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Energy systems

Giuseppe Todde, Lelia Murgia, Paola Antonia Deligios, Rita Hogan, Isaac Carrelo, Madalena Moreira, Antonio Pazzona, Luigi Ledda, Luis Narvarte
Over the last decades, traditional olive production has been converted to intensive and super-intensive cultivation systems, characterized by high plant density and irrigation. Although this conversion improves product quality and quantity, it requires a larger amount of energy input. The new contributions in this paper are, first, an analysis of the energy and environmental performance of two commercial-scale high peak-power hybrid photovoltaic irrigation systems (HPVIS) installed at intensive and super-intensive Mediterranean olive orchards; second, an analysis of PV hybrid solutions, comparing PV hybridization with the electric power grid and with diesel generators; and finally, a comparison of the environmental benefits of HPVIS with conventional power sources...
October 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chalearn Bouted, Chavalit Ratanatamskul
The prototype system of integrated anaerobic filter with condenser of air conditioner (anaerobic filter-condenser; ANCO) was developed for sustainable water-energy management model in green office building. The ANCO consists of an insulated anaerobic filter (IAF) and condenser that are connected to an existing refrigerant of air conditioner. The system applied waste heat energy from an air conditioner to improve wastewater treatment efficiency. While the performance of air conditioner also could be enhanced by decreasing refrigerant temperature from transferring waste heat through the IAF system for increasing wastewater temperature...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Ruben Demuynck, Jelle Wieme, Sven M J Rogge, Karen D Dedecker, Louis Vanduyfhuys, Michel Waroquier, Veronique Van Speybroeck
Various kinds of flexibility have been observed in metal-organic frameworks, which may originate from the topology of the material or the presence of flexible ligands. The construction of free energy profiles describing the full dynamical behavior along the phase transition path is challenging since it is not trivial to identify collective variables able to identify all metastable states along the reaction path. In this work, a systematic three-step protocol to uniquely identify the dominant order parameters for structural transformations in flexible metal-organic frameworks and subsequently construct accurate free energy profiles is presented...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Rie Yamashige, Michiko Kimoto, Ryo Okumura, Ichiro Hirao
Visual DNA amplification using a simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) device is useful for field tests to detect target DNA and RNA. We hereby describe a detection system involving PCR amplification visualized with the naked eye, by genetic alphabet expansion. The system employs fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between unnatural base combinations: self-quenched dinucleotides of 2-amino-6-(2-thienyl)purine (s) as a donor and Cy3-conjugated 2-nitro-4-propynylpyrrole (Cy3-hx-Px) as an acceptor. During PCR, the triphosphate substrate of Cy3-hx-Px (Cy3-hx-dPxTP) is incorporated into DNA opposite its pairing partner, 7-(2-thienyl)-imidazo[4,5- b]pyridine (Ds), in the primer, which also contains the dinucleotides of s...
October 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yoonseob Kim, Zhou Lin, Intak Jeon, Troy Van Voorhis, Timothy M Swager
π-Conjugated polyaniline nanofiber networks are an attractive material platform for reversible and selective capture and release of toxic heavy metal ions from water. The nanofiber geometry facilitates fastsorption kinetics, sulfur functionalization of the backbone for improved adsorption, and electrochemical control of the oxidation (charge) state for reversible triggered sorption/desorption of metal ions. These active materials also function as sensors in that the sorption of mercury ions can be detected by analysis of cyclic voltammograms...
October 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Oytun Babacan, Ahmed Abdulla, Ryan Hanna, Jan Kleissl, David G Victor
In many jurisdictions, policy makers are seeking to decentralize the electric power system while also promoting deep reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). We examine the potential roles for residential energy storage (RES), a technology thought to be at the epicenter of these twin revolutions. We model the impact of grid-connected RES operation on electricity costs and GHG emissions for households in 16 of the largest United States utility service territories under three plausible operational modes...
October 18, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Natsumi Shimamura, Katsuaki Sugawara, Sukrit Sucharitakul, Seigo Souma, Katsuya Iwaya, Kosuke Nakayama, Chi Xuan Trang, Kunihiko Yamauchi, Tamio Oguchi, Kazutaka Kudo, Takashi Noji, Yoji Koike, Takashi Takahashi, Tetsuo Hanaguri, Takafumi Sato
One of key challenges in condensed-matter physics is to establish a topological superconductor which hosts exotic Majorana fermions. Although various heterostructures consisting of conventional BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) superconductors as well as doped topological insulators were intensively investigated, no conclusive evidence for Majorana fermions has been provided. This is mainly because of their very low superconducting transition temperatures ( Tc ) and small superconducting-gap magnitude. Here we report a possible realization of topological superconductivity at very high temperatures in a hybrid of Bi(110) ultrathin film and copper-oxide superconductor Bi2 Sr2 CaCu2 O8+δ (Bi2212)...
October 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Jiangfeng Gong, Jing-Chang Li, Jing Yang, Shulin Zhao, Ziyuan Yang, Kaixiao Zhang, Jianchun Bao, Huan Pang, Min Han
Orientation and hybridization of ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures on interdigital electrodes is vital for developing high-performance flexible in-plane micro-supercapacitors (MSCs). Despite great progress has been achieved, integrating CuSe and Ni(OH)2 nanosheets to generate advanced nanohybrids with oriented arrangement of each component and formation of porous frameworks remains a challenge, and their application for in-plane MSCs has not been explored. Herein, the vertically-aligned CuSe@Ni(OH)2 hybrid nanosheet films with hierarchical open channels are skillfully deposited on Au interdigital electrodes/polyethylene terephthalate substrate via a template-free sequential electrodeposition approach, and directly employed to construct in-plane MSCs by choosing polyvinyl alcohol-LiCl gel as both the separator and solid electrolyte...
October 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hongzhi Liu, Hao Su, Xin Wang, Wei Hao
The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of fracture healing mediated by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Differentially expressed microRNAs in acutely injured subjects and healthy volunteers were screened by microarray analysis. The dual luciferase reporter system was used to verify whether insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) was the direct target gene regulated by miR-148a. The expression level of miR-148a and IGF1 after osteogenic differentiation was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Lei-Lei Nian, Yongfeng Wang, Jing-Tao Lü
The coupling between molecular exciton and gap plasmons plays a key role in single molecular electroluminescence induced by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). But it has been difficult to clarify the complex experimental phenomena. By employing the nonequilibrium Green's function method, we propose a general theoretical model to understand the light emission spectrum of single molecule and gap plasmons from an energy transport point of view. The coherent interaction between gap plasmons and molecular exciton leads to a prominent Fano resonance in the emission spectrum...
October 18, 2018: Nano Letters
Geetanjali Giri, Suryoday Prodhan, Y Anusooya Pati, S Ramasesha
There is a resurgence of interest in the electronic structure of perylene for its applications in molecular devices such as organic photovoltaics and organic light-emitting diodes. In this study, we have obtained the low-lying singlet states of perylene by exactly solving the Parisar-Parr-Pople model Hamiltonian of this system with 20 sites and 20 electrons in the VB basis where dimensionality is ∼5.92 billion. The triplet states of perylene are obtained using a DMRG scheme with symmetry adaptation. The one- and two-photon states are very close in energy ∼3...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Timothy C Ricard, Srinivasan Sesha Iyengar
Weak interactions have a critical role in accurately portraying conformational change. However the computational study of these often require large basis electronic structure calculations that are generally cost-prohibitive within ab initio molecular dynamics. Here, we present, a new approach to efficiently obtain AIMD trajectories in agreement with large, triple-zeta, polarized valence basis functions, at much reduced computational cost. For example, it follows from our studies that AIMD trajectories can indeed be constructed in agreement with basis sets such as 6-311++G(2df,2pd) with computational effort commensurate with those from much smaller basis sets such as 6-31+G(d), for polypeptides systems with 100+ atoms...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Oksana Savchak, Tyler Morrison, Konstantin G Kornev, Olga Kuksenok
Using theoretical and computational modeling, we focus on dynamics of gels filled with uniformly dispersed ferromagnetic nanoparticles subjected to electromagnetic (EM) irradiation within the GHz frequency range. As a polymer matrix, we choose poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel, which has a low critical solution temperature and shrinks upon heating. When these composites are irradiated with a frequency close to the Ferro-Magnetic Resonance (FMR) frequency, the heating rate increases dramatically. The energy dissipation of EM signals within the magnetic nanoparticles results in the heating of the gel matrix...
October 18, 2018: Soft Matter
Simuck F Yuk, Valentino R Cooper
The slow kinetics of the oxygen evolution (OER) and oxygen reduction (ORR) reactions hamper the development of renewable energy storage and conversion technologies. Transition-metal oxides (TMOs) are cost-effective replacements to conventional noble metal catalysts for driving these electrochemical systems. Strain is known to greatly affect the electronic structure of TMO surfaces, leading to significant changes in their electrocatalytic activities. In this study, we explore the influence of strain on the OER and ORR mechanisms on the LaNiO3(001) surface using density functional theory (DFT)...
October 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xizheng Wang, Michael R Zachariah
The redox reaction between fuel (metal, metalloid, etc.) and metal oxide is ubiquitous. On the other hand simple thermodynamic considerations do not seem to yield much insight into what makes for a vigorous oxidizer. In this study, two different systematically doped metal oxide systems: perovskites (9 compounds) and δ-Bi2O3 (12 compounds) were synthesized in a manner such that for each system the crystal structure and morphology were maintained. Four fuels (Al, B, Ta, C) with different physical properties, covering almost all fuel types, were included in this study...
October 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xavier Berthelon, Guillaume Chenegros, Thomas Finateu, Siohoi Ieng, Ryad Benosman
Johnson-Nyquist noise is the electronic noise gen- erated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers which increases when the sensor overheats. Current high speed cameras used in low light conditions are often cooled down to reduce thermal noise and increase their signal to noise ratio. These sensors however record hundreds of frames per second, which takes time, requires energy and heavy computing power due to the massive data load. Event-based sensors benefit from a high temporal resolution and record the information in a sparse manner...
October 17, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Fatima Boukari, Sokratis Makrogiannis
Automated cell segmentation and tracking enables the quantification of static and dynamic cell characteristics and is significant for disease diagnosis, treatment, drug development and other biomedical applications. This paper introduces a method for fully automated cell tracking, lineage construction, and quantification. Cell detection is performed in the joint spatio-temporal domain by a motion diffusion-based Partial Differential Equation (PDE) combined with energy minimizing active contours. In the tracking stage, we adopt a variational joint local-global optical flow technique to determine the motion vector field...
October 12, 2018: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Marian B Tzolov, Nicholas C Barbi, Christopher T Bowser, Owen Healy
Highly luminescent thin films of zinc tungstate (ZT) have been deposited on top of conventional scintillators (Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite, Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) for electron detection in order to replace the need for a top conducting layer, such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or aluminum, which is non-scintillating and electron absorbing. Such conventional conducting layers serve the single purpose of eliminating electrical charge build-up on the scintillator. The ZT film also eliminates charging, which has been verified by measuring the Duane-Hunt limit and electron emission versus accelerating voltage...
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Zhengqing Liu, Ziyang Lu, Michel Bosman, Na Li, Terry J Frankcombe, Guohua Jia, Antonio Tricoli, Yun Liu, Yaping Du, Zongyou Yin
Durability is still one of the key obstacles for the further development of photocatalytic energy-conversion systems, especially low-dimensional ones. Encouragingly, recent studies show that nanoinsulators such as SiO2 and MgO exhibit substantially enhanced photocatalytic durability than the typical semiconductor p25 TiO2 . Extending this knowledge, MgO-Au plasmonic defect nanosystems are developed that combine the stable photoactivity from MgO surface defects with energy-focusing plasmonics from Au nanoparticles (NPs), where Au NPs are anchored onto monodispersed MgO nanotemplates...
October 17, 2018: Small
Louisa J Stewart, Denis Thaqi, Bostjan Kobe, Alastair G McEwan, Kevin J Waldron, Karrera Y Djoko
In bacteria, copper (Cu) is often recognised for its potential toxicity and its antibacterial activity is now considered a key component of the mammalian innate immune system. Cu ions bound in weak sites can catalyse harmful redox reactions while Cu ions in strong but adventitious sites can disrupt protein or enzyme function. For these reasons, the outward transport of Cu from bacteria has received significant attention. Yet, Cu is also a bacterial nutrient, required as a cofactor by enzymes that catalyse electron transfer processes, for instance in aerobic and anaerobic respiration...
October 18, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
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