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Ocular Toxoplasma

Mehdi Sharif, Roghiyeh Faridnia, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Shirzad Gholami, Hamed Kalani, Ahmad Daryani
This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of cyst production by Toxoplasma (T.) gondii, RH strain, in Wistar rat and BALB/c mouse and the purpose of this study was to introduce an animal model suitable for congenital, cerebral, and ocular toxoplasmosis. The mice and rats, considered as cerebral and ocular toxoplasmosis models, were intraperitoneally infected by different number of the parasite and their eyes and brain were evaluated for the presence of T. gondii cyst using the microscopic examination and the bioassay method...
December 19, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
Umashankar Vetrivel, Hemavathy Nagarajan
AIMS: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular Apicomplexan parasite and a causative agent of toxoplasmosis in human. Its parasitic invasion leads to encephalitis, uveitis, chorioretinitis and congenital infection. Host invasion by T. gondii is mediated by Moving junction (MJ) complex formed by secretory proteins such as micronemes and Rhoptry Neck proteins (RONs). Among these secretory proteins, RON4 shows major interactions with RON2 and RON5 of MJ complex and is also found to facilitate invasion by interacting with the β-tubulin of the host...
October 13, 2018: Life Sciences
S Bala Murugan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Ildiko Rita Dunay, Kiran Gajurel, Reshika Dhakal, Oliver Liesenfeld, Jose G Montoya
SUMMARYPrimary Toxoplasma gondii infection is usually subclinical, but cervical lymphadenopathy or ocular disease can be present in some patients. Active infection is characterized by tachyzoites, while tissue cysts characterize latent disease. Infection in the fetus and in immunocompromised patients can cause devastating disease. The combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine (pyr-sulf), targeting the active stage of the infection, is the current gold standard for treating toxoplasmosis, but failure rates remain significant...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Caroline Paquet, Mark H Yudin
BACKGROUND: One of the major consequences of pregnant women becoming infected by Toxoplasma gondii is vertical transmission to the fetus. Although rare, congenital toxoplasmosis can cause severe neurological or ocular disease (leading to blindness), as well as cardiac and cerebral anomalies. Prenatal care must include education about prevention of toxoplasmosis. The low prevalence of the disease in the Canadian population and limitations in diagnosis and therapy limit the effectiveness of screening strategies...
August 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Marcelo Rudzinski, Carina Argüelles, Cristóbal Couto, José R Oubiña, Silvia Reina
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to analyze possible associations between systemic and ocular cytokine levels and specific clinical ophthalmologic signs from patients with a reactivation of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (RTR). METHODS: A total of 18 patients with an active RTR episode, 8 patients with inactive scars, and 14 control patients were included in the study. Serum samples and aqueous humor (AH) samples were analyzed for IFN (interferon)-γ, interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-6 levels by ELISA...
August 6, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Genevieve Syn, Denise Anderson, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson
Recent interest has focussed on the influence of infectious disease organisms on the host epigenome. Toxoplasma gondii infection acquired congenitally or in early life is associated with severe ocular and brain developmental anomalies, while persistent asymptomatic infection is a proposed risk factor for neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Diseases, and schizophrenia. Genome-wide analysis of the host methylome and transcriptome following T. gondii infection in a retinal cell line identified genes (132, 186 and 128 genes at 2, 6 and 24 h post-infection) concordant for methylation and expression, i...
November 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Khadija Khan, Wajihullah Khan
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite which is known to infect one-third of the total world population chronically though it is asymptomatic in immunocompetent patients. However, in an immunocompromised patient or an infected fetus, it may cause devastating effects. The parasite may cross the placenta of an infected pregnant woman and probably infect the fetus congenitally. The severity of the infection depends on the gestational age at which the infection has occurred i.e., if it has occurred in the early phase, the rate of transmission is low but the severity is high if the fetus is infected and if it has occurred in the later phase then transmission rate is higher while the severity would be low...
December 2018: Parasitology International
Alessandra Rassi, Bozho Todorich, Lisa J Faia, Michael Trese, Kimberly Drenser, Antonio Capone
PURPOSE: We report a case of congenital toxoplasmosis associated with retinal detachment. METHODS: A 9-month-old white boy presented a unilateral tractional retina detachment associated with congenital toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis. RESULTS: The diagnosis is supported by positive IgG (>400) for toxoplasmosis and intracranial calcification on magnetic resonance imaging, along with positive family history of Toxoplasma infection in the mother...
July 13, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Christelle Pomares, Sébastien Devillard, Tyson H Holmes, Tudor Rares Olariu, Cynthia J Press, Raymund Ramirez, Jeanne Talucod, Remy Estran, Chunlei Su, Jitender P Dubey, Daniel Ajzenberg, Jose G Montoya
Whereas in Europe most of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes belong to the type II lineage, in Latin America, type II is rare and atypical strains predominate. In North America, data on T. gondii genotypes in humans are scarce.In this study, T. gondii DNA samples from 67 patients diagnosed with toxoplasmosis in the United States were available for genotyping. Discriminant analysis of principal components was used to infer each atypical genotype to a geographic area where patients were likely infected. Associations between genotype, disease severity, immune status, and geographic region, were also estimated...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lian Xun Piao, Jia Hui Cheng, Fumie Aosai, Xu Dong Zhao, Kazumi Norose, Xue Jun Jin
Congenital toxoplasmosis is caused by the vertical transmission of infection from mother to foetus through the placenta when a pregnant woman is infected with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Congenital infection can have serious consequences, such as intrauterine abortion, foetal death and severe neurological, ocular or other organ damage in the foetus. In this review, we focus on recent publications investigating vertical transmission of T. gondii infection, cellular immunopathogenesis and protective immunity in primary toxoplasmosis during pregnancy...
September 2018: Parasite Immunology
Dalia S Ashour, Abeer E Saad, Reda H El Bakary, Mohamed A El Barody
Ocular toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of retinochoroiditis worldwide in humans. Some studies highlighted the idea that ocular lesions differ according to the route of infection but none of them mimicked the natural route. The current study aimed to investigate the ophthalmic outcomes in congenital and oral routes of infection with Toxoplasma in experimental animals. Mice were divided into three groups; group I: congenital infection, group II: acquired oral infection and group III: non-infected. We used Me49 chronic low-virulence T...
July 1, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
Hyun Beom Song, Bong-Kwang Jung, Jin Hyoung Kim, Young-Ha Lee, Min-Ho Choi, Jeong Hun Kim
The conversion of tachyzoites into bradyzoites is a way for Toxoplasma gondii to establish a chronic and asymptomatic infection and achieve lifelong persistence in the host. The bradyzoites form tissue cysts in the retina, but not much is known about the horizontal distribution of the cysts or their interactions with glial cells in the retina. A chronic ocular toxoplasmosis model was induced by per oral administration of T. gondii Me49 strain cysts to BALB/c mice. Two months after the infection, retinas were flat-mounted and immunostained to detect cysts, ganglion cells, Müller cells, astrocytes, and microglial cells, followed by observation under fluorescence and confocal microscope...
August 2018: Parasitology Research
Xinxin Tong, Shengjie Chen, Huanqin Zheng, Shiguang Huang, Fangli Lu
Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is a member of the IL-6/IL-12 family, and IL-27 receptor (IL-27R) consists of WSX-1 (the IL-27Rα subunit) and the signal-transducing subunit gp130. Human and mouse mast cells (MCs) express the IL-27R. To explore the expressions of IL-27/IL-27R subunits (WSX-1 and gp130) during acute ocular toxoplasmosis (OT), we established mouse model by intraocular injection of 500 Toxoplasma gondii RH strain tachyzoites. Histopathological changes were analyzed, MCs were counted by toluidine blue staining, and tryptase+ /IL-27+ MCs were examined by immunofluorescence double-staining in the eyes and cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) of T...
July 2018: Parasitology Research
Bahman Rahimi-Esboei, Mohammad Zarei, Mehdi Mohebali, Hossein Keshavarz Valian, Saeedeh Shojaee, Raziyeh Mahmoudzadeh, Mirataollah Salabati
This prospective study was aimed to detect acute and chronic ocular toxoplasmosis by comparison of anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibody levels and IgG avidity test. One hundred and seventeen patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) who referred to the Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran were included in this study. Of the patients, 77 cases were positive for anti- T. gondii IgG, and 8 cases were positive for anti- T. gondii IgM. IgG avidity test revealed 11, 4, and 102 cases were low, intermediate, and high, respectively, and 6...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Yanxia Zhang, Xiao Lin, Fangli Lu
Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is the most frequent form of infectious posterior uveitis caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. To evaluate the available evidence in peer-reviewed publications about the most effective therapy for OT in immunocompetent patients, herein a systematic literature search was conducted using Embase, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) database from January 1987 to October 2017, with search terms "OT", "retinochoroiditis", "treatment", and "immunocompetent"; search filters "controlled clinical trial", "randomized clinical trial", and "clinical trial"...
September 2018: Acta Tropica
Yosr Boudaouara, Karim Aoun, Rania Maatoug, Olfa Souissi, Aïda Bouratbine, Rym Ben Abdallah
Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) results from transplacental passage of Toxoplasma gondii to the fetus during acute maternal infection. Our study aims to report clinical and biological patterns of 35 cases of CT diagnosed at the department of the Parasitology of the Pasteur Institute of Tunis and to access the performance of prenatal and early postnatal diagnosis techniques. Serological screening of maternal infection was performed by Immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG detection and IgG avidity determination. Prenatal diagnosis was based on both Toxoplasma DNA detection in the amniotic fluid and monthly ultrasound examinations...
June 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ashraf Bor'i, Ashraf Mahrous, Mahmoud A Al-Aswad, Haitham Y Al-Nashar, Waled M Nada, Mostafa Wagih, Ahmed M B Awad, Wael M El-Haig
Purpose: To compare clinical outcome of IVCD combined with oral therapy with IVCD alone in patients with toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Patients and Methods: Thirty eyes were reviewed. Two equal groups were identified (15 eyes each). Clinical outcome measures were resolution of active inflammation, changes in BCVA and CMT, adverse drug reactions, and rate of recurrence. Results: Mean baseline of BCVA 1.08 ± 0.17 and 1.03 ± 0.15 improved to 0...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Sung Who Park, So Hee Kim, Han Jo Kwon, Seung Min Lee, Ik Soo Byon, Ji Eun Lee
PURPOSE: To assess the value of positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M serum antibody (Ab) findings in uveitis patients. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of patients who had a positive serological test for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM Ab. Their clinical data, including history, demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, clinical findings, treatment outcomes, and recurrences, were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Of 2919 uveitis patients who underwent a serological test for suspected ocular toxoplasmosis (OT), 18 presented with positive Ig M results...
March 7, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Martine Wallon, François Peyron
Maternal infection by Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy may have serious consequences for the fetus, ranging from miscarriage, central nervous system involvement, retinochoroiditis, or subclinical infection at birth with a risk of late onset of ocular diseases. As infection in pregnant women is usually symptomless, the diagnosis relies only on serological tests. Some countries like France and Austria have organized a regular serological testing of pregnant women, some others have no prenatal program of surveillance...
February 23, 2018: Pathogens
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