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Behavioral plasticity

Sydney Aten, Chloe E Page, Anisha Kalidindi, Kelin Wheaton, Anzela Niraula, Jon P Godbout, Kari Hoyt, Karl Obrietan
miR-132 and miR-212 are structurally-related microRNAs that are expressed from the same non-coding transcript. Accumulating evidence has shown that the dysregulation of these microRNAs contributes to aberrant neuronal plasticity and gene expression in the mammalian brain. Consistent with this, altered expression of miR-132 is associated with a number of affect-related psychiatric disorders. Here, tested the functional contribution of the miR-132/212 locus to the development of stress-related and anxiety-like behaviors...
October 17, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Santina Soru, Veronica Malavasi, Pierluigi Caboni, Alessandro Concas, Giacomo Cao
The extremophile green alga Coccomyxa melkonianii SCCA 048 was investigated to evaluate its ability to grow in culture media with different pH. Specifically, Coccomyxa melkonianii was sampled in the Rio Irvi river (Sardinia, Italy) which is severely polluted by heavy metals as a result of abandoned mining activities. In this study, the strain was cultivated in growth media where the pH was kept fixed at the values of 4.0, 6.8 and 8.0, respectively. During the investigation, a significant phenotypic plasticity of this strain was observed...
October 19, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
L G Hommers, J Richter, Y Yang, A Raab, C Baumann, K Lang, M A Schiele, H Weber, A Wittmann, C Wolf, G W Alpers, V Arolt, K Domschke, L Fehm, T Fydrich, A Gerlach, A T Gloster, A O Hamm, S Helbig-Lang, T Kircher, T Lang, C A Pané-Farré, P Pauli, B Pfleiderer, A Reif, M Romanos, B Straube, A Ströhle, H-U Wittchen, S Frantz, G Ertl, M J Lohse, U Lueken, J Deckert
Increased sympathetic noradrenergic signaling is crucially involved in fear and anxiety as defensive states. MicroRNAs regulate dynamic gene expression during synaptic plasticity and genetic variation of microRNAs modulating noradrenaline transporter gene (SLC6A2) expression may thus lead to altered central and peripheral processing of fear and anxiety. In silico prediction of microRNA regulation of SLC6A2 was confirmed by luciferase reporter assays and identified hsa-miR-579-3p as a regulating microRNA. The minor (T)-allele of rs2910931 (MAFcases  = 0...
October 19, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Jiapeng Sun, Jing Han, Zhenquan Yang, Huan Liu, Dan Song, Aibin Ma, Liang Fang
Metallic nanowires usually exhibit ultrahigh strength but low tensile ductility, owing to their limited strain hardening capability. Here, our larger scale molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that we could rebuild the highly desirable strain hardening behavior at a large strain (0.21 to 0.31) in twinned Au nanowires by changing twin orientation, which strongly contrasts with the strain hardening at the incipient plastic deformation in low stacking-fault energy metals nanowires. Because of this strain hardening, an improved ductility is achieved...
October 18, 2018: Nanomaterials
Fenglin Liang, Martial Sauceau, Gilles Dusserre, Jean-Louis Dirion, Patricia Arlabosse
The rheological behavior of mechanically dewatered sewage sludges is complex but essential as it affects almost all treatment, utilization and disposal operations, such as storage, pumping, land-spreading, or drying. In this work, a specific methodology coupling experiments and modelling is developed to characterize the rheological and textural properties of highly concentrated sludge. The experimental part based on a uniaxial compression method has been presented in a previous paper (Liang et al., 2017). This article is dedicated to the modelling part, which includes the behavior identification and the parameters optimization...
October 8, 2018: Water Research
Botond Tyukodi, Damien Vandembroucq, Craig E Maloney
We present results on tagged particle diffusion in a mesoscale lattice model for sheared amorphous material in athermal quasistatic conditions. We find a short time diffusive regime and a long time diffusive regime whose diffusion coefficients depend on system size in dramatically different ways. At short time, we find that the diffusion coefficient, D, scales roughly linearly with system length, D∼L^{1.05}. This short time behavior is consistent with particle-based simulations. The long-time diffusion coefficient scales like D∼L^{1...
October 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Antonio Cerasa, Francesco Arcuri, Luigina Maria Pignataro, Sebastiano Serra, Demetrio Messina, Simone Carozzo, Antonio Biafora, Caterina Ceraudo, Luca Abbruzzino, Loris Pignolo, Giuseppina Basta, Paolo Tonin
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: The therapeutic approach for cerebellar damages heavily relies on neurorehabilitation since there are no medications that may improve clinical symptoms mainly those related to cognitive dysfunctions. Nevertheless, neurorehabilitation programs tailored to cerebellar damages have never been validated. Here we describe a new rehabilitation approach based on cooking training (CT). The idea that cooking may stimulate cerebellar activity relies on previous evidence demonstrating the beneficial effect on the executive functions as well as in promoting neural plasticity within the cerebellum...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Hongxing Zhang, Dipesh Chaudhury, Alexander R Nectow, Allyson K Friedman, Song Zhang, Barbara Juarez, He Liu, Madeline L Pfau, Hossein Aleyasin, Cheng Jiang, Marshall Crumiller, Erin S Calipari, Stacy M Ku, Carole Morel, Nikos Tzavaras, Sarah E Montgomery, Michelle He, Stephen R Salton, Scott J Russo, Eric J Nestler, Jeffrey M Friedman, Jun-Li Cao, Ming-Hu Han
BACKGROUND: Homeostatic plasticity in mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons plays an essential role in mediating resilience to social stress. Recent evidence implicates an association between stress resilience and projections from the locus coeruleus (LC) to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) (LC→VTA) DA system. However, the precise circuitry and molecular mechanisms of the homeostatic plasticity in mesolimbic DA neurons mediated by the LC→VTA circuitry, and its role in conferring resilience to social defeat stress, have not been described...
September 6, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Ashish Kumar, Venkatappa Rao Tumu, Subhendu Ray Chowdhury, Ramana Reddy S V S
The poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and lignin (LG) are promising candidates to develop green plastic. However, the blending of lignin with PLA leads to incompatible blend with poor mechanical and thermal properties. Hence, in the present work, a green and simple approach was employed to make PLA/LG compatible blend with high lignin percentage (5 and 20%). The E-beam irradiated lignins having different absorbed dosages were blended with two different percentages 5 and 20 with PLA in the presence of 3 phr triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC)...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Delawrence J Sykes, Piyumika S Suriyampola, Emília P Martins
Many animals exhibit behavioral plasticity as they move between habitats seasonally, reside in fluctuating environments, or respond to human-induced environmental change. We know that physical environment during early development can have a lasting impact on behavior, and on the neural mechanisms that shape behavior. In adults, social context can have similar persistent effects on behavior and the brain. Here, we asked whether physical context impacts adult social behavior in a novel environment. We placed groups of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) in two different physical contexts...
2018: PloS One
Qiaoli Huang, Jianrong Jia, Qiming Han, Huan Luo
Storing temporal sequences of events (i.e., sequence memory) is fundamental to many cognitive functions. However, how the sequence order information is maintained and represented in working memory and its behavioral significance, particularly in human subjects, remains unknown. Here, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) in combination with a temporal response function (TRF) method to dissociate item-specific neuronal reactivations. We demonstrate that serially remembered items are successively reactivated during memory retention...
October 18, 2018: ELife
Ying Li
Human brain imaging studies have demonstrated the importance of cortical neuronal networks in the perception of pain in patients with functional bowel disease such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).Studies have identified an enhanced response in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in viscerally hypersensitive (VH) rats. Electrophysiological recordings show long-lasting potentiation of local field potential (LFP) in the medial thalamus (MT)-ACC synapses in VH rats. Theta burst stimulation in the MT reliably induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the MT-ACC pathway in normal rats, but was occluded in the VH state...
2018: Advances in Neurobiology
Lara Costa, Lara Maria Sardone, Carmela Maria Bonaccorso, Simona D'Antoni, Michela Spatuzza, Walter Gulisano, Maria Rosaria Tropea, Daniela Puzzo, Marcello Leopoldo, Enza Lacivita, Maria Vincenza Catania, Lucia Ciranna
We have previously demonstrated that activation of serotonin 5-HT7 receptors (5-HT7 R) reverses metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated long term depression (mGluR-LTD) in the hippocampus of wild-type (WT) and Fmr1 Knockout (KO) mice, a model of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) in which mGluR-LTD is abnormally enhanced. Here, we have investigated intracellular mechanisms underlying the effect of 5-HT7 R activation using patch clamp on hippocampal slices. Furthermore, we have tested whether in vivo administration of LP-211, a selective 5-HT7 R agonist, can rescue learning and behavior in Fmr1 KO mice...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Ada Ledonne, Nicola Biagio Mercuri
Increasing evidence demonstrates that the neurotrophic factor Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptors, ErbB tyrosine kinases, modulate midbrain dopamine (DA) transmission. We have previously reported that NRG1/ErbB signaling is essential for proper metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 (mGluR1) functioning in midbrain DA neurons, thus the functional interaction between ErbB receptors and mGluR1 regulates neuronal excitation and in vivo striatal DA release. While it is widely recognized that mGluR1 play a pivotal role in long-term modifications of synaptic transmission in several brain areas, specific mGluR1-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) DA neurons have not been described yet...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Yasin Amani, Sylvain Dancette, Eric Maire, Jérôme Adrien, Joël Lachambre
In this study, finite element (FE) modeling of open-cell aluminum foams in tension was performed based on laboratory X-ray tomography scans of the materials at two different scales. High-resolution stitching tomography of the initial state allowed local intermetallic particles to be distinguished from internal defects in the solid phase of the foam. Lower-resolution scans were used to monitor the deformation and fracture in situ during loading. 3D image-based FE models of the foams were built to simulate the tensile behavior using a new microstructure-informed Gurson⁻Tvergaard⁻Needleman model...
October 15, 2018: Materials
T R Hörmann, N Jäger, A Funke, R-K Mürb, J G Khinast, A Paudel
This work evaluates several compositions of an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) comprising nimodipine (NMD) as poorly soluble model API in a dual-polymer carrier system. HPMC E5 and Eudragit E were used for the two polymeric carriers. The formulation was designed for hot-melt extrusion (HME) and subsequent strand pelletization. The aim was to identify a formulation window with desired functional ASD performance, i.e. physical stability and immediate API release, as well as processability in strand pelletization...
October 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Mary Gemmel, Sonsoles De Lacalle, Sophia C Mort, Lesley A Hill, Thierry D Charlier, Jodi L Pawluski
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) are prescribed to up to 10% of pregnant women to treat maternal mood disorders. Exposure to these medications in-utero has raised concerns about altered neurobehavioral outcomes; most recently those related to peer-to-peer social interactions and play. While clinical data show that both perinatal SSRIs (pSSRI) and maternal stress can contribute to social behavioral changes in children, minimal animal work has investigated the effects of pSSRIs in relevant models of maternal stress or the long-term implications of these effects...
October 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Lei Gao, Peng Huang, Zhaoyang Dong, Tingting Gao, Shaohui Huang, Chuying Zhou, Yuling Lai, Guanghui Deng, Bin Liu, Ge Wen, Zhiping Lv
As the traditional Chinese herbal formula, Xiaoyaosan and its modified formula have been described in many previous studies with definite anti-depressive effects, but its underlying mechanism remains mystery. Previous work in our lab has demonstrated that depression induced by chronic stress could generate brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals disorder, accompanied by the impairment of hippocampal neuronal plasticity, decrease of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and reduction of the number and complexity of adult neurons in the dentate gyrus...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Luis Enrique Arroyo-Garcia, Antonio Rodríguez-Moreno, Gonzalo Flores
Apomorphine is a non-specific dopamine receptor agonist that has been used in the treatment of some diseases and mental disorders. Its use has particularly well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD). The dopaminergic agonists like apomorphine are related to oxidative processes that could induce cell damage and the functional impairment of some structures in the brain. However, most information about apomorphine in literature is focused on the improvement of the motor problems characteristic of PD, but little is known about the effects on cognitive behaviors and brain structures indirectly related to motor function...
December 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Xiqun Lu, Hanzhang Xu, Bin Zhao
The contact between a rigid flat and a coated asperity is studied using the finite element method. The substrate is assumed as the power-law hardening elastic⁻plastic material. The effect of the hardening exponent of the substrate ( n ) on the contact behaviors including contact load, area, coating thickness variation and stress in the coating, is investigated. It shows larger hardening exponent results in larger contact loads and larger maximum stresses in the coating at a given interference, and leads to smaller contact area at a specific contact load...
October 12, 2018: Materials
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