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Behavioral plasticity

Lisa D Mitchem, Shannon Stanis, Nicholas M Sutton, Zachary Turner, Rebecca C Fuller
Sensory drive predicts that the conditions under which signaling takes place have large effects on signals, sensory systems, and behavior. The coupling of an ecological genetics approach with sensory drive has been fruitful. An ecological genetics approach compares populations that experience different environments and asks whether population differences are adaptive and are the result of genetic and/or environmental variation. The multi-faceted effects of signaling environments are well-exemplified by the bluefin killifish...
August 2018: Current Zoology
Wulfram Gerstner, Marco Lehmann, Vasiliki Liakoni, Dane Corneil, Johanni Brea
Most elementary behaviors such as moving the arm to grasp an object or walking into the next room to explore a museum evolve on the time scale of seconds; in contrast, neuronal action potentials occur on the time scale of a few milliseconds. Learning rules of the brain must therefore bridge the gap between these two different time scales. Modern theories of synaptic plasticity have postulated that the co-activation of pre- and postsynaptic neurons sets a flag at the synapse, called an eligibility trace, that leads to a weight change only if an additional factor is present while the flag is set...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Molly M Hyer, Linda L Phillips, Gretchen N Neigh
Notable sex-differences exist between neural structures that regulate sexually dimorphic behaviors such as reproduction and parenting. While anatomical differences have been well-characterized, advancements in neuroimaging and pharmacology techniques have allowed researchers to identify differences between males and females down to the level of the synapse. Disparate mechanisms at the synaptic level contribute to sex-specific neuroplasticity that is reflected in sex-dependent behaviors. Many of these synaptic differences are driven by the endocrine system and its impact on molecular signaling and physiology...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Eva Pericolini, Bruna Colombari, Gianmarco Ferretti, Ramona Iseppi, Andrea Ardizzoni, Massimo Girardis, Arianna Sala, Samuele Peppoloni, Elisabetta Blasi
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen responsible for both acute and chronic infections in humans. In particular, its ability to form biofilm, on biotic and abiotic surfaces, makes it particularly resistant to host's immune defenses and current antibiotic therapies as well. Innovative antimicrobial materials, like hydrogel, silver salts or nanoparticles have been used to cover new generation catheters with promising results. Nevertheless, biofilm remains a major health problem...
August 14, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Julie Hamaide, Geert De Groof, Lisbeth Van Ruijssevelt, Kristina Lukacova, Johan Van Audekerke, Marleen Verhoye, Annemie Van der Linden
The first months of life are characterized by massive neuroplastic processes that parallel the acquisition of skills and abilities vital for proper functioning in later life. Likewise, juvenile songbirds learn the song sung by their tutor during the first months after hatching. To date, most studies targeting brain development in songbirds exclusively focus on the song control and auditory pathways. To gain a comprehensive insight into structural developmental plasticity of the entire zebra finch brain throughout the different subphases of song learning, we designed a longitudinal study in a group of male (16) and female (19) zebra finches...
August 11, 2018: NeuroImage
Florian Herpich, Federica Contò, Martijn van Koningsbruggen, Lorella Battelli
BACKGROUND: Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) can cause long term increase of corticospinal excitability when used to prime the motor cortex, before measuring the motor response in the hand muscles with TMS (Terney et al., 2008). In cognitive studies, tRNS has been used to improve visual attention and mathematical skills, an enhancement effect that might suggest sustained cortical plasticity changes (Cappelletti et al., 2013; Snowball et al., 2013). However, while the behavioral evidence of increased performance is becoming substantiated by empirical data, it still remains unclear whether tRNS over visual areas causes an increase in cortical excitability similar to what has been found in the motor cortex, and if that increase could be a potential physiological explanation for behavioral improvements found in visual tasks...
August 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Hiroki Shikanai, Nobuhiro Oshima, Hidekazu Kawashima, Shin-Ichi Kimura, Sachiko Hiraide, Hiroko Togashi, Kenji Iizuka, Kazue Ohkura, Takeshi Izumi
AIM: We previously reported that stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat/Ezo (SHRSP/Ezo) has high validity as an attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) animal model, based on its behavioral phenotypes, such as inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Fronto-cortical dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of AD/HD. In this study, we investigated prefrontal cortex (PFC) function in SHRSP/Ezo rats by electrophysiological methods and radioreceptor assay. METHODS: We recorded excitatory postsynaptic potential in layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC by intracellular recording method to assess synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term potentiation (LTP)...
June 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology reports
Sum-Gyun Yi, Myung Uk Park, Sung Hyun Kim, Chang Jun Lee, Junyoung Kwon, Gwan-Hyoung Lee, Kyung-Hwa Yoo
We fabricated MoS2-based flash memory devices by stacking MoS2 and hBN layers on an hBN/Au substrate, and demonstrated that these devices can emulate various biological synaptic functions, including potentiation and depression processes, spike-rate-dependent plasticity, and spike-timing dependent plasticity. In particular, compared to a flash memory device prepared on an hBN substrate, the device fabricated on the hBN/Au exhibited considerably more symmetric and linear bidirectional gradual conductance change curves, which may be attributed to the device structure incorporating double floating gate...
August 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fernando Dobrachinski, Rogério R Gerbatin, Gláubia Sartori, Ronaldo M Golombieski, Alfredo Antoniazzi, Cristina W Nogueira, Luiz F Royes, Michele R Fighera, Lisiane O Porciúncula, Rodrigo A Cunha, Félix A A Soares
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, triggering chronic neurodegeneration underlying cognitive and mood disorder still without therapeutic prospects. Based on our previous observations that guanosine (GUO) attenuates short-term neurochemical alterations caused by TBI, this study investigated the effects of chronical GUO treatment in behavioral, molecular, and morphological disturbances 21 days after trauma. Rats subject to TBI displayed mood (anxiety-like) and memory dysfunction...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Peter Schweizer, Christian Dolle, Erdmann Spiecker
Topological defects in crystalline solids are of fundamental interest in physics and materials science because they can radically alter the properties of virtually any material. Of particular importance are line defects, known as dislocations, which are the main carriers of plasticity and have a tremendous effect on electronic and optical properties. Understanding and controlling the occurrence and behavior of those defects have been of major and ongoing interest since their discovery in the 1930s. This interest was renewed with the advent of two-dimensional materials in which a single topological defect can alter the functionality of the whole system and even create new physical phenomena...
August 2018: Science Advances
Ryan T Ash, Paul G Fahey, Jiyoung Park, Huda Y Zoghbi, Stelios M Smirnakis
MECP2 duplication syndrome is an X-linked form of syndromic autism caused by genomic duplication of the region encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Mice overexpressing MECP2 demonstrate social impairment, behavioral inflexibility, and altered patterns of learning and memory. Previous work showed abnormally increased stability of dendritic spines formed during motor training in the apical tuft of primary motor cortex (area M1) corticospinal neurons in the MECP2 duplication mouse model. In the current study, we measure the structural plasticity of axonal boutons in layer 5 pyramidal neuron projections to layer 1 of area M1 during motor training...
May 2018: ENeuro
M J Mirzaali, M E Edens, A Herranz de la Nava, S Janbaz, P Vena, E L Doubrovski, A A Zadpoor
Biomimetic composites are usually made by combining hard and soft phases using, for example, multi-material additive manufacturing (AM). Like other fabrication methods, AM techniques are limited by the resolution of the device, hence, setting a minimum length scale. The effects of this length scale on the performance of hard-soft composites are not well understood. Here, we studied how this length scale affects the fracture toughness behavior of single-edge notched specimens made using random, semi-random, and ordered arrangements of the hard and soft phases with five different ratios of hard to soft phases...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Julie Plastino, Laurent Blanchoin
In cells, actin filaments continuously assemble and disassemble while maintaining an apparently constant network structure. This suggests a perfect balance between dynamic processes. Such behavior, operating far out of equilibrium by the hydrolysis of ATP, is called a dynamic steady state. This dynamic steady state confers a high degree of plasticity to cytoskeleton networks that allows them to adapt and optimize their architecture in response to external changes on short time-scales, thus permitting cells to adjust to their environment...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Ben Deverett, Sue Ann Koay, Marlies Oostland, Samuel S-H Wang
To make successful evidence-based decisions, the brain must rapidly and accurately transform sensory inputs into specific goal-directed behaviors. Most experimental work on this subject has focused on forebrain mechanisms. Using a novel evidence-accumulation task for mice, we performed recording and perturbation studies of crus I of the lateral posterior cerebellum, which communicates bidirectionally with numerous forebrain regions. Cerebellar inactivation led to a reduction in the fraction of correct trials...
August 13, 2018: ELife
Lei An, Yuchen Sun, Wei Zhang, Xiaolong Huang, Rui Xue, Youzhi Zhang, Yousheng Wang
Recently, dietary intervention has been considered as a prospective strategy in delaying age-related cognitive dysfunction and brain plasticity degeneration. This study explored the effect of walnut diets (6% and 9%, 8 weeks) on cognitive behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and the neurotrophic signaling pathway in d-galactose (d-gal) model rats. Behavioral tests showed that walnut diets significantly reversed spatial memory loss in the Morris water test, locomotor activity deficiency in an open field test, and a recognition behavior reduction in a novel object recognition task...
August 13, 2018: Food & Function
Eric Hu, Adam Mergenthal, Clayton S Bingham, Dong Song, Jean-Marie Bouteiller, Theodore W Berger
In synapses, calcium is required for modulating synaptic transmission, plasticity, synaptogenesis, and synaptic pruning. The regulation of calcium dynamics within neurons involves cellular mechanisms such as synaptically activated channels and pumps, calcium buffers, and calcium sequestrating organelles. Many experimental studies tend to focus on only one or a small number of these mechanisms, as technical limitations make it difficult to observe all features at once. Computational modeling enables incorporation of many of these properties together, allowing for more complete and integrated studies...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Mohamed Ben Bettaieb, Farid Abed-Meraim
The yield criterion in rate-independent single crystal plasticity is most often defined by the classical Schmid law. However, various experimental studies have shown that the plastic flow of several single crystals (especially with Body Centered Cubic crystallographic structure) often exhibits some non-Schmid effects. The main objective of the current contribution is to study the impact of these non-Schmid effects on the ductility limit of polycrystalline sheet metals. To this end, the Taylor multiscale scheme is used to determine the mechanical behavior of a volume element that is assumed to be representative of the sheet metal...
August 8, 2018: Materials
Silvia Morgana, Laura Ghigliotti, Noelia Estévez-Calvar, Roberto Stifanese, Alina Wieckzorek, Tom Doyle, Jørgen S Christiansen, Marco Faimali, Francesca Garaventa
The Arctic is a unique and fragile ecosystem that needs to be preserved and protected. Despite its remoteness, plastic pollution has been documented in this region. In the coming years, it is likely to worsen since, with climate changes and the opening of new shipping routes, the human presence is going to increase in the whole area. Here, we investigated the presence of microplastics (MPs) in sub-surface water and in two mid-trophic level Arctic fishes collected off Northeast Greenland: the demersal bigeye sculpin, Triglops nybelini, and the pelagic polar cod, Boreogadus saida...
August 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sebastiano Bariselli, Hanna Hörnberg, Clément Prévost-Solié, Stefano Musardo, Laetitia Hatstatt-Burklé, Peter Scheiffele, Camilla Bellone
Atypical habituation and aberrant exploration of novel stimuli have been related to the severity of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but the underlying neuronal circuits are unknown. Here we show that chemogenetic inhibition of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) attenuates exploration toward nonfamiliar conspecifics and interferes with the reinforcing properties of nonfamiliar conspecific interaction in mice. Exploration of nonfamiliar stimuli is associated with the insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors at excitatory synapses on VTA DA neurons...
August 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Elizabeth E Devore, Shun-Chiao Chang, Olivia I Okereke, Douglas G McMahon, Eva S Schernhammer
Experimental studies indicate that perinatal light exposure has enduring effects on affective behaviors in rodents; however, insufficient research has explored this hypothesis in humans. We examined photoperiod (i.e., day length) metrics during maternal pregnancy in relation to lifetime depression in the longitudinal Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHS II. 160,723 participants reported birth date and birth state (used to derive daily photoperiod based on published mathematical equations), and clinician-diagnosed depression and antidepressant use throughout adulthood...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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