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Sex allocation

Bengt von Zur-Mühlen, Viktor Wintzell, Aaron Levine, Mats Rosenlund, Suzanne Kilany, Sara Nordling, Jonas Wadström
BACKGROUND Improved understanding of the impact of kidney transplantation on healthcare resource use/costs and loss of productivity could aid decision making about funding allocation and resources needed for the treatment of chronic kidney disease in stage 5. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a retrospective study utilizing data from Swedish national health registers of patients undergoing kidney transplantation. Primary outcomes were renal disease-related healthcare resource utilization and costs during the 5 years after transplantation...
December 14, 2018: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
Katharine Molloy, Nilli Lavie, Maria Chait
Figure-ground segregation is fundamental to listening in complex acoustic environments. An ongoing debate pertains to whether segregation requires attention or is 'automatic' and pre-attentive. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study we tested a prediction derived from Load Theory of attention (e.g. Lavie, 1995) that segregation requires attention, but can benefit from the automatic allocation of any 'leftover' capacity under low load. Complex auditory scenes were modelled with Stochastic Figure Ground stimuli (SFG, Teki et al...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jacob J van den Berg, Nickolas D Zaller, Fizza S Gillani, Shira I Dunsiger, Brandon D L Marshall, Christopher W Kahler, Don Operario
Examining how multiple concomitant factors interact to augment HIV transmission risk is needed to inform more effective primary and secondary HIV prevention programs for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. The development of a "taxonomy" of long-term sexual and drug-related risk behavior profiles may have important implications for resource allocation and targeted HIV prevention programming. A secondary data analysis was conducted to explore longitudinal HIV transmission risk profiles among 423 MSM living with HIV enrolled in the Study to Understand the Natural History of HIV and AIDS in the Era of Effective Therapy (SUN Study)...
December 12, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
Dewei Ren, Thomas S Kaleekal, Edward A Graviss, Duc T Nguyen, Neeraj Sinha, Amad Goodarzi, Isioma Agboli, Erik E Suarez, Matthias Loebe, Scott A Scheinin, Brian A Bruckner
Background: With the increase of primary lung transplantation across major centers worldwide, over the last several years the need of lung retransplant (ReTX) is likely to increase. Therefore, characterization of ReTX patients is prudent and necessary. Our study aimed to investigate and characterize the covariates and outcomes associated with lung ReTX survival in a single large U.S. transplant center. Methods: Demographic, clinical diagnoses, and comorbidities were analyzed...
November 2018: Transplantation Direct
Thomas Kander, Susann Ullén, Josef Dankiewicz, Matt P Wise, Ulf Schött, Malin Rundgren
Target Temperature Management (TTM) is standard care following out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The aim of the study was to evaluate if treatment temperature (33°C or 36°C) or other predefined variables were associated with the occurrence of bleeding in the TTM study. This study is a predefined, post hoc analysis of the TTM trial, a multinational randomized controlled trial comparing treatment at 33°C and 36°C for 24 hours after OHCA with return of spontaneous circulation. Bleeding events from several locations were registered daily...
December 6, 2018: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
Elizabeth R Stevens, Qinlian Zhou, Kimberly A Nucifora, Glen B Taksler, Marc N Gourevitch, Matthew C Stiefel, Patricia Kipnis, R Scott Braithwaite
In integrated health care systems, techniques that identify successes and opportunities for targeted improvement are needed. The authors propose a new method for estimating population health that provides a more accurate and dynamic assessment of performance and priority setting. Member data from a large integrated health system (n = 96,246, 73.8% female, mean age = 44 ± 0.01 years) were used to develop a mechanistic mathematical simulation, representing the top causes of US mortality in 2014 and their associated risk factors...
December 4, 2018: Population Health Management
Simone Eliane Schwank, Chunyi Gu, Zhouli Cao, Ewa Andersson, Hongli Jiang, Yan Ding, Helena Lindgren
Objectives: The Chinese government launched the two-child policy in 2015 to counteract the demographic changes, skewed sex ratio, and decreasing number of labor force. The policy shift has a significant impact on all levels of society and economy. This study aimed to describe how Mainland Chinese women face this new decision-making on their reproduction and family planning and captures factors contributing to the judgment and decision-making. Method: The present qualitative study included a sample of 37 women, with an average age of 29...
2018: International Journal of Women's Health
N Patrik Brodin, Rafi Kabarriti, Mark Pankuch, Clyde B Schechter, Vinai Gondi, Shalom Kalnicki, Chandan Guha, Madhur K Garg, Wolfgang A Tomé
PURPOSE: Developing a quantitative decision-support strategy estimating the impact of normal tissue complications from definitive radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). We developed this strategy to identify oropharyngeal HNC patients that may benefit most from receiving proton RT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Recent normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for dysphagia, esophagitis, hypothyroidism, xerostomia and oral mucositis were used to estimate NTCP for 33 oropharyngeal HNC patients previously treated with photon IMRT...
November 26, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
L E Durán-Carabali, D M Arcego, E F Sanches, F K Odorcyk, R M Marques, A Tosta, L Reichert, S A Carvalho, C Dalmaz, C A Netto
Environmental enrichment (EE) at early stages of neurodevelopment attenuates HI-induced behavioral, histological and cellular damage. However, the effects of EE exposure during gestational or early postnatal period and the possible influence of sexual dimorphism on EE protection are not fully understood. Present study evaluated the effects of pre-natal and postnatal EE, as well as their combination, in male and female rats submitted to neonatal HI at postnatal day (PND) 3. Wistar rats were housed in EE or in standard condition (SC) during all pregnancy...
November 26, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Simone A Huygens, Frank van der Kley, Jos A Bekkers, Ad J J C Bogers, Johanna J M Takkenberg, Maureen P M H Rutten-van Mölken
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to provide estimates of patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL), use of informal care and productivity in patients after surgical aortic and pulmonary valve replacement and transcatheter aortic valve implantation. METHODS: Consecutive cohorts of 1239 adult patients who had surgical aortic valve replacement or surgical pulmonary valve replacement and 433 patients who had transcatheter aortic valve implantation at 2 Dutch heart centres were cross-sectionally surveyed at a median time of 2...
November 27, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Annika Gunst, Daniel Ventus, Stefan Arver, Cecilia Dhejne, Katarina Görts-Öberg, Elin Zamore-Söderström, Patrick Jern
We evaluated two treatment conditions for low sexual desire in women: one where participants were administered a mindfulness-based treatment protocol and another with exercises focusing on scheduled sex and motivations for sex in addition to the aforementioned protocol. Seventy women (Mage 39.2, SD = 9.8) with complaints of low sexual desire were randomly allocated to one of these treatment conditions or a waiting-list condition. Participants attended four individual sessions and completed homework exercises...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
Robin M Hare, Leigh W Simmons
For sexual selection to act on a given sex, there must exist variation in the reproductive success of that sex as a result of differential access to mates or fertilisations. The mechanisms and consequences of sexual selection acting on male animals are well documented, but research on sexual selection acting on females has only recently received attention. Controversy still exists over whether sexual selection acts on females in the traditional sense, and over whether to modify the existing definition of sexual selection (to include resource competition) or to invoke alternative mechanisms (usually social selection) to explain selection acting on females in connection with reproduction...
November 28, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Niels Ganzer, Ingalill Feldmann, Lars Bondemark
INTRODUCTION: Anchorage can be reinforced in many ways. Due to the variety of anchorage concepts, only a few general conclusions can be drawn. Therefore, more research is needed to investigate specific concepts with specific indications. The objective of this trial was to compare the anchorage capacities of miniscrews and molar blocks. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 2 parallel arms. The trial was conducted at the Public Dental Service Orthodontic Clinic in Gävle, Sweden...
December 2018: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Joshua R Ehrlich, Brian C Stagg, Chris Andrews, Abigail Kumagai, David C Musch
Importance: Vision impairment (VI), including blindness, affects hundreds of millions globally, and 90% of those with VI live in low- and middle-income countries. Cross-national comparisons are important to elucidate the unique and shared factors associated with VI and receipt of eye care in different countries and to target those most in need. Objective: To identify the characteristics associated with VI and receipt of eye care in a sample of low- and middle-income countries...
November 21, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Warren Kealy-Bateman, Tessa Daws, Calina Ouliaris
OBJECTIVES: Allocation of transgender patients to single-sex mental health wards in Australasia can be a complex and challenging decision in the absence of adequate awareness, education and policy that prioritize consumer safety and preference. It is a point of care that can go wrong for a transgender person. We examine relevant literature, law and existing principles of care and offer an approach. CONCLUSION: Transgender individuals experience an excess health burden and have difficulties that are poorly understood by many health practitioners...
November 26, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Francesco D'Aiuto, Nikolaos Gkranias, Devina Bhowruth, Tauseef Khan, Marco Orlandi, Jean Suvan, Stefano Masi, Georgios Tsakos, Steve Hurel, Aroon D Hingorani, Nikos Donos, John E Deanfield
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is believed to be a major mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Periodontitis is a cause of systemic inflammation. We aimed to assess the effects of periodontal treatment on glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this 12 month, single-centre, parallel-group, investigator-masked, randomised trial, we recruited patients with type 2 diabetes, moderate-to-severe periodontitis, and at least 15 teeth from four local hospitals and 15 medical or dental practices in the UK...
December 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
L Cheynel, F Douhard, E Gilot-Fromont, B Rey, F Débias, S Pardonnet, J Carbillet, H Verheyden, A J M Hewison, M Pellerin, J-M Gaillard, J-F Lemaître
According to the principle of allocation, trade-offs are inevitable when resources allocated to one biological function are no longer available for other functions. Growth, and to a lesser extent, immunity are energetically costly functions that may compete with allocation to reproductive success and survival. However, whether high allocation to growth impairs immune system development during the growing period or immune system performance during adulthood is currently unknown in wild mammals. Using three roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) populations experiencing contrasting environmental conditions, we tested for potential costs of growth on immune phenotype over both the short-term (during growth), and the long-term (during adulthood) over the course of an individuals' life...
November 23, 2018: Oecologia
Young Chul Youn, Seong Hye Choi, Hae-Won Shin, Ko Woon Kim, Jae-Won Jang, Jason J Jung, Ging-Yuek Robin Hsiung, SangYun Kim
Purpose: The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is one of the most frequently used bedside screening measures of cognition. However, the Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire (KDSQ) is an easier and more reliable screening method. Instead, other clinical variables and raw data were used for this study without the consideration of a cutoff value. The objective of this study was to develop a machine-learning algorithm for the detection of cognitive impairment (CI) based on the KDSQ and the MMSE...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Ji Yeon Kim, Sungkyoung Choi, Taesung Park, Seul Ki Kim, Yoon Suk Jung, Jung Ho Park, Hong Joo Kim, Yong Kyun Cho, Chong Il Sohn, Woo Kyu Jeon, Byung Ik Kim, Kyu Yong Choi, Dong Il Park
Background/Aims: Colorectal cancer incidence among patients aged ≤50 years is increasing. This study aimed to develop and validate an advanced colorectal neoplasm (ACRN) screening model for young adults aged <50 years in Korea. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 59,575 consecutive asymptomatic Koreans who underwent screening colonoscopy between 2003 and 2012 at a single comprehensive health care center. Young Adult Colorectal Screening (YCS) score was developed as an optimized risk stratification model for ACRN using multivariate analysis and was internally validated...
November 20, 2018: Intestinal Research
Martin Brengdahl, Christopher M Kimber, Jack Maguire-Baxter, Antonino Malacrinò, Urban Friberg
Males and females often maximize fitness by pursuing different reproductive strategies, with males commonly assumed to benefit more from increased resource allocation into current reproduction. Such investment should trade off with somatic maintenance and may explain why males frequently live shorter than females. It also predicts that males should experience faster reproductive aging. Here we investigate whether reproductive aging and life span respond to condition differently in male and female Drosophila melanogaster, as predicted if sexual selection has shaped male and female resource-allocation patterns...
December 2018: American Naturalist
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