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Plant natural variation

Emily Grman, Chad R Zirbel, Tyler Bassett, Lars A Brudvig
The loss of biodiversity at local and larger scales has potentially dramatic effects on ecosystem functioning. Many studies have shown that ecosystem functioning depends on biodiversity, but the role of beta diversity, spatial variation in community composition, is less clear than that of local-scale (alpha) diversity. To test the hypothesis that beta diversity would increase ecosystem multifunctionality through variation in species functional traits, we gathered data on plant community composition, plant functional traits, and seven ecosystem functions across 29 restored prairies...
August 17, 2018: Oecologia
H Dittberner, A Korte, T Mettler-Altmann, A P M Weber, G Monroe, J de Meaux
Stomata control gas exchanges between the plant and the atmosphere. How natural variation in stomata size and density contributes to resolve trade-offs between carbon uptake and water-loss in response to local climatic variation is not yet understood. We developed an automated confocal microscopy approach to characterize natural genetic variation in stomatal patterning in 330 fully-sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana accessions collected throughout the European range of the species. We compared this to variation in water-use efficiency, measured as carbon isotope discrimination (δ13 C)...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Huaihai Chen, Qing Xia, Tianyou Yang, Wei Shi
Soil microbes have critical influence on the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems, yet the magnitude and direction to which management practices affect the soil microbial community remain unclear. This work aimed to examine the impacts of three farming systems, conventional grain cropping (CON), organic grain cropping (ORG), and grain cropping-pasture rotation (ICL), on the soil microbial community structure and putative gene abundances of N transformations using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
J F Scheepens, Ying Deng, Oliver Bossdorf
Under current climate change, increasing mean temperatures are not only causing hotter summers, but temperature variability is increasing as well. Phenotypic plasticity can help plants to overcome negative effects of temperature variability and allow them to rapidly adjust traits to adverse conditions. Moreover, genetic variation in such plasticity could provide potential for adaptive evolution in response to changing climate variability. Here, we conducted an experiment with 11 Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes to investigate intraspecific variation in plant responses to two aspects of variable temperature stress: timing and frequency...
August 2018: AoB Plants
J E Littlefair, A Zander, C de Sena Costa, E L Clare
Resource variation along abiotic gradients influences subsequent trophic interactions and these effects can be transmitted through entire food webs. Interactions along abiotic gradients can provide clues as to how organisms will face changing environmental conditions, such as future range shifts. However, it is challenging to find replicated systems to study these effects. Phytotelmata, such as those found in carnivorous plants, are isolated aquatic communities and thus form a good model for the study of replicated food webs...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Peter Schausberger
Induced plant defense, comprising contact with exogenous stimuli, production of endogenous signals alerting the plant, associated biochemical cascades, and local and/or systemic expression of the defense mechanisms, critically depends on the nature of the inducing agents. At large, bio-trophic pathogenic microorganisms and viruses usually trigger the salicylate (SA)-mediated pathway, whereas necro-trophic pathogens and herbivores usually trigger the jasmonate (JA)-mediated pathway in plants. The SA- and JA-mediated pathways do not operate independently but commonly interfere with each other...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zi-Wen Li, Xing-Hui Hou, Jia-Fu Chen, Yong-Chao Xu, Qiong Wu, Josefa González, Ya-Long Guo
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements with very high mutation rates that play important roles in shaping genome architecture and regulating phenotypic variation. However, the extent to which TEs influence the adaptation of organisms in their natural habitats is largely unknown. Here, we scanned 201 representative re-sequenced genomes from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and identified 2,311 polymorphic TEs from non-centromeric regions. We found expansion and contraction of different types of TEs in different A...
August 9, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Digby Wrede, Syed U Hussainy, William Rajendram, Stephen Gray
There is growing interest in the ability of high rate algal ponds (HRAP) to treat wastewater. This method reduces the costs of algal production while treating the wastewater quicker and more efficiently than standard lagoon practices. Two parallel HRAPs were used in this study to treat secondary effluent. Nitrogen levels were significantly reduced with a mean reduction of 71% for ammonia and 64% for total nitrogen. The use of the HRAPs significantly increased the algal biomass levels compared to the algal growth in the storage lagoons, with a mean increase of 274%...
August 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
W Saoudi, M Badri, W Taamalli, O T Zribi, M Gandour, C Abdelly
Soil salinity is one of the most serious environmental factors affecting crop productivity around the world. In this study, we analyzed morpho-physiological variation in responses to salt stress in Tunisian populations of Hordeum marinum ssp. marinum. The plants were grown under two treatments (0 and 200 mM NaCl) until maturity. A total of 19 quantitative traits were measured before and during the harvest. It was observed that most studied traits are influenced by the increasing salinity. High to moderate broad-sense heritability (H2 ) were noted for most of parameters under control and salt treatment, implying that salt tolerance is moderately heritable and environmental variation plays an equal important role...
August 11, 2018: Plant Biology
Gyan Chhipi-Shrestha, Manuel Rodriguez, Rehan Sadiq
Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed primarily by the reaction of natural organic matter and disinfectants. DBPs that are not regulated are referred to as unregulated DBPs (U-DBPs) and they are in majority in total DBPs. U-DBPs can be more toxic than regulated DBPs. U-DBPs such as haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloacetonitriles (HKs) and halonitromethanes (HNMs) are widely present in drinking water supplies in different regions of the world. This study investigated the occurrence of U-DBPs and their variability in drinking water in the Province of Quebec (Canada), using the water quality database of 40 municipal water systems generated by our research group...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Sunday O Okoh, Omobola O Okoh, Anthony I Okoh
Syzygium paniculatum Gaertn of the family Myrtaceae is a medicinal and aromatic plant. The hydrodistilled volatile oil (VO) from the aerial parts was characterised by GC-MS and Kovat's index, while the antioxidant property was investigated using spectrophotometric techniques. Antioxidant capacities of the aerial parts VOs range from 0.12 to 0.93 mg/mL in scavenging 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH• ). Overall, 75 and 67 compounds were identified from the summer and winter VOs, respectively...
August 9, 2018: Natural Product Research
Igor S Flores, Bruno C B Martinelli, Vinicius S Pinto, Luiz H K Queiroz, Luciano M Lião
INTRODUCTION: High-resolution magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy enables the analysis of the metabolic profile of plant and animal tissues under close to natural conditions, as well as of other heterogeneous natural or synthetic materials. Neither sample pretreatment is required after fragmentation nor powdering of the sample before insertion into the rotor. However, the efficiency of the method depends strongly on the sample preparation, rotor insertion procedure, and analysis conditions...
August 8, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Masayuki Sugawara, Satoko Takahashi, Yosuke Umehara, Hiroya Iwano, Hirohito Tsurumaru, Haruka Odake, Yuta Suzuki, Hitoshi Kondo, Yuki Konno, Takeo Yamakawa, Shusei Sato, Hisayuki Mitsui, Kiwamu Minamisawa
Genotype-specific incompatibility in legume-rhizobium symbiosis has been suggested to be controlled by effector-triggered immunity underlying pathogenic host-bacteria interactions. However, the rhizobial determinant interacting with the host resistance protein (e.g., Rj2) and the molecular mechanism of symbiotic incompatibility remain unclear. Using natural mutants of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 122, we identified a type III-secretory protein NopP as the determinant of symbiotic incompatibility with Rj2-soybean...
August 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Guang-Ming Shao, Xi-Yin Li, Yang Wang, Zhong-Wei Wang, Zhi Li, Xiao-Juan Zhang, Li Zhou, Jian-Fang Gui
Allopolyploidization plays an important role in speciation and some natural or synthetic allopolyploid fishes have been extensively applied to aquaculture. Although genetic and epigenetic inheritance and variation associated with plant allopolyploids have been well documented, the relative research in allopolyploid animals is scarce. In this study, the genome constitution and DNA methylation inheritance in a newly synthetic allopolyploid of gynogenetic gibel carp were analyzed. The incorporation of a whole genome of paternal common carp sperm in the allopolyploid was confirmed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), chromosome localization of 45S rDNAs and sequence comparison...
August 2, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Rui Wu, Miriam Lucke, Yun-Ting Jang, Wangsheng Zhu, Efthymia Symeonidi, Congmao Wang, Joffrey Fitz, Wanyan Xi, Rebecca Schwab, Detlef Weigel
Background: Our knowledge of natural genetic variation is increasing at an extremely rapid pace, affording an opportunity to come to a much richer understanding of how effects of specific genes are dependent on the genetic background. To achieve a systematic understanding of such GxG interactions, it is desirable to develop genome editing tools that can be rapidly deployed across many different genetic varieties. Results: We present an efficient CRISPR/Cas9 toolbox of super module (SM) vectors...
2018: Plant Methods
Ashley Troth, Joshua R Puzey, Rebecca S Kim, John H Willis, John K Kelly
To understand evolutionary factors that maintain complex trait variation, we sequenced genomes from a single population of the plant Mimulus guttatus , identifying hundreds of nucleotide variants associated with morphological and life history traits. Alleles that delayed flowering also increased size at reproduction, which suggests pervasive antagonistic pleiotropy in this annual plant. The "large and slow" alleles, which were less common in small, rapidly flowering populations, became more abundant in populations with greater plant size...
August 3, 2018: Science
Milton N Schroth, John J Cho, Sylvia K Green, Spyros D Kominos, Microbiology Society Publishing
A prevailing opinion is that the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that infects both plants and humans are two separate species. This study strongly disputes that notion until the modern molecular technology proves otherwise. This paper examines a spectrum of strains occurring in nature, their habitats, dissemination, their relationship to clinical strains, and the environmental conditions that favor their colonization of plants. The isolates were obtained from clinical specimens, plants, soil, and water. The identity of these strains was confirmed using pyocin typing and biochemical assays...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Pandao Liu, Zefei Cai, Zhijian Chen, Xiaohui Mo, Xipeng Ding, Cuiyue Liang, Guodao Liu, Jiang Tian
As a major component of soil organic phosphorus (P), phytate-P is unavailable to plants unless hydrolyzed by phytase to release inorganic phosphate. However, it remains fragmentary that natural variation in root-associated phytase activity and its underlying molecular mechanisms in plants. In this study, variations in root internal and associated phytase activity were observed among 39 genotypes of Stylosanthes guianensis (Stylo), which is well adapted to acid soils. Furthermore, TPRC2001-1, the genotype with the highest root-associated phytase activity, was more capable of utilizing extracellular phytate-P than Fine-stem, the genotype with the lowest root-associated phytase activity...
July 31, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Hailin Ma, Guoliang Li, Tobias Würschum, Yao Zhang, Debo Zheng, Xiaohong Yang, Jiansheng Li, Wenxin Liu, Jianbing Yan, Shaojiang Chen
Large-scale application of the doubled haploid (DH) technology by in vivo haploid induction has greatly improved the efficiency of maize breeding. While the haploid induction rate and the efficiency of identifying haploid plants have greatly improved in recent years, the low efficiency of doubling of haploid plants has remained and currently presents the main limitation to maize DH line production. In this study, we aimed to assess the available genetic variation for haploid male fertility (HMF), i.e., the production of fertile pollen on haploid plants, and to investigate the underlying genetic architecture...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
A Aziz, P Agamuthu, S H Fauziah
Landfill leachate contain persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely, bisphenol A (BPA) and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol, which exceed the permissible limits. Thus, such landfill leachate must be treated before it is released into natural water courses. This article reports on investigations about the removal efficiency of POPs such as BPA and 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol from leachate using locust bean gum (LBG) in comparison with alum. The vital experimental variables (pH, coagulant dosage and stirring speed) were optimised by applying response surface methodology equipped with the Box-Behnken design to reduce the POPs from leachate...
July 30, 2018: Waste Management & Research
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