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Behavioral plasticity

Jiayi Shou, Angelica Tran, Natasha Snyder, Eric Bleem, Seonil Kim
Dopaminergic signaling in the central nervous system regulates several aspects of animal behavior. In the dopaminergic circuits, there are two classes of neurons that can be differentiated by their expression of dopamine receptors, D1 or D2 receptors (D1Rs or D2Rs). Notably, Ca2+ -permeable GluA2-lacking glutamate AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) are important for gating synaptic plasticity and gene expression in neurons, and their expression particularly in the striatum affects various forms of animal behavior. However, differential effects of GluA2-lacking AMPARs in D1R or D2R neurons on animal behavior have not been addressed...
December 8, 2018: Neuroscience
Connor Thelen, Emily Flaherty, Joseph Saurine, Jonathon Sens, Sara Mohamed, Pothitos M Pitychoutis
Preclinical evidence suggests that ketamine's rapid and sustained antidepressant actions are due to the induction of synaptogenesis in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus (HIPP), two brain regions implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression. However, research on the neurobiological effects of ketamine has focused almost exclusively on males. Findings from our group and others indicate that female rodents are more reactive to ketamine's antidepressant effects, since they respond to lower doses in antidepressant-predictive behavioral models...
December 8, 2018: Neuroscience
Chin Wai Hui, Sanjeev K Bhardwaj, Kaushik Sharma, Antoneta T Joseph, Kanchan Bisht, Katherine Picard, Marie-Ève Tremblay, Lalit K Srivastava
Impaired ventral hippocampal (VH)-prefrontal cortex (PFC) connectivity is implicated in many cognitive and behavioral disorders. Excitotoxic neonatal VH (nVH) lesion in rat pups has been shown to induce synaptic pruning in the PFC as well as behavioral changes of relevance to developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. In the current study, we hypothesized that microglia, immune cells required for proper brain development and plasticity, may play a role in the development of abnormal behaviors in the nVH-lesioned animals...
December 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Manal Ali, Madi Jaghbir, Mahmoud Salam, Ghada Al-Kadamany, Rana Damsees, Nedal Al-Rawashdeh
Plastic made with bisphenol A (BPA) produces trans-generational changes in genes and behavior. It has been positively linked to obesity and thyroid dysfunction. This study aimed to detect the presence of BPA in polycarbonate plastic (PC) baby bottles. Fifteen PC baby bottles with a clear indication of BPA free/safe/clear were randomly selected. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tests were used to detect residual or migrating BPA post three stress tests. An estimated intake of BPA among children was calculated then compared to the universal tolerable daily intake (TDI)...
December 7, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Sungjun Kim, Jia Chen, Ying-Chen Chen, Min-Hwi Kim, Hyungjin Kim, Min-Woo Kwon, Sungmin Hwang, Muhammad Ismail, Yi Li, Xiang-Shui Miao, Yao-Feng Chang, Byung-Gook Park
We studied the pseudo-homeothermic synaptic behaviors by integrating complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible materials (hafnium oxide, aluminum oxide, and silicon substrate). A wide range of temperatures, from 25 °C up to 145 °C, in neuronal dynamics was achieved owing to the homeothermic properties and the possibility of spike-induced synaptic behaviors was demonstrated, both presenting critical milestones for the use of emerging memristor-type neuromorphic computing systems in the near future...
December 7, 2018: Nanoscale
Jingjing Guo, Dingding Li, Yanling Bi, Chunhui Chen
Recently, numerous studies have investigated the neurocognitive mechanism of learning words in isolation or in semantic contexts. However, emotion as an important influencing factor on novel word learning has not been fully considered in the previous studies. In addition, the effects of emotion on word learning and the underlying neural mechanism have not been systematically investigated. Sixteen participants were trained to learn novel concrete or abstract words under negative, neutral, and positive contextual emotions over 3 days; then, fMRI scanning was done during the testing sessions on day 1 and day 3...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Tina Zimmermann, Julia C Bartsch, Annika Beer, Ermelinda Lomazzo, Stephan Guggenhuber, Maren D Lange, Laura Bindila, Hans-Christian Pape, Beat Lutz
Endocannabinoid signaling via anandamide (AEA) is implicated in a variety of neuronal functions and considered a promising therapeutic target for numerous emotion-related disorders. The major AEA degrading enzyme is fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of FAAH reduce anxiety and improve emotional responses and memory in rodents and humans. Complementarily, the mechanisms and impact of decreased AEA signaling remain to be delineated in detail. In the present study, using the Cre/loxP system combined with an adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated delivery system, FAAH was selectively overexpressed in hippocampal CA1-CA3 glutamatergic neurons of adult mice...
November 15, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Lhotse Hei Lui Ng, Yuhua Huang, Lei Han, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Ying Shing Chan, Cora Sau Wan Lai
Stress is a major risk factor for the onset of many psychiatric diseases. In rodent models, chronic stress induces depression and impairs excitatory neurotransmission. However, little is known about the effect of stress on synaptic circuitry during the development of behavioral symptoms. Using two-photon transcranial imaging, we studied the effect of repeated restraint stress on dendritic spine plasticity in the frontal cortex in vivo. We found that restraint stress induced dendritic spine loss by decreasing the rate of spine formation and increasing the rate of spine elimination...
December 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Matthew Kwan, Muriel Braccini, Michael W Lane, Ganpati Ramanath
Interfacial toughening in composite materials is reasonably well understood for static loading, but little is known for cyclic loading. Here, we demonstrate that introducing an interfacial molecular nanolayer at the metal-ceramic interface of a layered polymer-metal-ceramic stack triples the fracture energy for ~75-300 Hz loading, yielding 40% higher values than the static-loading fracture energy. We show that this unexpected frequency-dependent toughening is underpinned by nanolayer-induced interface strengthening, which facilitates load transfer to, and plasticity in, the polymer layer...
December 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Marilyn N Vera-Chang, Antony D St-Jacques, Rémi Gagné, Chris J Martyniuk, Carole L Yauk, Thomas W Moon, Vance L Trudeau
The global prevalence of depression is high during childbearing. Due to the associated risks to the mother and baby, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) is often the first line of treatment. Given that FLX readily crosses the placenta, a fetus may be susceptible to the disruptive effects of FLX during this highly plastic stage of development. Here, we demonstrate that a 6-day FLX exposure to a fetus-relevant concentration at a critical developmental stage suppresses cortisol levels in the adult zebrafish (F0 )...
December 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gabriel E Machovsky-Capuska, Christophe Amiot, Pablo Denuncio, Richard Grainger, David Raubenheimer
Although the perils of plastics to living organisms including humans have been neglected for decades, they have recently been recognized as a major environmental problem worldwide. Little progress has been made on understanding the factors that drive species' and populations' susceptibilities to the ingestion of plastic. Here, we propose using nutritional ecology as a multidisciplinary framework for bridging the gaps that link nutrition, behavior, plastics, physiology and ecology. We show that nutritional niches are tightly linked to plastic ingestion, illustrating the application of our framework in the context of nutritional niche theory, habitat-specific foraging from species to populations, and transfer patterns in food webs...
November 28, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jesse M Gray, Ivo Spiegel
Experience leaves a lasting mark on neural circuit function in part through activity-regulated gene (ARG) expression. New genome wide approaches have revealed that ARG programs are highly cell-type-specific, raising the possibility that they mediate different forms of experience-dependent plasticity in different cell types. The cell-type specificity of these gene programs is achieved by a combination of cell-intrinsic mechanisms that determine the transcriptional response of each neuronal subtype to a given stimulus and by cell-extrinsic mechanisms that influence the nature of the stimulus a cell receives...
December 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Natalia Ehrenhaus Masotta, Manuela R Martinefski, Silvia Lucangioli, Ana M Rojas, Valeria P Tripodi
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a mitochondrial respiratory cofactor and potent endogenous antioxidant. In CoQ10-deficient patients, early treatment with high-oral doses (5-50 mg/kg/day) can limit the progression of renal disease and the onset of neurological manifestations. Crystalline CoQ10 is lipophilic, water-insoluble, and poorly absorbed in the gut. Here, CoQ10 showed low bulk density, another important disadvantage in solid oral formulations. Thus, we propose the use of oleogels to maintain dissolved a high-dose of CoQ10 in medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil, using ethylcellulose (EC) for gelling, and a surfactant (sorbitan monostearate -SMS- or lecithin)...
December 6, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Ralph J Koek, Tinh Luong
Recent reviews and treatment guidelines regard trauma-focused cognitive-behavior therapies as the treatments of choice for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, many patients do not engage in this treatment when it is available, drop out before completion, or do not respond. Medications remain widely used, alone and in conjunction with psychotherapy, although the limitations of traditional monoamine-based pharmacotherapy are increasingly recognized. This article will review recent developments in psychopharmacology for PTSD, with a focus on current clinical data that apply putative neurobiologic mechanisms to medication use-i...
December 6, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Clémentine Quintana, Jean-Martin Beaulieu
The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) remains the principal target of antipsychotic drugs used for the management of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. This receptor is highly expressed within the basal ganglia, more specifically the striatal caudate nucleus and the nucleus accumbens. The general functions, signaling and behavioral contributions of striatal DRD2 are well understood. However, the study of cortical DRD2 expression and functions has for the most part been restricted to a subset of pyramidal neurons and interneurons (e...
December 4, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Samuel T Wilkinson, Paul E Holtzheimer, Shan Gao, David S Kirwin, Rebecca B Price
Until recently, therapeutic development in psychiatry was targeted solely toward symptom reduction. While this is a worthwhile goal, it has yielded little progress in improved therapeutics in the last several decades in the field of mood disorders. Recent advancements in our understanding of pathophysiology suggests that an impairment of neuroplasticity may be a critical part of the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Interventions that enhance or modulate neuroplasticity often reduce depressive symptoms when applied as stand-alone treatments...
September 20, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Tomoharu Nakamori, Yurino Chiba, Kazuko Fujitani, Ami Makita, Tsugumi Okubo, Kasumi Hirai, Nobuhiko Takamatsu, Hiroko Ohki-Hamazaki
Elucidation of the genes regulating the critical (sensitive) period of imprinting behavior may shed light on the mechanism underlying neural plasticity in early childhood learning. We focused on the family of natriuretic peptides (NPs) as candidates involved in the regulation of the critical period. In avians, several structurally related molecules comprised the NP family, including renal NP (RNP), B-type NP (BNP) and C-type NP (CNP1, CNP3 and CNPP). To understand the functional roles of NPs in neural plastic changes, we aimed to characterize NPs and their receptors in chick brain...
December 5, 2018: Brain Research
Yena Lee, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo B Mansur, Roger C Ho, Samantha J Yim, Roger S McIntyre
The etiology of mood disorders is mechanistically heterogeneous, underscoring the need for a dimensional approach to identify and develop targeted treatments in psychiatry. Accumulating evidence implicates inflammation as an important contributor to the pathophysiology of depression and presents the immune system as a viable therapeutic target that may be more proximate to the pathogenic nexus of brain-based disorders in specific subpopulations. Anhedonia is a transdiagnostic (e.g. Parkinson's disease, diabetes mellitus, rheumatic diseases), yet specific, and clinically relevant symptom dimension subserved by well-characterized neurobiological and neurophysiological substrates of the positive valence systems (PVS)...
December 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Rahul Chaudhary, V Rema
Focal unilateral injuries to the somatosensory whisker barrel cortex have been shown cause long-lasting deficits in the activity and experience-dependent plasticity of neurons in the intact contralateral barrel cortex. However, the long-term effect of these deficits on behavioral functions of the intact contralesional cortex is not clear. In this study, we used the "Gap-crossing task" a barrel cortex-dependent, whisker-sensitive, tactile behavior to test the hypothesis that unilateral lesions of the somatosensory cortex would affect behavioral functions of the intact somatosensory cortex and degrade the execution of a bilaterally learnt behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Robert J Oliver, Chitra D Mandyam
The discovery of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs)has been one of the central findings from early genomic sequencing studies. Not only was the presence of these genes unknown previously, it was the staggering disproportionate share of the genome that was predicted to be encoded by ncRNAs that was truly significant in genomic research. Over the years the function of various classes of these ncRNAs has been revealed. One of the first and enduring regulatory programs associated with these factors was development. In the neurosciences, the discovery of adult derived populations of dividing cells within the brain was equally substantial...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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