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Sex allocation

Alex I Wiesman, Tony W Wilson
The ability to dynamically allocate neural resources within the visual space is supported by a number of spectrally-specific oscillatory responses, and such visuospatial processing has been found to decline moderately with age and differ by sex. However, the direct effects of age and sex on these oscillatory dynamics remains poorly understood. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), structural magnetic resonance imaging, and advanced source reconstruction and statistical methods, we investigated the impact of aging and sex on behavioral performance and the underlying neural dynamics during visuospatial processing...
October 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Abbas Sedighinejad, Bahram Naderi Nabi, Hossein Ettehad, Ahmadreza Mirbolook, Zahra Atrkarroushan, Samaneh Ghazanfar Tehran, Gelareh Biazar, Mohammad Haghighi
Background: Hip fracture is one of the most common problems in elderly that needs surgical repair. As, the majority of these patients have chronic diseases, they are at increased risk of peri-operative mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine vs bupivacaine in combination with lidocaine in terms of hemodynamic changes in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. Methods: This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 292 patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture under spinal anesthesia...
September 2018: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
Larissa Neves Pavin, Anthony S Leicht, Samuel Valencia Gimenes, Bruno Victor Corrêa da Silva, Mário Antônio de Moura Simim, Moacir Marocolo, Gustavo Ribeiro da Mota
Soccer-induced fatigue and performance are different between the sexes. The effect of compression stockings (CS) use on fatigue during the soccer match in females is unknown. Thus, we evaluated the impact of CS use during a female soccer match on match-induced fatigue. Twenty soccer players were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 10 for each group): CS and Control (regular socks), and equally distributed within two teams. At rest (baseline 48-h before the match) and immediately post-match, we assessed agility T-test, standing heel-rise test and YoYo Intermittent Endurance Test level 2 (YoYoIE2) performance...
October 14, 2018: Research in Sports Medicine
Eman M Khedr, Bastawy Al Fawal, Ahmed Abdelwarith, Mostafa Saber, John C Rothwell
Tardive syndromes (TDS) typically manifest 3 months or later after exposure to antipsychotic drugs, and unfortunately have no satisfactory medical treatment. We explored the possibility of using therapeutic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Twenty-six patients were allocated to receive real or sham rTMS over the hand/arm area of motor cortex (M1). Each received a daily total of 2000 rTMS pulses (20 Hz at 100% rMT: 1000 stimuli per hemisphere) for 10 consecutive days. Outcome was assessed using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) and TMS measures of M1 excitability...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Iris Palma Lopes, Victor Barbosa Ribeiro, Rosana Maria Reis, Rafael Costa Silva, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza, Gislaine Satyko Kogure, Rui Alberto Ferriani, Lúcia Alves da Silva Lara
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition characterized by hyperandrogenism, anthropometric changes (increased weight and waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]), behavioral changes (sexual dysfunction, anxiety, and depression), and reduced quality of life. Physical exercise may reduce many of the adverse effects of PCOS. However, no studies have yet evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise on the sexual function of women with PCOS. AIM: To compare the effects of continuous and intermittent aerobic physical training on the sexual function and mood of women with PCOS...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Yiyang Zhang, James McCammon, Richard Kyle Martin, Heather J Prior, Jeff Leiter, Peter B MacDonald
OBJECTIVE: To determine epidemiological trends of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) in a Canadian province, estimate the national incidence, and compare with internationally published data. DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: All hospitals that performed ACL reconstructions in Manitoba between 1980 and 2015. PARTICIPANT: All patients that underwent ACL-R in Manitoba between 1980 and 2015. INTERVENTION: This is a retrospective review looking at deidentified, individual-level administrative records of health services used for the entire population of Manitoba (approximately 1...
October 10, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Megann Young, Thomas Kim, Eli Lessard, Danielle Campagne, Susanne Spano, Leyla Farshidpour, Geoff Stroh
INTRODUCTION: The University of California San Francisco Fresno Department of Emergency Medicine provides base hospital support for the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SEKI) emergency medical services (EMS) system. This descriptive epidemiologic study reports reasons the park EMS system is used and interventions provided, detailing the nature of patient encounters, type and frequency of injuries and interventions, reasons for base hospital contact, and patient dispositions. METHODS: Patient charts for all EMS encounters in SEKI from 2011 to 2013 were included, and relevant data were extracted by a single reviewer...
October 8, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Vivek S Prakash, Neel A Mansukhani, Irene B Helenowski, Teresa K Woodruff, Melina R Kibbe
INTRODUCTION: Prior studies have shown that sex bias exists with subject enrollment in clinical trials, with more men being enrolled than women. The objective of this study was to identify if sex bias continues to exist in present day clinical trials entered into . We hypothesize that males and females are not equally represented in recent clinical trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were abstracted from all interventional Phase I, II, and III clinical trials with adult subjects entered into ClinicalTrials...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Lennart Winkler, Steven A Ramm
Self-fertilization is widespread among simultaneously hermaphroditic animals and plants, but is often only facultatively deployed under circumstances that constrain outcrossing. A central prediction of sex allocation (SA) theory is that because exclusive selfing reduces sperm or pollen competition to zero, this should favour extreme economy in resources channelled to the male sex function. We can therefore expect that organisms switching from outcrossing to selfing should reduce their male allocation. However, to date this prediction has received relatively little support in animal taxa, especially compared to plants...
October 10, 2018: Biology Letters
Matthew M Kavanagh, Stefan D Baral, Maureen Milanga, Jeremy Sugarman
Widespread public health surveillance efforts focused on key populations (men who have sex with men, sex workers, people who inject drugs, and others) gather data on population sizes, HIV prevalence, and other information for planning and resource allocation. Biometric identification might improve this data gathering. However, in the context of extensive criminalisation of these populations, the use of biometrics such as fingerprints raises concerns that are insufficiently addressed in current policies. These concerns include infringing privacy, exposing participants to risks of legal action or violence, biasing surveillance results, and undermining trust in the health system...
October 5, 2018: Lancet HIV
Sudipta Tung, M Rajamani, Amitabh Joshi, Sutirth Dey
The dynamics of stage-structured populations facing stage-specific variability in resource availability and/or demographic factors like unequal sex-ratios, remains poorly understood. We addressed these issues using a stage-structured individual-based model that incorporates life-history parameters common to many holometabolous insects. The model was calibrated using time series data from a 49-generation experiment on laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster, subjected to four different combinations of larval and adult nutritional levels...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Kimberly L P Long, Allison M Bailey, Timothy J Greives, Sandra J Legan, Gregory E Demas
Activation of the immune system induces rapid reductions in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis activity, which in turn decreases secretion of sex steroids. This response is likely adaptive for survival by temporarily inhibiting reproduction to conserve energy; however, the physiological mechanisms controlling this response remain unclear. The neuropeptide kisspeptin is a candidate to mediate the decrease in sex hormones seen during sickness through its key regulation of the HPG axis. In this study, the effects of acute immune activation on the response to kisspeptin were assessed in male Siberian hamsters ( Phodopus sungorus )...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes, Lina Hellman, Qi Wu, Barbara van den Oever, Liang Pan, Manuel Albela Miranda, Gao Chen, De-Sheng Zhang, Debarati Guha-Sapir, Johan Von Schreeb
Unlike other disasters, injury rates after earthquakes are still on the rise at a global scale. With an estimated one million people injured by earthquakes in the last decade, the burden of injury is considerable. Importantly, the surgical procedures carried out by healthcare facilities are capable to avert part of this burden. Yet both burdens remain unquantified using understandable metrics. We explored in this analysis a method to calculate them using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), an internationally accepted measure expressing years of healthy life lost due to a health condition...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Marcelo Niglio de Figueiredo, Lorena Krippeit, Gabriele Ihorst, Heribert Sattel, Carma L Bylund, Andreas Joos, Jürgen Bengel, Claas Lahmann, Kurt Fritzsche, Alexander Wuensch
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the number of coaching sessions after communication skills training on the medical communicative performance of oncologists in clinical practice. METHODS/DESIGN: The training, consisting of a workshop and one (control group) vs. four (intervention group) sessions of individual coaching, was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Eligible participants included physicians working in any setting where patients with oncological diseases were treated...
2018: PloS One
Clint D Kelly, Andrew M Stoehr, Charles Nunn, Kendra N Smyth, Zofia M Prokop
In animals, sex differences in immunity are proposed to shape variation in infection prevalence and intensity among individuals in a population, with females typically expected to exhibit superior immunity due to life-history trade-offs. We performed a systematic meta-analysis to investigate the magnitude and direction of sex differences in immunity and to identify factors that shape sex-biased immunocompetence. In addition to considering taxonomic and methodological effects as moderators, we assessed age-related effects, which are predicted to occur if sex differences in immunity are due to sex-specific resource allocation trade-offs with reproduction...
October 4, 2018: Ecology Letters
Mohammad Asif, Aman Sai Guntreddy
Background: Tracheal intubation is usually facilitated by using a muscle relaxant to supplement drugs given for the induction of general anesthesia. Nondepolarizing muscle relaxants are also associated with the few disadvantages. Endotracheal intubation under volatile anesthetics without the use of muscle relaxants is possible, but it has disadvantages. Time available for intubation is much less when compared to the use of muscle relaxants. Considering the disadvantages of muscle relaxants and volatile agents in mind, there is a need for endotracheal intubation without muscle relaxants...
July 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Unnikrishnan Prathapadas, Maya Gomathiamma, Appavoo Arulvelan, Karen Ruby Lionel, Ajay Prasad Hrishi
Background: Propofol has emerged as an induction agent of choice over the past two decades due to its quick, smooth induction and rapid recovery. The main concern for an anesthesiologist is the hemodynamic instability caused by the standard induction dose of propofol (2-3 mg/kg). Aim: We aim to study the efficacy of propofol auto-coinduction technique in comparison to the standard propofol induction technique in terms of the total induction dose requirement of propofol, the incidence of hemodynamic side effects and pain on injection, and the incidence of fentanyl-induced cough (FIC) in the absence of a synergistic agent like midazolam...
July 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Astrid Raunsgard, Øystein H Opedal, Runa K Ekrem, Jonathan Wright, Geir H Bolstad, W Scott Armbruster, Christophe Pélabon
In polyandrous species, fathers benefit from attracting greater maternal investment toward their offspring at the expense of the offspring of other males, while mothers should usually allocate resources equally among offspring. This conflict can lead to an evolutionary arms race between the sexes, manifested through antagonistic genes whose expression in offspring depends upon the parent of origin. The arms race may involve an increase in the strength of maternally versus paternally derived alleles engaged in a "tug of war" over maternal provisioning or repeated "recognition-avoidance" coevolution where growth-enhancing paternally derived alleles evolve to escape recognition by maternal genes targeted to suppress their effect...
October 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bradford S Martins, Ricardo Cáceda, Josh M Cisler, Clinton D Kilts, G Andrew James
BACKGROUND: Comorbidity of drug use disorders (DUD) with other psychopathology is associated with worse functional and treatment outcomes than DUD alone. The present study sought to identify altered functional neural circuitry underlying DUD comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, and model the relationship of these alterations to childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and negative self-beliefs (Beck Depression Inventory). METHODS: A sample of adult men and women (mean = 36...
September 21, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Thomas Fitzpatrick, Kali Zhou, Yu Cheng, Po-Lin Chan, Fuqiang Cui, Weiming Tang, Katie R Mollan, Wilson Guo, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends all men who have sex with men (MSM) receive Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) testing. MSM in China are a high-risk group for HBV and HCV infection, but test uptake is low. Crowdsourcing invites a large group to solve a problem and then shares the solution with the public. This nationwide online randomized controlled trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a crowdsourced intervention to increase HBV and HCV testing among MSM in China...
September 29, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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