from Florida to Alabama over a two-year period from 2015 to 2017. Bulk chemical characteristics of the oil residues were examined via gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), as well as thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR)...
December 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Rodrigo S C Cabral, Cassia C F Alves, Hellen R F Batista, Wendel C Sousa, Isabela S Abrahão, Antônio E M Crotti, Mariana B Santiago, Carlos H G Martins, Mayker L D Miranda
In Brazilian folk medicine, Protium heptaphyllum is used to treat inflammatory conditions and to hasten wound repair. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition and the in vitro antibacterial effects of the essential oils (EOs) obtained from P. heptaphyllum leaves and ripe and unripe fruits against a representative panel of oral pathogens. The GC-FID and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in P. heptaphyllum essential oils were myrcene (59.0%), β-elemene (17.2%), limonene (12...
November 30, 2018: Natural Product Research
Klaus Scheffler, Rahel Heule, Mario G Báez-Yánez, Bernd Kardatzki, Gabriele Lohmann
PURPOSE: Relaxation and dephasing of water protons embedded in a vascular network is driven by local magnetic field inhomogeneities around deoxygenated blood vessels. These effects strongly depend on the relation between mean diffusion length and diameter of blood vessels, as well as on the chosen imaging sequence. In this work, the BOLD sensitivity of steady-state sequences as a function of vessel size, field strength, and sequence parameters are analyzed. METHODS: Steady-state magnetization within a network of artificial cylinders is simulated with Monte Carlo methods for different coherence pathways...
November 29, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Magdalena Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Mateusz Kropiwnicki, Jacek Żebrowski, Athanasios Beopoulos, Lucyna Dymińska, Jerzy Hanuza, Waldemar Rymowicz
The high demand for new biomaterials makes synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in plants an interesting and desirable achievement. Production of polymers in plants is an example of application of biotechnology for improving the properties of plants, e.g. industrial properties, but it can also provide knowledge about plant physiology and metabolism. The subject of the present study was an industrially important plant: flax, Linum usitatissimum L., of a fibre cultivar (cv Nike). In the study the gene encoding PHA synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, fused to a peroxisomal targeting signal, was expressed in flax plants with the aim of modifying the mechanical properties of plants...
November 27, 2018: Transgenic Research
André M Marques, Ana Clarissa C Peixoto, D William Provance, Maria Auxiliadora C Kaplan
The technique of high-speed countercurrent chromatography was applied to the isolation of compounds in essential oil derived from the leaves of Piper mollicomum species. Plant leaves (200.0 g) were submitted to hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The resulting crude leaf essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the profile of the components. The purified fractions were composed of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes such as camphor (85...
November 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Liam Dowling, Frances Bonier
Flight initiation distance (FID)-the distance at which an individual leaves in response to the approach of a perceived threat-provides a measurement of risk-taking behavior. If individuals optimize their FID, this distance should reflect the point at which the fitness resulting from leaving exceeds the fitness resulting from all other possible decisions. Previous theory of FID has often been aimed at explaining this behavior in foraging individuals. Yet flight initiation in response to approaching threats occurs in a range of contexts that might influence optimal behavior...
2018: PloS One
Gunnar Birgegard, Jan Samuelsson, Erik Ahlstrand, Elisabeth Ejerblad, Christian Enevold, Waleed Ghanima, Hans Hasselbalch, Claus H Nielsen, Håvar Knutsen, Ole B Pedersen, Anders Sørensen, Björn Andreasson
OBJECTIVES: The study investigates the hypothesis that inflammation in myelofibrosis (MF) like in myeloma and lymphoma, may disturb iron distribution and contribute to anaemia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 80 MF and 23 ET patients was performed. RESULTS: Thirtyfive % of anaemic MF patients had functional iron deficiency (FID) with transferrin saturation <20 and normal or elevated S-ferritin (<500 μg/L). In ET, FID was rare. In MF patients with FID, 70...
November 25, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
Yongpeng Ma, Mingxiang Li, Hongxia Zhang, Hongzheng Sun, Honghai Su, Yuhua Wang, Zhizhi Du
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A folk herb Adenosma buchneroides found in the previous ethnobotanical investigation plays an important role as an insect repellent among the Aini people in southwest of China, but the active compounds responsible for repellent activity of the plant have not yet been investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: The main purpose of the study is to identify the active components of the essential oil which responsible for its repellent activity against Aedes albopictus to support the usage of the plant as mosquito repellent by Aini people...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Dorota Samojłowicz, Joanna Twarowska-Małczyńska, Aleksandra Borowska-Solonynko, Łukasz A Poniatowski, Nipika Sharma, Mieszko Olczak
Toxoplasmosis was linked to impairment in brain function, encompassing a wide range of behavioral and neuropsychiatric changes. Currently, the precise localization of Toxoplasma gondii in the human brain is limited and the parasite DNA was not found in population-based screening of autopsy cases. The aim of proposed study was to identify the presence of parasite DNA within the brain and its association with risky behavior and alcohol consumption in postmortem examination. Preliminarily, 102 cases with certain circumstances of death at time of forensic autopsy was included...
November 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Dominic Hunter, Ricardo Jiménez-Martínez, Juan Herbsommer, Srinath Ramaswamy, Wen Li, Erling Riis
We demonstrate an optically pumped magnetometer (OPM) operated in a free-induction-decay (FID) configuration that is capable of tracking oscillating magnetic signals in the presence of a 50 μT static field. Excellent waveform reconstruction is demonstrated for low frequency modulations with respect to the Nyquist limited bandwidth. A 100 pT oscillation was successfully reconstructed using signal averaging, and an optimum sensitivity of 3.9 pT/Hz was measured from the spectrum of the residuals relative to the sinusoidal fit...
November 12, 2018: Optics Express
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