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Sex conflict

Anne-Laure Madika, Gilles Lemesle, Nicolas Lamblin, Thibaud Meurice, Olivier Tricot, Claire Mounier-Vehier, Christophe Bauters
BACKGROUND: Conflicting information exists about whether sex differences modulate outcome in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Our aim was to analyze baseline characteristics, medical management, risk factor control, and long-term outcome according to gender in patients with stable CAD. METHODS: We analyzed data from the contemporary multicenter CORONOR registry, which included 4184 consecutive outpatients with stable CAD. Follow-up was performed at 5 years with adjudication of clinical events...
October 10, 2018: Panminerva Medica
Amber M Jarnecke, Eileen Barden, Sudie E Back, Kathleen T Brady, Julianne C Flanagan
Emerging literature indicates individual and contextual differences impact response to oxytocin (OT). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is one chronic stressor that may moderate OT response. To test the hypothesis that IPV moderates the association between OT and reactivity to a dyadic conflict task, data from a larger randomized controlled study was collected from heterosexual couples (N = 60 individuals; 30 couples) at high risk for IPV due to substance misuse. Partners within each dyad completed a 10-minute dyadic conflict task in the laboratory, and then self-administered a single dose of OT (40 IU) or placebo...
October 2, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Pingfen Zhu, Cyril C Grueter, Paul A Garber, Dayong Li, Zuofu Xiang, Baoping Ren, Ming Li
Male-male interactions in mixed-sex groups of social mammals are typically characterized by a mix of hostility and affiliation, as a result of inherent conflicts over mating opportunities, and the costs and benefits of social alliances, co-operative behaviors, and coalitionary defense. In species of nonhuman primates that form all-male groups, it is still unclear how the tradeoffs between the benefits of forming an all-male group and the cost of male-male competition in seeking mating opportunities with females in bisexual groups influence social cohesion in different seasons...
October 11, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Anat Gesser-Edelsburg, Munawar Abed Elhadi Arabia
BACKGROUND: The internet revolution of the 21st century has made sexual content available and accessible on a scale that has never existed before. Many studies have indicated that the use of pornography was associated with more permissive sexual attitudes and tended to be linked with stronger gender-stereotypical sexual beliefs. It also seemed to be associated with other risky behaviors and sexual promiscuity. Pornography exposure in conservative societies leads to conflicts with religious and cultural taboos...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Johannes Bobjer, Marianna Katrinaki, Erini Dermitzaki, Andrew N Margioris, Aleksander Giwercman, Christos Tsatsanis
STUDY QUESTION: Are chemerin levels different in subfertile men compared to men from the general population, and how does chemerin relate to reproductive hormonal status? SUMMARY ANSWER: Chemerin is negatively associated to LH, SHBG and estradiol and lower levels of chemerin are detected among subfertile men compared to controls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Adipokines have pleiotropic effects on tissue homeostasis and have been shown to affect both sex steroid production and action...
October 10, 2018: Human Reproduction
Farzaneh Rahmani, Amene Saghazadeh, Maryam Rahmani, Antonio L Teixeira, Nima Rezaei, Vajiheh Aghamollaei, Hassan Eftekhar Ardebili
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an abundant neurotrophin in the adult brain. Serum BDNF levels might be used as a proxy for its central expression. Considering conflicting reports, we aimed to answer "How do serum/CSF levels of BDNF change in patients with PD?". METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and SCOPUS databases including 12 eligible studies. Five studies compared BDNF in serum of PD patients versus healthy controls (HC) and 3 studies provided BDNF levels in sera of non-depressed and depressed PD patients (NDPD and DPD)...
October 5, 2018: Brain Research
Adam G Culvenor, Neil A Segal, Ali Guermazi, Frank Roemer, David T Felson, Michael C Nevitt, Cora E Lewis, Joshua J Stefanik
OBJECTIVE: Reports on quadriceps weakness as a risk factor for incident and progressive knee osteoarthritis are conflicting, potentially due to differing effects of muscle strength on patellofemoral and tibiofemoral compartments. This study aimed to examine the sex-specific relation of quadriceps strength to worsening patellofemoral and tibiofemoral cartilage damage over 84-months. METHODS: The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) is a cohort study of individuals with or at risk for knee osteoarthritis...
October 8, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Leslie R Amodeo, Derek N Wills, Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, William Nguyen, Bruno Conti, Cindy L Ehlers
Epidemiological studies suggest that binge drinking is prevalent among adolescents, and may result in neurobehavioral consequences. Animal models provide the experimental control to investigate the consequences of "binge" alcohol exposure during this neurodevelopmental epoch. The current study used an animal model that combined an intermittent pattern of alcohol vapor exposure with voluntary drinking of 20% unsweetened alcohol in adolescent male and female Wistar rats (postnatal day [PD] 22-62), in order to test for potential differences in behavioral changes, ethanol drinking, and hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt/OX) signaling associated with exposure status...
April 18, 2018: Alcohol
Bob Z Sun, Tairmae Kangarloo, Judith M Adams, Patrick M Sluss, Corrine K Welt, Donald W Chandler, David T Zava, John A McGrath, David M Umbach, Janet E Hall, Natalie D Shaw
Context: Menstrual irregularity after menarche has been attributed to immature estrogen positive feedback activity (E+FB) but data are conflicting. Objective: To determine the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian contributions to menstrual irregularity in adolescents. Methods: 23 healthy girls (aged 12.8-17.6 years, 0.4-3.5 years post-menarche, BMI [body mass index] percentile 41.0-99.3) underwent serial hormone measurements and pelvic ultrasounds during 2 consecutive menstrual cycles...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kai Evensen, M Tikanmäki, K Heinonen, H M Matinolli, M Sipola-Leppänen, A Lano, D Wolke, M Vääräsmäki, J G Eriksson, S Andersson, Järvelin, P Hovi, K Räikkönen, E Kajantie
BACKGROUND: Individuals born preterm are at risk for later developmental problems and long-term morbidities. There is conflicting evidence regarding musculoskeletal pain in young adulthood. We investigated the prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal pain in young adults born across the range of preterm birth compared with a term-born reference group. METHODS: From two Finnish birth cohorts, 184 individuals born early preterm (<34 weeks), 350 late preterm (34 to <37 weeks), and 641 at term completed a self-report questionnaire of musculoskeletal pain at mean age 24...
October 5, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Patricia A Zrelak
CONTEXT: Lack of early stroke recognition and delays in seeking emergency care by persons experiencing a stroke severely limit acute treatment options. Sparse and sometimes conflicting evidence suggests sex differences in care-seeking behaviors in stroke, stroke knowledge, perceptions of stroke symptoms, and the importance of physical location at the time of stroke and of having a witnessed stroke. OBJECTIVE: To explore specific sex-based differences in stroke presentation and associated care-seeking behaviors...
September 20, 2018: Permanente Journal
Joanne L Godwin, Lewis G Spurgin, Łukasz Michalczyk, Oliver Y Martin, Alyson J Lumley, Tracey Chapman, Matthew J G Gage
Despite limitations on offspring production, almost all multicellular species use sex to reproduce. Sex gives rise to sexual selection, a widespread force operating through competition and choice within reproduction, however, it remains unclear whether sexual selection is beneficial for total lineage fitness, or if it acts as a constraint. Sexual selection could be a positive force because of selection on improved individual condition and purging of mutation load, summing into lineages with superior fitness...
October 2018: Evolution Letters
Rudi L Verspoor, Jack M L Smith, Natasha L M Mannion, Gregory D D Hurst, Tom A R Price
Meiotically driving sex chromosomes manipulate gametogenesis to increase their transmission at a cost to the rest of the genome. The intragenomic conflicts they produce have major impacts on the ecology and evolution of their host species. However, their ecological dynamics remain poorly understood. Simple population genetic models predict meiotic drivers will rapidly reach fixation in populations and spread across landscapes. In contrast, natural populations commonly show spatial variation in the frequency of drivers, with drive present in clines or mosaics across species ranges...
June 2018: Evolution Letters
Alison E Wright, Matteo Fumagalli, Christopher R Cooney, Natasha I Bloch, Filipe G Vieira, Severine D Buechel, Niclas Kolm, Judith E Mank
Many genes are subject to contradictory selection pressures in males and females, and balancing selection resulting from sexual conflict has the potential to substantially increase standing genetic diversity in populations and thereby act as an important force in adaptation. However, the underlying causes of sexual conflict, and the potential for resolution, remains hotly debated. Using transcriptome-resequencing data from male and female guppies, we use a novel approach, combining patterns of genetic diversity and intersexual divergence in allele frequency, to distinguish the different scenarios that give rise to sexual conflict, and how this conflict may be resolved through regulatory evolution...
April 2018: Evolution Letters
Astrid Raunsgard, Øystein H Opedal, Runa K Ekrem, Jonathan Wright, Geir H Bolstad, W Scott Armbruster, Christophe Pélabon
In polyandrous species, fathers benefit from attracting greater maternal investment toward their offspring at the expense of the offspring of other males, while mothers should usually allocate resources equally among offspring. This conflict can lead to an evolutionary arms race between the sexes, manifested through antagonistic genes whose expression in offspring depends upon the parent of origin. The arms race may involve an increase in the strength of maternally versus paternally derived alleles engaged in a "tug of war" over maternal provisioning or repeated "recognition-avoidance" coevolution where growth-enhancing paternally derived alleles evolve to escape recognition by maternal genes targeted to suppress their effect...
October 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jennifer L Reed, Tasuku Terada, Daniele Chirico, Stephanie A Prince, Andrew L Pipe
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Clinical guidelines for managing patients with AF do not include a referral to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) at present, although it is routine for most other cardiovascular conditions. The number of studies evaluating the impact of CR on the health of patients with AF is growing, but there has been no consolidation of the findings. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of CR programs on physical and mental health outcomes in patients with all forms of AF...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Joni Macdonald, Karen R Kilcoyne, Richard M Sharpe, Áine Kavanagh, Richard A Anderson, Pamela Brown, Lee B Smith, Anne Jørgensen, Rod T Mitchell
STUDY QUESTION: Does loss of DMRT1 in human fetal testis alter testicular development and result in testicular dysgenesis? SUMMARY ANSWER: DMRT1 repression in human fetal testis alters the expression of key testicular and ovarian determining genes, and leads to focal testicular dysgenesis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) is associated with common testicular disorders in young men, but its etiology is unknown. DMRT1 has been shown to play a role in the regulation of sex differentiation in the vertebrate gonad...
September 29, 2018: Human Reproduction
Binquan You, Bingbing Zhu, Xi Su, Feng Liu, Bingyin Wang
Several epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that females with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have a higher mortality than males following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Many analyses of sex-based differences following STEMI have revealed conflicting results. Currently, more and more elderly patients with STEMI have undergone emergency interventional therapy. From January 2014 to December 2016, a total of 337 elderly patients with STEMI were enrolled in this study from two chest pain centers, and all patients underwent PPCI...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Natalie L Adams, Tanith C Rose, Alex J Elliot, Gillian Smith, Roger Morbey, Paul Loveridge, James Lewis, Gareth Studdard, Mara Violato, Sarah J O'Brien, Margaret Whitehead, David C Taylor-Robinson, Jeremy I Hawker, Benjamin Barr
OBJECTIVES: Gastrointestinal (GI) infections are common and most people do not see a physician. There is conflicting evidence of the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on risk of GI infections. We assessed the relationship between SES and GI calls to two National Health Service (NHS) telephone advice services in England. METHODS: Over 24 million calls to NHS Direct (2010-13) and NHS 111 (2013-15) were extracted from Public Health England (PHE) syndromic surveillance systems...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Infection
Dongxiao Zhao, Ary A Hoffmann, Zhichun Zhang, Hongtao Niu, Huifang Guo
Maternally-inherited facultative symbionts are widespread in most insect species, and it is common that several symbionts coexist in the same host individual. Hence, the symbionts may compete or share for the limited resources and space in the host. The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodoidea), harbors a diverse array of facultative symbionts, among which Hamiltonella sp. and Cardinium sp. are abundant species. Hamiltonella alone increases host fitness, while Cardinium alone confers lower fitness...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
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