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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130633/the-mitochondrial-metabolic-reprogramming-agent-trimetazidine-as-an-exercise-mimetic-in-cachectic-c26-bearing-mice
#1
Francesca Molinari, Fabrizio Pin, Stefania Gorini, Sergio Chiandotto, Laura Pontecorvo, Fabio Penna, Emanuele Rizzuto, Simona Pisu, Antonio Musarò, Paola Costelli, Giuseppe Rosano, Elisabetta Ferraro
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is characterized by muscle depletion and exercise intolerance caused by an imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation and by impaired myogenesis. Myofibre metabolic efficiency is crucial so as to assure optimal muscle function. Some drugs are able to reprogram cell metabolism and, in some cases, to enhance metabolic efficiency. Based on these premises, we chose to investigate the ability of the metabolic modulator trimetazidine (TMZ) to counteract skeletal muscle dysfunctions and wasting occurring in cancer cachexia...
December 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085388/early-sexual-debut-prevalence-and-risk-factors-among-secondary-school-students-in-ido-ekiti-ekiti-state-south-west-nigeria
#2
Kabir Adekunle Durowade, Oluwole Adeyemi Babatunde, Lukman Omotayo Omokanye, Olusegun Elijah Elegbede, Lawrence Majekodunmi Ayodele, Kayode Razaq Adewoye, Stella Adetokunbo, Charles O Olomofe, Adegboyega A Fawole, Oyebola Eyitayo Adebola, Temitope O Olaniyan
BACKGROUND: Early adolescent sexual activity remains a recurring problem with negative psychosocial and health outcomes. The age at sexual debut varies from place to place and among different individuals and is associated with varying factors. The aim was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of early sexual debut among secondary school students in Ido-Ekiti, South-West Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study. The respondents were selected using multi-stage sampling technique...
September 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796947/interplay-of-intermolecular-and-intramolecular-hydrogen-bonds-on-complex-formation-the-3-aminopropanol-water-van-der-waals-complex
#3
Andrew S Khalil, Anne-Marie Kelterer, Richard J Lavrich
This combined experimental and theoretical study answers the question whether the intramolecular hydrogen-bond strength in amino alcohols is dependent on the ring size. For this purpose, the rotational spectrum of the 3-aminopropanol-H2 O van der Waals complex was recorded using Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy and fit to the rotational, quadrupole coupling, and centrifugal distortion constants of the Watson A-reduction Hamiltonian. The experimental results are consistent with an ab initio conformation calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level that involves the lowest energy 3-aminopropanol monomer and consists of a hydrogen bonding network...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777109/influenza-immunization-of-pregnant-women-in-resource-constrained-countries-an-update-for-funding-and-implementation-decisions
#4
REVIEW
Justin R Ortiz, Kathleen M Neuzil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2018, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, is expected to review the strategy of maternal influenza immunization for potential investment in low-income countries. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trial data confirm the efficacy of maternal influenza immunization to prevent influenza disease in both mothers and their infants during the first months of life. Trial and observational data indicate no significant adverse events in mothers or newborns. High-quality disease burden data, particularly for seasonal influenza in low-income and middle-income countries, are limited...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773584/some-issues-of-shrinkage-reducing-admixtures-application-in-alkali-activated-slag-systems
#5
Vlastimil Bílek, Lukáš Kalina, Radoslav Novotný, Jakub Tkacz, Ladislav Pařízek
Significant drying shrinkage is one of the main limitations for the wider utilization of alkali-activated slag (AAS). Few previous works revealed that it is possible to reduce AAS drying shrinkage by the use of shrinkage-reducing admixtures (SRAs). However, these studies were mainly focused on SRA based on polypropylene glycol, while as it is shown in this paper, the behavior of SRA based on 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol can be significantly different. While 0.25% and 0.50% had only a minor effect on the AAS properties, 1...
June 10, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737401/effect-of-charged-group-spacer-length-on-hydration-state-in-zwitterionic-poly-sulfobetaine-brushes
#6
Yuji Higaki, Yoshihiro Inutsuka, Tatsunori Sakamaki, Yuki Terayama, Ai Takenaka, Keiko Higaki, Norifumi L Yamada, Taro Moriwaki, Yuka Ikemoto, Atsushi Takahara
Effect of alkyl chain spacer length between the charged groups (CSL) in zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine) (PSB) brushes on the hydration state was investigated. PSB brushes with ethyl (PMAES), propyl (PMAPS), or butyl (PMABS) CSL were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization on silicon wafers. Hydration states of the PSB brushes in aqueous solutions and/or humid vapor were investigated by contact angle measurement, infrared spectroscopy, AFM observation, and neutron reflectivity. The PSB brushes are swollen in humid air and deionized water due to the hydration of the charged groups leading to the reduction of hydrated PSB brushes/water interfacial free energy...
August 29, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725446/sound-a-non-invasive-measure-of-cough-intensity
#7
Kai K Lee, Sergio Matos, Katie Ward, Gerrard F Rafferty, John Moxham, David H Evans, Surinder S Birring
INTRODUCTION: Cough intensity is an important determinant of cough severity reported by patients. Cough sound analysis has been widely validated for the measurement of cough frequency but few studies have validated its use in the assessment of cough strength. We investigated the relationship between cough sound and physiological measures of cough strength. METHODS: 32 patients with chronic cough and controls underwent contemporaneous measurements of voluntary cough sound, flow and oesophageal pressure...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623425/effects-of-a-20-week-high-intensity-strength-and-sprint-training-program-on-tibial-bone-structure-and-strength-in-middle-aged-and-older-male-sprint-athletes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
T H Suominen, M T Korhonen, M Alén, A Heinonen, A Mero, T Törmäkangas, H Suominen
This randomized, controlled, high-intensity strength and sprint training trial in middle-aged and older male sprint athletes showed significant improvements in mid-tibial structure and strength. The study reveals the adaptability of aging bone, suggesting that through a novel, intensive training stimulus it is possible to strengthen bones during aging. INTRODUCTION: High-load, high-speed and impact-type exercise may be an efficient way of improving bone strength even in old age. We evaluated the effects of combined strength and sprint training on indices of bone health in competitive masters athletes, who serve as a group of older people who are likely to be able to participate in vigorous exercise of this kind...
September 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569043/lanthanum-based-compounds-electronic-band-gap-dependent-electrocatalytic-materials-for-oxygen-reduction-reaction
#9
Weiwei Gu, Ye Song, Jingjun Liu, Feng Wang
The electronic energy level of lanthanum compounds plays an important role in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalytic process. In this work, three lanthanum compounds, LaOHCO3 , La2 O2 CO3 , and La2 O3 , have been synthesized through an in situ urea hydrolysis method, followed by annealing at different temperatures. Among these lanthanum compounds, the layer-structured La2 O2 CO3 has the smallest band gap and moderate values of the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB). Electrochemical measurements in 0...
July 26, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539937/chlorhexidine-prevents-root-dentine-mineral-loss-and-fracture-caused-by-calcium-hydroxide-over-time
#10
Michael Ranniery Garcia Ribeiro, Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Darlon Martins Lima, Tarcísio Jorge Leitão, José Bauer, Soraia De Fátima Carvalho Souza
Purpose. To evaluate the mineral ion loss of root dentine after treatment with 2% chlorhexidine solution (CHX) and to compare its yield and flexural strength (fs) after exposure to calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. Materials and Methods. Dentine bars (DB) were made from 90 roots of bovine incisors and randomized into three groups: GControl: distilled/deionized water (DDW), GNaOCl: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite + 17% EDTA, and GCHX: CHX + DDW. The release of phosphate (PO4) and calcium (Ca) ions was measured by spectrophotometry...
2017: International Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416541/efflux-attenuates-the-antibacterial-activity-of-q203-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Jichan Jang, Ryangyeo Kim, Minjeong Woo, Jinsun Jeong, Da Eun Park, Guehye Kim, Vincent Delorme
New and improved treatments for tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed. Recently, it has been demonstrated that verapamil, an efflux inhibitor, can reduce bacterial drug tolerance caused by efflux pump activity when administered in combination with available antituberculosis agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of verapamil in combination with the antituberculosis drug candidate Q203, which has recently been developed and is currently under clinical trials as a potential antituberculosis agent...
July 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345260/resistance-training-and-aerobic-training-improve-muscle-strength-and-aerobic-capacity-in-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#12
Lars H Markvardsen, Kristian Overgaard, Karen Heje, Søren H Sindrup, Ingelise Christiansen, John Vissing, Henning Andersen
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS: Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exercise after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension...
January 2018: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325919/sex-differences-in-the-clinical-features-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-a-large-hospital-based-stroke-registry-in-china
#13
Yonghong Xing, Zhongping An, Xianghui Zhang, Ning Yu, Wenjuan Zhao, Xianjia Ning, Jinghua Wang
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is common in China. However, the sex differences in clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes of ICH remain controversial. Between 2005 and 2014, we recruited patients with primary ICH in Tianjin, China, and evaluated sex differences in clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes at 3, 12, and 36 months after ICH. The 1,325 patients included 897 men (67.7%) and 428 women (32.3%). The mean age at ICH onset was younger among men (59.14 years) than among women (63.12 years, P < 0...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298990/an-ex-vivo-shear-and-tensile-bond-strengths-of-orthodontic-molar-tubes-bonded-using-different-techniques
#14
Elham Abu-Alhaija, Mohammad Jaradat, Ahed Alwahadni
BACKGROUND: Molar bonding procedures need continuous improvement to be widely accepted clinically and eventually replace molar bands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of enamel micro-abrasion and silane coating of the base of molar tubes on shear and tensile bond strengths of orthodontic molar tubes. A total of 200 third molars were randomly allocated into five groups of 40 teeth as follows: group 1: molar tubes bonded to etched teeth (37% phosphoric acid gel; control group); group 2: molar tubes bonded to etched teeth (37% phosphoric acid) with the addition of silane to the base of molar tubes; group 3: molar tubes bonded to teeth pre-treated with 18% hydrochloric acid and pumice (micro-abrasion); group 4: molar tubes bonded to teeth pre-treated with microabrasion with the addition of silane to the base of molar tubes; group 5: molar tubes bonded to teeth pre-treated with microabrasion before conventional acid etching combined with the addition of silane to the base of molar tubes...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246638/evolutionary-fine-tuning-of-conformational-ensembles-in-fimh-during-host-pathogen-interactions
#15
Vasilios Kalas, Jerome S Pinkner, Thomas J Hannan, Michael E Hibbing, Karen W Dodson, Alex S Holehouse, Hao Zhang, Niraj H Tolia, Michael L Gross, Rohit V Pappu, James Janetka, Scott J Hultgren
Positive selection in the two-domain type 1 pilus adhesin FimH enhances Escherichia coli fitness in urinary tract infection (UTI). We report a comprehensive atomic-level view of FimH in two-state conformational ensembles in solution, composed of one low-affinity tense (T) and multiple high-affinity relaxed (R) conformations. Positively selected residues allosterically modulate the equilibrium between these two conformational states, each of which engages mannose through distinct binding orientations. A FimH variant that only adopts the R state is severely attenuated early in a mouse model of uncomplicated UTI but is proficient at colonizing catheterized bladders in vivo or bladder transitional-like epithelial cells in vitro...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071988/braided-and-stacked-electrospun-nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-tendon-and-ligament-tissue-engineering
#16
Benjamin B Rothrauff, Brian B Lauro, Guang Yang, Richard E Debski, Volker Musahl, Rocky S Tuan
Tendon and ligament injuries are a persistent orthopedic challenge given their poor innate healing capacity. Nonwoven electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds composed of polyesters have been used to mimic the mechanics and topographical cues of native tendons and ligaments. However, nonwoven nanofibers have several limitations that prevent broader clinical application, including poor cell infiltration, as well as tensile and suture-retention strengths that are inferior to native tissues. In this study, multilayered scaffolds of aligned electrospun nanofibers of two designs-stacked or braided-were fabricated...
May 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960369/enhanced-interfacial-strength-and-uv-shielding-of-aramid-fiber-composites-through-zno-nanoparticle-sizing
#17
Brendan A Patterson, Henry A Sodano
Here, a simple zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle sizing is reported for aramid fibers that simultaneously provides interfacial reinforcement and UV absorption to develop improved fiber-reinforced composites. Through a one-step nanoparticle deposition, the modified aramid fiber showed an increase in interfacial shear strength of 18.9% with the addition of ZnO nanoparticles when tested by single-fiber pullout. The aramid fibers were then treated with a hydrolysis process common to aramid fibers to oxidize the surface and elucidate the importance of oxygen functional groups at the interface...
December 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863899/ct-angiography-post-processed-contrast-enhancement-for-improved-detection-of-pulmonary-embolism
#18
Daniela Muenzel, Alexander A Fingerle, Tina Zahel, Andreas Sauter, Alain Vlassenbroek, Martin Dobritz, Ernst J Rummeny, Peter B Noël
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to improve the detection of pulmonary embolism via an iodine contrast enhancement tool in patients who underwent suboptimal enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the CT examinations of 41 patients who underwent CTA for evaluation of the pulmonary arteries which suffered from suboptimal contrast enhancement. The contrast enhancement of the reconstructed images was increased via a post-processing tool (vContrast)...
February 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846239/high-throughput-accurate-single-cell-screening-of-euglena-gracilis-with-fluorescence-assisted-optofluidic-time-stretch-microscopy
#19
Baoshan Guo, Cheng Lei, Takuro Ito, Yiyue Jiang, Yasuyuki Ozeki, Keisuke Goda
The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels is an important, but challenging goal for the world. As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, algal biofuel is expected to play a key role in alleviating global warming since algae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Among various algae for fuel production, Euglena gracilis is an attractive microalgal species as it is known to produce wax ester (good for biodiesel and aviation fuel) within lipid droplets. To date, while there exist many techniques for inducing microalgal cells to produce and accumulate lipid with high efficiency, few analytical methods are available for characterizing a population of such lipid-accumulated microalgae including E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493837/population-aging-in-the-european-information-societies-towards-a-comprehensive-research-agenda-in-ehealth-innovations-for-elderly
#20
REVIEW
Mihaela Vancea, Jordi Solé-Casals
Population ageing is one of the major social and economic challenges of our contemporary societies. With the advent of the information society, new research and technological developments have been promoted in the field of assistive technologies and information and communication technologies of benefit to elderly people. This article examines the potentialities of new informatics developments in generating solutions to better address elderly people's daily-life, especially those with chronic illness and/or low autonomy...
August 2016: Aging and Disease
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