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Energy systems

Biao Huang, Wensong Wang, Tao Pu, Jie Li, Jikui Zhu, Chenglan Zhao, Li Xie, Lingyun Chen
CoNi layered double hydroxides (LDH) and related monometallic hydroxides (Ni(OH)2 and Co(OH)2 ) were synthesized by a facile, simple and inexpensive method under mild condition (50 °C). The resulting products displayed a unique honeycomb-like nanoflakes array assembled two-dimensional (2D) thin sheets structure. Among them, CoNi-LDH thin sheets delivered higher specific capacity (394.5 C g-1 at 1 A g-1 ) with superior cyclic performance (92.3% capacity retention over 10,000 cycles) than Co/Ni monometallic hydroxides owing to the synergistic effect of cobalt and nickel...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Deng-Guang Yu, Jiao-Jiao Li, Gareth R Williams, Min Zhao
The development of oral dosage forms for poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is a persistent challenge. A range of methods has been explored to address this issue, and amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) have received increasing attention. ASDs are typically prepared by starting with a liquid precursor (a solution or melt) and applying energy for solidification. Many techniques can be used, with the emergence of electrospinning as a potent option in recent years. This method uses electrical energy to induce changes from liquid to solid...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Jonathan G Van Vranken, Sara M Nowinski, Katie J Clowers, Mi-Young Jeong, Yeyun Ouyang, Jordan A Berg, Jeremy P Gygi, Steven P Gygi, Dennis R Winge, Jared Rutter
The electron transport chain (ETC) is an important participant in cellular energy conversion, but its biogenesis presents the cell with numerous challenges. To address these complexities, the cell utilizes ETC assembly factors, which include the LYR protein family. Each member of this family interacts with the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (ACP), the scaffold protein upon which the mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) pathway builds fatty acyl chains from acetyl-CoA. We demonstrate that the acylated form of ACP is an acetyl-CoA-dependent allosteric activator of the LYR protein family used to stimulate ETC biogenesis...
August 16, 2018: Molecular Cell
Ruiting Yan, Qing Wang
Redox-targeting reactions of battery materials by redox molecules are extensively studied for energy storage since the first report in 2006. Implementation of the "redox-targeting" concept in redox flow batteries presents not only an innovative idea of battery design that considerably boosts the energy density of flow-battery system, but also an intriguing research platform applied to a wide variety of chemistries for different applications. Here, a critical overview of the recent progress in redox-targeting-based flow batteries is presented and the development of the technology in the various aspects from mechanistic understanding of the reaction kinetics to system optimization is highlighted...
August 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Cristina Regueiro, Ana M Ortiz, Maria Dolores Boveda, Santos Castañeda, Isidoro Gonzalez-Alvaro, Antonio Gonzalez
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has a negative impact on bone that is partly mediated by anti-citrullinated proteins antibodies (ACPA). These antibodies are associated with erosions, and with juxta-articular and systemic bone loss. Other RA autoantibodies, the anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarPA), are independently associated with erosions. However, we do not know if they are also associated with juxta-articular and systemic bone loss. Here, we have addressed this question with data from 548 early arthritis (EA) patients...
2018: PloS One
Shishir Adhikari, Jacob Moran, Christopher Weddle, Michael Hinczewski
The adherens junctions between epithelial cells involve a protein complex formed by E-cadherin, β-catenin, α-catenin and F-actin. The stability of this complex was a puzzle for many years, since in vitro studies could reconstitute various stable subsets of the individual proteins, but never the entirety. The missing ingredient turned out to be mechanical tension: a recent experiment that applied physiological forces to the complex with an optical tweezer dramatically increased its lifetime, a phenomenon known as catch bonding...
August 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Ziv Meir, Meirav Pinkas, Tomas Sikorsky, Ruti Ben-Shlomi, Nitzan Akerman, Roee Ozeri
Sympathetic cooling is the process of energy exchange between a system and a colder bath. We investigate this fundamental process in an atom-ion experiment where the system is composed of a single ion trapped in a radio-frequency Paul trap and prepared in a classical oscillatory motion with total energy of ∼200  K, and the bath is an ultracold cloud of atoms at μK temperature. We directly observe the sympathetic cooling dynamics with single-shot energy measurements during one to several collisions in two distinct regimes...
August 3, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Nicole A Ryan, Yashen Lin, Noah Mitchell-Ward, Johanna L Mathieu, Jeremiah X Johnson
Battery storage systems are attractive alternatives to conventional generators for frequency regulation due to their fast response time, high cycle efficiency, flexible scale, and decreasing cost. However, their implementation does not consistently reduce environmental impacts. To assess these impacts, we employed a life cycle assessment (LCA) framework. Our framework couples cradle-to-gate and end-of-life LCA data on lithium-ion batteries with a unit commitment and dispatch model. The model is run on a 9-bus power system with energy storage used for frequency regulation...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Akbar Anvari, Yannick Poirier, Amit Sawant
PURPOSE: We investigated the potential use of the built-in electronic portal imaging device (EPID) in the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) as a dosimeter in the kV energy range. To this end, we developed a method for converting portal images to a two-dimensional (2D) dose maps at the detector plane and object's exit surface and validated them against empirical dose measurements. METHODS: We calibrated the SARRP's EPID to measure transit dose. The transit dose map was back-projected to calculate 2D dose distribution at the object's exit surface...
August 17, 2018: Medical Physics
Minsu Gu, Jaewon Choi, Taemin Lee, Minju Park, Ik-Soo Shin, Jinkee Hong, Hyun-Wook Lee, Byeong-Su Kim
Controlling the architecture of hybrid nanomaterial electrodes is critical for understanding their fundamental electrochemical mechanisms and applying these materials in future energy conversion and storage systems. Herein, we report highly tunable electrocatalytic multilayer electrodes, composed of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) supported by graphene sheets of varying lateral sizes, employing a versatile layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method. We demonstrate that the electrocatalytic activity is highly tunable through the control of the diffusion and electron pathways within the 3-dimensional multilayer electrodes...
August 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Wei Li, Frank Jäckel
Semiconducting quantum dots (QDs) have been considered as promising building blocks of solar energy harvesting systems because of size-dependent electronic structures, e.g. QD-metal heterostructures for solar-driven H2 production. In order to design improved systems, it is crucial to understand size-dependent QD-metal interfacial electron transfer dynamics, picosecond processes in particular. Here, we report that the transfer rates of photogenerated electrons in Pt-decorated CdS QDs can be varied over more than two orders of magnitude by controlling the QD size...
August 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Yuxing Zhou, Scott T Milner
As glass-forming fluids become colder and denser, structural rearrangements become slow and eventually cease. For hard-sphere fluids, percolation of particles unable to change neighbors (T1-inactive particles) signals the glass transition. To investigate this geometrical criterion for mobility in soft-sphere systems, we simulate monodisperse fluids interacting with a generalized Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA) potential in metastable equilibrium, using our previously developed crystal-avoiding method. We find that the vanishing diffusivity as the glass transition is approached can be described by a power law below the onset temperature of super-Arrhenius behavior...
August 17, 2018: Soft Matter
Qu Chen, Huashan Li, Si Zhou, Wenshuo Xu, Jun Chen, Hidetaka Sawada, Christopher S Allen, Angus I Kirkland, Jeffrey C Grossman, Jamie H Warner
High-energy irradiation of materials can lead to void formation due to the aggregation of vacancies, reducing the local stress in the system. Studying void formation and its interplay with vacancy clusters in bulk materials at the atomic level has been challenging due to the thick volume of 3D materials, which generally limits high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The thin nature of 2D materials is ideal for studying fundamental material defects such as dislocations and crack tips and has potential to reveal void formation by vacancy aggregation in detail...
August 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Radostina Stoyanova, Violeta Koleva, Antonia Stoyanova
The energy storage by redox intercalation reactions is, nowadays, the most effective rechargeable ion battery. When lithium is used as intercalating agents, the high energy density is achieved at an expense of non-sustainability. The replacement of Li+ with cheaper monovalent ions enables to make greener battery alternatives. The utilization of polyvalent ions instead of Li+ permits to multiplying the battery capacity. Contrary to Li+ , the realization of quick and reversible intercalation of bigger monovalent and of polyvalent ions is a scientific challenge due to kinetic constraints, polarizing ion effects and Coulomb interactions...
August 17, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Lianna D Di Maso, Jessie Huang, Michael F Bassetti, Larry A DeWerd, Jessica R Miller
PURPOSE: Tumor delineation using conventional CT images can be a challenge for pancreatic adenocarcinoma where contrast between the tumor and surrounding healthy tissue is low. This work investigates the ability of a split-filter dual-energy CT (DECT) system to improve pancreatic tumor contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for radiation therapy treatment planning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multiphasic scans of 20 pancreatic tumors were acquired using a split-filter DECT technique with iodinated contrast medium, OMNIPAQUETM ...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Y F Xue, C Z Guo, F Hu, D M Sun, J H Liu, S Y Mao
Pathogenesis of pregnancy toxemia (PT) is believed to be associated with the disruption of lipid metabolism. The present study aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms of lipid metabolism disorder in the livers of ewes with PT. In total, 10 pregnant ewes were fed normally (control group) whereas another 10 were subjected to 70% level feed restriction for 15 days to establish a pathological model of PT. Results showed that, as compared with the controls, the levels of blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and cholesterol were greater (P<0...
August 17, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Silvan Kretschmer, Mikhail Maslov, Sadegh Ghaderzadeh, Mahdi Ghorbani-Asl, Gregor Hlawacek, Arkady V Krasheninnikov
Focused ion beams perfectly suit for patterning two-dimensional (2D) materials, but the optimization of irradiation parameters requires full microscopic understanding of defect production mechanisms. Contrary to free-standing 2D systems, the details of damage creation in supported 2D materials are not fully understood, while the majority of experiments have been carried out for 2D targets deposited on substrates. Here we suggest a universal and computationally efficient scheme to model the irradiation of supported 2D materials, which combines analytical potential molecular dynamics with Monte Carlo simulations and makes it possible to assess independently the contributions to the damage from backscattered ions and atoms sputtered from the substrate...
August 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Geoffrey M Chambers, Eric S Wiedner, R Morris Bullock
H2 is used on a huge scale industrially, and has received increased attention for chemical energy storage. Oxidation of H2 in a fuel cell converts the chemical energy of the H-H bond into electricity. Electrocatalytic oxidation of H2 by molecular catalysts typically requires one metal to perform multiple chemical steps: bind H2, heterolytically cleave H2, and then undergo two oxidation and two deprotonation steps. We discovered the electrocatalytic oxidation of H2 by a cooperative system using Cp*Cr(CO)3H and [Fe(diphosphine)(CO)3]+...
August 16, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Sagar Regmi, To Sing Fung, Sierin Lim, Kathy Qian Luo
PURPOSE: Many anti-cancer drugs are used in chemotherapy; however, little is known about their efficacy against circulating tumor cells (CTCs). In this study, we investigated whether the pulsatile fluidic shear stress (SS) in human arteries can affect the efficacy of anti-cancer drugs. METHODS: Cancer cells were circulated in our microfluidic circulatory system, and their responses to drug and SS treatments were determined using various assays. Breast and cervical cancer cells that stably expressed apoptotic sensor proteins were used to determine apoptosis in real-time by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based imaging microscopy...
August 16, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Juan Ignacio Caicedo, Alejandra Taborda, Daniela Robledo, Alejandra Bravo-Balado, Cristina Domínguez, Carlos Gustavo Trujillo, Juan Guillermo Cataño, Jonathan Campos Hernández, Darío Londoño Trujillo, Mauricio Plata
PURPOSE: To assess the cost-utility of the photovaporization of the prostate (PVP) with GreenLight™ laser 180 W XPS compared to transurethral resection of the prostate with monopolar energy (M-TURP) for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) from a healthcare perspective in Colombia. METHODS: We designed a Markov model to compare four health states following treatment with either PVP or M-TURP to estimate expected costs and outcomes...
August 16, 2018: World Journal of Urology
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