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Sex conflict

Matthew E Wolak, Peter Arcese, Lukas F Keller, Pirmin Nietlisbach, Jane M Reid
Quantifying sex-specific additive genetic variance (VA ) in fitness, and the cross-sex genetic correlation (rA ), is prerequisite to predicting evolutionary dynamics and the magnitude of sexual conflict. Further, quantifying VA and rA in underlying fitness components, and genetic consequences of immigration and resulting gene flow, is required to identify mechanisms that maintain VA in fitness. However, these key parameters have rarely been estimated in wild populations experiencing natural environmental variation and immigration...
August 12, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Swati Srivastava, Jitendra Rajput, Mayank Shrivastava, Ramesh Chandra, Mayank Gupta, Raman Sharma
Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the correlation of renal functions with thyroid hormone levels in patients with undialyzed chronic kidney disease (CKD). Literature shows significant alteration in thyroid hormone function tests in CKD patients who are receiving long-standing dialysis treatment. However, not much is described in those receiving conservative management without dialysis. Although CKD is associated with an increased prevalence of primary hypothyroidism, various studies on thyroid hormone status in uremic patients have reported conflicting results...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ching-Jung Lin, Fuqu Hu, Raphaelle Dubruille, Jeffrey Vedanayagam, Jiayu Wen, Peter Smibert, Benjamin Loppin, Eric C Lai
Intragenomic conflicts are fueled by rapidly evolving selfish genetic elements, which induce selective pressures to innovate opposing repressive mechanisms. This is patently manifest in sex-ratio (SR) meiotic drive systems, in which distorter and suppressor factors bias and restore equal transmission of X and Y sperm. Here, we reveal that multiple SR suppressors in Drosophila simulans (Nmy and Tmy) encode related hairpin RNAs (hpRNAs), which generate endo-siRNAs that repress the paralogous distorters Dox and MDox...
August 6, 2018: Developmental Cell
Justin P Blumenstiel, Colin D Meiklejohn
Species with chromosomal sex determination are susceptible to an evolutionary tug-of-war over sex chromosome segregation. RNA silencing has been proposed to play a role in this intragenomic conflict. Reporting in Developmental Cell, Lin et al. (2018) demonstrate that RNA interference is key to this conflict as a genome defender.
August 6, 2018: Developmental Cell
Laurent Mourot
The use of exercise intervention in hypoxia has grown in popularity amongst patients, with encouraging results compared to similar intervention in normoxia. The prescription of exercise for patients largely rely on heart rate recordings (percentage of maximal heart rate (HRmax ) or heart rate reserve). It is known that HRmax decreases with high altitude and the duration of the stay (acclimatization). At an altitude typically chosen for training (2,000-3,500 m) conflicting results have been found. Whether or not this decrease exists or not is of importance since the results of previous studies assessing hypoxic training based on HR may be biased due to improper intensity...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Erica L Larson, Emily E K Kopania, Jeffrey M Good
Developmental constraint and sexual conflict shape the evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes. These contrasting forces are perhaps strongest during spermatogenesis in species with XY males. In this review, we consider how the unique regulatory environment and selective pressures of spermatogenesis interact to impact sex chromosome evolution in mammals. We explore how each developmental phase of spermatogenesis influences sex chromosome gene content, structure, and rate of molecular evolution, and how these attributes may contribute to speciation...
August 1, 2018: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Liam R Dougherty, Leigh W Simmons
The cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus is a model organism for the study of sexual conflict. The male's penis is covered in hundreds of sharp spines which pierce the female reproductive tract lining during mating (known as copulatory wounding). This has led to a sexual arms race, with both sexes evolving and counter-evolving a range of behavioural, morphological and physiological adaptations to alter the outcome of mating in their favour. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 4, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Jason F Naylor, Michael D April, Guyon J Hill, Kelley M Kempski, Allyson A Arana, Steven G Schauer
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric casualties made up a significant proportion of patients during the recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Damage control resuscitation strategies used by military physicians included rapid reversal of metabolic acidosis to mitigate its pathophysiologic consequences, primarily through hemorrhage control and volume restoration. Alkalizing agents, including tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (THAM), are potential therapeutic adjuncts to treat significant acidosis...
August 2018: Southern Medical Journal
Jussi O T Sipilä, Jussi P Posti, Jori O Ruuskanen, Päivi Rautava, Ville Kytö
BACKGROUND: The age-standardized incidence of stroke has decreased globally but, for reasons unknown, conflicting results have been observed regarding trend in incidence of major stroke subtypes in young adults. We studied these trends among people of working age in a population-based setting in Finland, where cardiovascular risk factor profiles have developed favorably. METHODS: All hospitalizations for stroke in 2004-2005 and 2013-2014 for persons 18-64 years of age were identified from a national register...
2018: PloS One
Andżelika Haidt, Tomasz Kamiński, Tomasz Borowik, Rafał Kowalczyk
Large mammals are often a source of conflict, and consequently there has been increasing interest in close encounters with them. Knowledge of wildlife responses to human disturbance is crucial for the management of increasing and expanding populations of large animals. We investigated flight initiation distance (FID) and aggressive responses of the European bison-the largest terrestrial mammal of Europe-to human disturbance in the Białowieża Forest (NE Poland). When encountered by humans, bison usually flee...
2018: PloS One
Harsh Singh, Om Biju Panta, Umesh Khanal, Ram Kumar Ghimire
Introduction: Renal cortical elastography has shown conflicting but promising results in evaluation of chronic kidney disease and other renal disorders. The purpose of this study was to establish a normogram of renal cortical elasticity values and assess their variation between right and left kidney and their relation with age, gender, body mass index, renal dimensions and skin to cortex distance. Methods: The study was a hospital based cross sectional study performed at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, a tertiary care center in Kathmandu, Nepal...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Ultrasound
Andrew D Stewart, William R Rice
Sexually antagonistic selection arises when a trait expressed in both sexes (a shared trait) is selected towards different, sex-specific optima. Sex-discordant selection causes different alleles to be favoured in each sex (intralocus sexual conflict). A key parameter responsible for generating this conflict is the intersexual genetic correlation (rMF ), which determines the degree to which heritable genetic variation for the shared trait produces a similar phenotype in both sexes. A strong, positive rMF interferes with adaptation when there is sex-discordant selection...
July 30, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Ludovic Dutoit, Carina F Mugal, Paulina Bolívar, Mi Wang, Krystyna Nadachowska-Brzyska, Linnéa Smeds, Homa Papoli, Lars Gustafsson, Hans Ellegren
Theoretical work suggests that sexual conflict should promote the maintenance of genetic diversity by the opposing directions of selection on males and females. If such conflict is pervasive, it could potentially lead to genomic heterogeneity in levels of genetic diversity an idea that so far has not been empirically tested on a genome-wide scale. We used large-scale population genomic and transcriptomic data from the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) to analyse how sexual conflict, for which we use sex-biased gene expression as a proxy, relates to genetic variability...
July 28, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Mark A Roll, Suzanne Kuys, James R Walsh, Oystein Tronstad, Marc D Ziegenfuss, Dan V Mullany
BACKGROUND: The study aims to determine long-term survival, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional and physical outcomes of adult extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients as there are limited and conflicting data in this area. METHODS: All patients receiving ECMO from April 2009 until June 2014 at The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane had Kaplan Meier survival calculated. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36v2), EQ5D-5L, The Frenchay Activities Index (FAI) and a return to work survey...
July 5, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Yukihisa Matsuda, Kazutaka Ohi
The cerebral cortex of the human brain has a complex morphological structure consisting of folded or smooth cortical surfaces. These morphological features are referred to as cortical gyrification and are characterized by the gyrification index (GI). A number of cortical gyrification studies have been published using the manual tracing GI, automated GI, and local GI in patients with schizophrenia. In this review, we highlighted abnormal cortical gyrification in patients with schizophrenia, first-episode schizophrenia, siblings of patients, and high-risk and at-risk individuals...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Olena Ivanova, Masna Rai, Elizabeth Kemigisha
Adolescent girls and young women are an overlooked group within conflict- or disaster-affected populations, and their sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs are often neglected. Existing evidence shows that forced migration and human mobility make girls and women more vulnerable to poor SRH outcomes such as high risk sexual behaviors, lack of contraception use, STIs and HIV/AIDS. We performed a systematic literature review to explore knowledge, experiences and access to SRH services in this population group across the African continent...
July 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Polly H X Ma, Zenobia C Y Chan, Alice Yuen Loke
Being a mother is a traditional and central role for women. However, due to criminalization, social stigma and marginalized lifestyles, female sex workers (FSWs) may encounter disadvantages and social inequality. The aim of this review was to synthesis the results of studies focused on the challenges that FSWs face in negotiating their maternal identity with their stigmatized identity as sex workers. A total of 21 studies published from 2002 to 2016 were included in this review. Textual narrative and a thematic synthesis approach were adopted to synthesize key themes...
July 24, 2018: Women & Health
Karima Chaabna, Sohaila Cheema, Amit Abraham, Hekmat Alrouh, Albert B Lowenfels, Patrick Maisonneuve, Ravinder Mamtani
AIM: To assess the quality of and to critically synthesize the available data on hepatitis C infections in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to map evidence gaps. METHODS: We conducted an overview of systematic reviews (SRs) following an a priori developed protocol (CRD42017076736). Our overview followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines for reporting SRs and abstracts and did not receive any funding. Two independent reviewers systematically searched MEDLINE and conducted a multistage screening of the identified articles...
July 21, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Irina Spacova, Jan L Ceuppens, Sven F Seys, Mariya I Petrova, Sarah Lebeer
The worldwide prevalence of allergic diseases has drastically increased in the past decades. Recent studies underline the importance of microbial exposure for the development of a balanced immune system. Consequently, probiotic bacteria are emerging as a safe and natural strategy for allergy prevention and treatment. However, clinical probiotic intervention studies have so far yielded conflicting results. There is increasing awareness about the importance of host-associated factors that determine whether an individual will respond to a specific probiotic treatment, and it is therefore crucial to promote a knowledge-based instead of an empirical selection of promising probiotic strains and their administration regimen...
July 20, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Anastasia Makhanova, James K McNulty, Lisa A Eckel, Larissa Nikonova, Jon K Maner
When attempting to resolve relationship problems, individuals in close relationships sometimes challenge their partners with statements that oppose their partners' point of view. Such oppositional behaviors may undermine those partners' relational value and threaten their status within the relationship. We examined whether perceptions of opposition from a partner during a series of problem-solving interactions were associated with reactivity in testosterone levels and whether those associations were different for men and women...
July 24, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
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