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Sex allocation

Bettina Bringolf-Isler, Christian Schindler, Bengt Kayser, L Suzanne Suggs, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Evidence for the context-specific influence of parental modelling on physical activity (PA) in childhood remains inconclusive. This nationwide Swiss study assessed the cross-sectional association between objectively measured PA of parents and their children and whether it varied across different levels of sociodemographic and environmental factors. In a second step a structural equation-model (SEM) was used to assess, whether associations between children's PA and sociodemographic and environmental factors are mediated by the parental PA behaviour...
August 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
Nahid Hemmatian Boroujeni, Farhad Handjani
Background: Warts are one of the most common infections in humans. Plantar warts are a subtype of non-genital warts, and several procedures and topical treatments have been used in its treatment. Cryotherapy is one of the most popular modalities, but it is time-consuming and remission rates vary in different studies. CO2 laser was the first laser used for treating warts. To date, no clinical trial has been done to compare CO2 laser with cryotherapy in the treatment of plantar warts. Patients and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was performed in order to compare the efficacy and number of sessions needed to treat plantar warts in 60 patients who had received no previous treatment in the previous 3 months...
July 2018: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
René S Kahn, Inge Winter van Rossum, Stefan Leucht, Philip McGuire, Shon W Lewis, Marion Leboyer, Celso Arango, Paola Dazzan, Richard Drake, Stephan Heres, Covadonga M Díaz-Caneja, Dan Rujescu, Mark Weiser, Silvana Galderisi, Birte Glenthøj, Marinus J C Eijkemans, W Wolfgang Fleischhacker, Shitij Kapur, Iris E Sommer
BACKGROUND: No established treatment algorithm exists for patients with schizophrenia. Whether switching antipsychotics or early use of clozapine improves outcome in (first-episode) schizophrenia is unknown. METHODS: This three-phase study was done in 27 centres, consisting of general hospitals and psychiatric specialty clinics, in 14 European countries and Israel. Patients aged 18-40 years who met criteria of the DSM-IV for schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, or schizoaffective disorder were treated for 4 weeks with up to 800 mg/day amisulpride orally in an open-label design (phase 1)...
August 13, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Jason Pui Yin Cheung, Prudence Wing Hang Cheung, Karlen Law, Vishal Borse, Yuk Ming Lau, Ling Fung Mak, Aldous Cheng, Dino Samartzis, Kenneth Man Chee Cheung
BACKGROUND: Cervical collars are used after laminoplasty to protect the hinge opening, reduce risks of hinge fractures, and avoid spring-back phenomena. However, their use may lead to reduced range of motion and worse neck pain. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical, radiological, and functional outcomes of patients undergoing single-door laminoplasty with or without collar immobilization. METHODS: This was a prospective, parallel, single-blinded randomized controlled trial...
August 3, 2018: Neurosurgery
Eugene Yu-Chuan Kang, Fu-Sung Lo, Jung-Pan Wang, Lung-Kun Yeh, An-Lun Wu, Yun-Ju Tseng, Chun-Ting Yeh, Laura Liu, Kuan-Jen Chen, Wei-Chi Wu, Chi-Chun Lai, Nan-Kai Wang
The need for screening for retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been emphasised, but diagnostic delays were reported when screening was done at fixed intervals. To establish an individualised risk-prediction model to assist screening non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) in T1DM, we performed a retrospective cohort study enrolling participants in the Chang Gung Juvenile Diabetes Eye Study. There were 413 patients with 12 381 records analysed from 2005 to 2015. A time-dependent Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to evaluate the risks of NPDR development and a nomogram with risk-stratification indicators was established based on the results...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nicolás Bonel, Elsa Noël, Tim Janicke, Kevin Sartori, Elodie Chapuis, Adeline Ségard, Stefania Meconcelli, Benjamin Pélissié, Violette Sarda, Patrice David
Sex allocation theory predicts that simultaneous hermaphrodites evolve to an evolutionary stable resource allocation, whereby any increase in investment to male reproduction leads to a disproportionate cost on female reproduction and vice-versa. However, empirical evidence for sexual trade-offs in hermaphroditic animals is still limited. Here, we tested how male and female reproductive traits evolved under conditions of reduced selection on either male or female reproduction for 40 generations in a hermaphroditic snail...
August 14, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Masood Ali Shaikh
Use of GIS to visualize the pattern and distribution of health indices in Pakistan would help in better choreographing of health policy and resource allocation decisions. In this study, district-wise spatial distribution of under five-year old children who got sick or injured in the past two weeks, and health consultation pattern was studied using the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Survey 2014-2015. Sex, urban/rural residency status, and province-based differences in the district-wise distribution of under-five year old children who fell sick/injured in the past two weeks and their having received health consultation for it, were observed...
August 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Nayreen Daruwalla, Tanvi Mishra, Neeta Karandikar, Shanti Pantvaidya, David Osrin
Around 20% of India's population are adolescents aged 10-19 years. Our objective was to strengthen program interventions on gender equity, health, and participation by gauging adolescents' levels of understanding and opinions. In a cross-sectional survey, we interviewed 2005 adolescents on their opinions on rights, friendship and sex, sexual refusal and coercion, and communication with family, using a two-stage probability proportional to size sample. Opinions on gender allocations were generally equitable, although females supported clothing proscriptions...
2018: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth
Maja Tarka, Anja Guenther, Petri T Niemelä, Shinichi Nakagawa, Daniel W A Noble
The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis predicts that behavior and physiology covary with life history. Evidence for such covariation is contradictory, possibly because systematic sources of variation (e.g. sex) have been neglected. Sexes often experience different selection pressures leading to sex-specific allocation between reproduction and self-maintenance, facilitating divergence in life-history. Sex-specific differences in means and possibly variances may therefore play a key role in the POLS framework...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Loni L Schumacher, Roger A Cochrane, Anne R Huss, Jordan T Gebhardt, Jason C Woodworth, Charles R Stark, Cassandra K Jones, Jianfa Bai, Rodger G Main, Qi Chen, Jianqiang Zhang, Philip C Gauger, Joel M DeRouchey, Robert D Goodband, Mike D Tokach, Steve S Dritz
Feed has been identified as a vector of transmission for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The objective of this study was to determine if feed batch sequencing methods could minimize PEDV cross-contamination. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus-free swine feed was manufactured to represent the negative control. A 50 kg feed batch was mixed in a pilot scale feed mill for 5 min, sampled, then discharged for 10 min into a bucket elevator and sampled again upon exit. Next, a pathogenic PEDV isolate was used to inoculate 49...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Nguyen K Tran, Neal D Goldstein, Seth L Welles
Background: Valid measurement of determinants of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) is critical for intervention planning and resource allocation. However, sexual minority research concerning HIV risk often relies on proxy exposures of sexual behaviors such as sexual orientation and partner gender. Inferring high risk sexual behaviors (i.e., condomless anal intercourse) from these proxies inaccurately captures HIV risk, but few studies have attempted to correct for this bias. Methods: We performed a systematic review of methodological practices for estimating risk of HIV infection among MSM...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Caitlin E Tomaszewski, Mason W Kulbaba, Lawrence D Harder
For hermaphroditic angiosperms with multiple flowers the sex roles can be exclusively combined in bisexual flowers (monocliny), strictly separated among different flowers (monoecy), or arrayed in mixtures of bisexual flowers with female flowers (gynomonoecy) or male flowers (andromonoecy). The hypothesized benefits favoring the evolution of these contrasting hermaphroditic sexual systems are typically examined individually, usually by assessing success through only one sex role. We tested predictions of most hypotheses experimentally with an andromonoecious species, Anticlea occidentalis (Melanthiaceae), based on the performance of intact plants (andromonoecy) and those with emasculated bisexual flowers (functionally monoecious) or emasculated male flowers (functionally monoclinous with sterile peripheral flowers)...
August 10, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Michael A Grasso, Albert E Manyuchi, Maria Sibanyoni, Alex Marr, Tom Osmand, Zachary Isdahl, Helen Struthers, James A McIntyre, Francois Venter, Helen V Rees, Tim Lane
BACKGROUND: Robust population size estimates of female sex workers and other key populations in South Africa face multiple methodological limitations, including inconsistencies in surveillance and programmatic indicators. This has, consequently, challenged the appropriate allocation of resources and benchmark-setting necessary to an effective HIV response. A 2013-2014 integrated biological and behavioral surveillance (IBBS) survey from South Africa showed alarmingly high HIV prevalence among female sex workers in South Africa's three largest cities of Johannesburg (71...
August 7, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Giuseppe Cullaro, Ryutaro Hirose, Jennifer C Lai
BACKGROUND: Previous simultaneous liver-kidney transplant (SLK) allocation was based on serum creatinine, a metric that disadvantaged women relative to men. A recent SLK policy change utilizes eGFR, which accounts for sex-based differences in creatinine. METHODS: To understand the impact of this new policy, we analyzed nonstatus 1 adults listed for liver transplantation (LT) from 5/2007-7/2014, excluding those with exceptions. We defined patients who met the new SLK policy as having an eGFR<60 ml/min for 90 days, with a final eGFR<30 ml/min...
August 6, 2018: Transplantation
Sajjad Hattami, Behzad Khalatbari, Mona Karimi
BACKGROUND: One of the weaknesses of recovering the skin defects by tissue expander device is that it needs relatively long time and it has complications. Since verapamil gel reduces the production of these capsules around silicone prosthesis and reduces the formation of collagen in the capsule areas. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of verapamil gel on efficiency of tissue expander device. METHODS: Twenty patients were allocated equally into control and case groups based on age, sex, and location of the device...
May 2018: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
Aaron M Foley, David G Hewitt, Randy W DeYoung, Matthew J Schnupp, Mickey W Hellickson, Mitch A Lockwood
1.Patterns of male reproductive allocation provide insight into life-history characteristics. The trade-offs associated with resource and female group defense are well-defined. However, less is understood about trade-offs in species that practice scramble-competition polygyny, where successful strategies may favor competitive mate-searching rather than contest competition and fighting. 2.White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) practice scramble-competition polygyny where solitary males search for and assess receptivity of females scattered across the landscape...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
S Fujii, A Ishibe, M Ota, K Watanabe, J Watanabe, C Kunisaki, I Endo
Background: The optimal level for inferior mesenteric artery ligation during anterior resection for rectal cancer is controversial. The aim of this randomized trial was to clarify whether the inferior mesenteric artery should be tied at the origin (high tie) or distal to the left colic artery (low tie). Methods: Patients were allocated randomly to undergo either high- or low-tie ligation and were stratified by surgical approach (open or laparoscopic). The primary outcome was the incidence of anastomotic leakage...
August 2018: BJS open
Jakob O Ström, Edvin Ingberg, Julia K Slezak, Annette Theodorsson, Elvar Theodorsson
BACKGROUND: It has not yet been established whether men in heterosexual relationships adapt their hormone levels to their female partner's menstrual cycle to allocate reproductive resources to the period when the female is actually fertile. AIM: This prospective observational study tested the hypothesis that some males have peaks in testosterone or acne (a possible biomarker for androgen activity) near their partners' ovulation, whereas other males display the opposite pattern...
August 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Maria Lohan, Áine Aventin, Mike Clarke, Rhonda M Curran, Lisa Maguire, Rachael Hunter, Clíona McDowell, Lisa McDaid, Honor Young, James White, Adam Fletcher, Rebecca French, Christopher Bonell, Julia V Bailey, Liam O'Hare
INTRODUCTION: Teenage pregnancy remains a worldwide health concern which is an outcome of, and contributor to, health inequalities. The need for gender-aware interventions with a focus on males in addressing teenage pregnancy has been highlighted as a global health need by WHO and identified in systematic reviews of (relationship and sexuality education (RSE)). This study aims to test the effectiveness of an interactive film-based RSE intervention, which draws explicit attention to the role of males in preventing an unintended pregnancy by reducing unprotected heterosexual teenage sex among males and females under age 16 years...
July 28, 2018: BMJ Open
Julia Zeitler, Birgit Babitsch
INTRODUCTION: Sex and gender health research evaluates biological and psychosocial differences between women and men which can influence the development, progress and experience of diseases. However, despite the increasing body of evidence about relevant differences between women and men regarding healthcare, the prevention, management and treatment of many common diseases do not yet reflect the knowledge of sex/gender characteristics. Furthermore, in the development of clinical practice guidelines, which are a valuable tool for knowledge transfer between scientific evidence and healthcare, sex/gender factors are only rarely explicitly and systematically considered...
July 23, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
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