Read by QxMD icon Read

Sex conflict

Elizabeth R Boskey, Amir H Taghinia, Oren Ganor
Importance: A growing number of transgender patients are receiving gender-affirming hormone treatments. It is unclear whether the evidence supports the current practice of routinely discontinuing these hormones prior to surgery. Objective: To determine how medications used in cross-sex hormone treatment (CSHT) affect perioperative risk. Evidence Review: A series of searches were carried out in PubMed and Excerpta Medica Database to identify articles using each of the terms testosterone, estrogen, estradiol, oral contraceptive, spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, finasteride, dutasteride, leuprolide, goserelin, and histrelin, in combination with the terms surgery, perioperative, thrombosis, thromboembolism, and operative...
December 5, 2018: JAMA Surgery
L Isacco, J L Miles-Chan
With current 'one-size-fits-all' obesity prevention and management strategies proving largely ineffective, the focus has shifted towards a more tailored, individualized approach. However, investigation of the mechanisms underlying inter-individual variability in metabolic profile and response to intervention often yield conflicting results. Indeed, it is perhaps surprising that despite at least a century of recognition that sex hormones influence metabolism, firm conclusions regarding the effects of the menstrual cycle, hormonal contraception and menopause on many aspects of energy expenditure and substrate utilization remain to be drawn...
December 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Prossy Nassanga, Ipolto Okello-Uma, Duncan Ongeng
Inappropriate complementary feeding is an important challenge to proper child nutrition in post-conflict rural areas in many sub-Saharan African countries. While in protected areas during conflict situation and soon after during recovery, communities normally receive nutrition education as part of capacity building to improve knowledge, attitude, and practices to enable them manage maternal and child nutrition issues during the post-conflict development phase. It is largely unknown whether capacity in nutrition provided is maintained and adequately applied in the post-conflict development situation...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Paulo T Muller, Karina A M Utida, Tiago R L Augusto, Marcos V P Spreafico, Reiby C Mustafa, Ana W Xavier, Erlandson F Saraiva
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is highly prevalent in COPD and conflicting results have emerged regarding the consequences on exercise capacity in the 6MWT. We sought to examine the ventilatory efficiency and variability metrics as the primary endpoint and aerobic capacity (V'O2 ) as the secondary endpoint. METHODS: Forty subjects were included and submitted to comprehensive lung function tests, detailed pulsed-Doppler echocardiography, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Alessio Gerussi, Laura Cristoferi, Marco Carbone, Rosanna Asselta, Pietro Invernizzi
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease with a striking female preponderance. The mechanisms behind this predominance are still to be elucidated, although multiple theories have been postulated and investigated. Among the proposed involved factors, sex hormones have been the first to be studied, but unfortunately data have been inconclusive or conflicting. Similarly, fetal microchimerism has received a huge attention in the past, but data in PBC have been unsatisfactory especially if compared to other autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus...
December 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Global development goals increasingly rely on country-specific estimates for benchmarking a nation's progress. To meet this need, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 estimated global, regional, national, and, for selected locations, subnational cause-specific mortality beginning in the year 1980. Here we report an update to that study, making use of newly available data and improved methods. GBD 2017 provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 282 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2017...
November 10, 2018: Lancet
Weizi Wu, Ye Zhang, Lloyd Goldsamt, Fang Yan, Honghong Wang, Xianhong Li
The wives of men who have sex with men, known as " Tongqi" in China, have increasingly attracted public attention due to their potential risks of suicide and sexually transmitted infections and HIV. However, few studies have explored the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and suicide risk or the mediating effect of coping style on these associations among Tongqi in China. To describe these relationships, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted in China from February 2016 to February 2017...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Xia Jiang, Tomas Olsson, Lars Alfredsson
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the brain and spinal cord in which focal lymphocytic infiltration leads to the damage of myelin and axons. As a multi-factorial complex trait, both genetic background and environmental factors are involved in MS etiology. The disease is more prevalent among women, and an overall female-to-male sex ratio of around 3 is usually reported. The fact that the female preponderance is only apparent among patients with disease onset after age 12 points toward a role of puberty in MS...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Laura Costas, Leila Lujan-Barroso, Yolanda Benavente, Naomi E Allen, Pilar Amiano, Eva Ardanaz, Caroline Besson, Heiner Boeing, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Iris Cervenka, R Enée T Fortner, Agnès Fournier, Marc Gunter, Sophia Harlid, José María Huerta, Mats Jerkeman, Karin Jirström, Rudolf Kaaks, Anna Karakatsani, Kay-Tee Khaw, Anastasia Kotanidou, Eiliv Lund, Giovanna Masala, Amalia Mattiello, Beatrice Melin, Virginia Menéndez, Neil Murphy, Alexandra Nieters, Kim Overvad, Elio Riboli, Carlotta Sacerdote, Maria-Jose Sánchez, Julie A Schmidt, Sabina Sieri, Anne Tjønneland, Antonia Trichopoulou, Rosario Tumino, Roel Vermeulen, Elisabete Weiderpass, Silvia de Sanjosé, Antonio Agudo, Delphine Casabonne
The role of hormonal factors in lymphoid neoplasms etiology remains unclear. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results, been underpowered to assess many lymphoma subtypes, or lacked detailed information on relevant exposures. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we analyzed comprehensive data collected at baseline (1992-2000) on reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use among 343,458 women, including 1,427 incident B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and its major subtypes identified after a mean follow-up of 14 years (through 2015)...
November 27, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Konrad Leniowski, Ewa Węgrzyn
Because parental care is costly, conflict between mates over their roles in reproduction seems unavoidable unless they both benefit from parental labour split equally between partners. In the current paper we analyse the division of parental investment in the Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla), a species that experiences high nest predation. We show that both sexes invest in the incubation of eggs as well as feeding and brooding nestlings at a similar level. We also found that pairs which divided feeding duties more equally produced nestlings that grew faster...
2018: PloS One
D Andrew Wilkinson, James F Burke, Jeffrey L Nadel, Cormac O Maher, Neeraj Chaudhary, Joseph J Gemmete, Michael Heung, B Gregory Thompson, Aditya S Pandey
BACKGROUND: Professional societies provide conflicting guidelines on aneurysm screening in patients with polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and the rate of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate screening, elective treatment, and the rate of SAH in patients with known PKD. METHODS: We examined longitudinally linked claims data from a large private insurer, identifying screening, elective treatment, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and secured aneurysmal SAH (saSAH) in 2004 to 2014 amongst patients with known PKD...
November 26, 2018: Neurosurgery
Shiori Gamo, Teruaki Tozaki, Hironaga Kakoi, Kei-Ichi Hirota, Kotono Nakamura, Noriko Nishii, Julio Alumunia, Masaki Takasu
A routine parentage test as part of a conservation program for Kiso horses identified a possible sex chromosome anomaly in a 7 months-old filly because of an aberrant result using LEX3, an X-linked marker. We then analyzed X-linked markers (LEX26, TKY38, and TKY270), Y-linked markers (Eca.YH12, Eca.YM2, Eca.YA16, and the sex-determining region Y gene), and an X/Y marker (Amelogenin gene). This analysis demonstrated that the filly had not inherited an X chromosome from her sire. A karyotyping analysis confirmed that the filly was 63,XO...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Lene Sofie Granfeldt Østgård, Mette Nørgaard, Lars Pedersen, René Østgård, Lone Smidstrup Friis, Claudia Schöllkopf, Marianne Tang Severinsen, Claus Werenberg Marcher, Bruno C Medeiros, Morten Krogh Jensen
Background: Most cases of acute leukemia arise without identifiable risk factors. Studies investigating the impact of autoimmune diseases and infections on leukemogenesis have revealed conflicting results. If inflammation increases the risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use may decrease the risk of leukemia. Methods: We conducted a case-control study of 3,053 patients with AML diagnosed between 2000 and 2013, who were registered in the Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry, and 30,530 population controls matched on sex and age...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Xing-Yu Li, Ying Han, Wen Zhang, Shao-Ran Wang, Yi-Chao Wei, Shuai-Shuai Li, Jun-Kai Lin, Jing-Jing Yan, Ai-Xiao Chen, Xin Zhang, Zheng-Dong Zhao, Wei L Shen, Xiao-Hong Xu
Agrp (Agouti related neuropeptide) expressing inhibitory neurons sense caloric needs of an animal to coordinate homeostatic feeding. Recent evidence suggests that Agrp neurons also suppress competing actions and motivations to mediate adaptive behavioral selection during starvation. Here, in adult mice of both sexes we show that Agrp neurons form inhibitory synapses onto ∼30% neurons in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a region critical for maternal care. Remarkably, optogenetically stimulating Agrp neurons decreases maternal nest-building while minimally affecting pup retrieval, partly recapitulating suppression of maternal behaviors during food restriction...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jenna N Bates, Taylor P Kohn, Alexander W Pastuszak
INTRODUCTION: Sexual dysfunction affects many people, with 33‒60% of women reporting sexual dysfunction and 8‒52% of men with erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation. In an effort to determine the constellation of factors responsible for sexual dysfunction, the effect of thyroid hormone derangements has been of recent interest. AIM: To investigate the associations between thyroid hormones and sexual dysfunction in women and men. METHODS: Literature was reviewed to examine the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on sexual function...
November 17, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Colin Vullioud, Eve Davidian, Bettina Wachter, François Rousset, Alexandre Courtiol, Oliver P Höner
Identifying how dominance within and between the sexes is established is pivotal to understanding sexual selection and sexual conflict. In many species, members of one sex dominate those of the other in one-on-one interactions. Whether this results from a disparity in intrinsic attributes, such as strength and aggressiveness, or in extrinsic factors, such as social support, is currently unknown. We assessed the effects of both mechanisms on dominance in the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta), a species where sexual size dimorphism is low and females often dominate males...
November 19, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Li Liu, Richard J Caselli
Introduction: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele is a major genetic risk factor of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. However, its interaction with two other canonical risk factors, age and sex, is not clear. Previous studies have reported conflicting results on its differential effects in men and women, its association with young-onset AD before the age of 65 years, and its significance in genetic admixture populations. In these studies, the hazard of the e4 allele was assumed to be constant during aging...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
Alexander K Maytin, Isaac Y Ligocki
Organisms living at high densities may be forced to engage in conflict for access to resources such as food or shelter. When these resources are limited, the outcome of interactions may have important fitness implications. We investigated the behavioural interactions of the invasive Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in a shelter-limited environment. Round Goby are benthic fish that utilize rocky shelters for predator avoidance and as reproductive sites in which territorial males defend clutches of eggs. Previous work on this and other species has shown that larger individuals have greater resource holding potential in dyadic interactions...
November 13, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Victoria Rotshild, Laurent Azoulay, Ilan Feldhamer, Amichai Perlman, Mendel Glazer, Mordechai Muszkat, Ilan Matok
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that calcium channel blockers (CCBs) may increase the risk of lung cancer; however, current evidence is conflicting and limited. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the associations between CCB use and lung cancer. METHODS: We conducted a population-based nested case-control study. A cohort was formed of patients prescribed their first antihypertensive agent from 2000 to 2014. CCB exposure information was obtained by identification of all prescriptions dispensed during study follow-up...
November 15, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Jasvinder A Singh, John D Cleveland
BACKGROUND: Conflicting data in the literature raise the question whether gout, independent of its treatment, increases the risk of dementia in the elderly. Our objective was to assess whether gout in older adults is associated with the risk of incident dementia. METHODS: We used the 5% Medicare claims data for this observational cohort study. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models to assess the association of gout with a new diagnosis of dementia (incident dementia), adjusting for potential confounders/covariates including demographics (age, race, sex), comorbidities (Charlson-Romano comorbidity index), and medications commonly used for cardiac diseases (statins, beta-blockers, diuretics, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors) and gout (allopurinol and febuxostat)...
November 14, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"