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Cancer Sensor

Sagar Regmi, To Sing Fung, Sierin Lim, Kathy Qian Luo
PURPOSE: Many anti-cancer drugs are used in chemotherapy; however, little is known about their efficacy against circulating tumor cells (CTCs). In this study, we investigated whether the pulsatile fluidic shear stress (SS) in human arteries can affect the efficacy of anti-cancer drugs. METHODS: Cancer cells were circulated in our microfluidic circulatory system, and their responses to drug and SS treatments were determined using various assays. Breast and cervical cancer cells that stably expressed apoptotic sensor proteins were used to determine apoptosis in real-time by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based imaging microscopy...
August 16, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Tammy K Stump, Lisa G Aspinwall, Elizabeth L Gray, Shuai Xu, Nenita Maganti, Sancy A Leachman, Nabil Alshurafa, June K Robinson
One in five US adults will be diagnosed with skin cancer. As most skin cancers are attributable to sun exposure, this risk factor is an important target for research and intervention. Most sun exposure measures assess frequency of specific sun-protection behaviors, which does not account for the use of multiple, potentially overlapping sun-protection methods. In contrast, the Daily Minutes of Unprotected Sun Exposure (MUSE) Inventory assesses sun-protection behavior during self-reported activities, providing several useful metrics, including duration of unprotected sun exposure on 17 body sites, combined to yield an overall MUSE score weighted by percent of body exposed...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Kelly E McCann, Sara A Hurvitz
Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and PARP-2 are DNA damage sensors that are most active during S-phase of the cell cycle and that have wider-reaching roles in DNA repair than originally described. BRCA1 and BRCA2 (Breast Cancer) proteins are involved in homologous recombination repair (HRR), which requires a homologous chromosome or sister chromatid as a template to faithfully repair DNA double-strand breaks. The small-molecule NAD+ mimetics, olaparib, niraparib, rucaparib, veliparib, and talazoparib, inhibit the catalytic activity of PARP-1 and PARP-2 and are currently being studied in later-stage clinical trials...
2018: Drugs in Context
Sarah Schulze, Christian Stöß, Miao Lu, Baocai Wang, Melanie Laschinger, Katja Steiger, Felicitas Altmayr, Helmut Friess, Daniel Hartmann, Bernhard Holzmann, Norbert Hüser
Stimulation of cytosolic nucleic acid sensors of innate immunity by pathogen-derived nucleic acids is important for antimicrobial defence, but stimulation through self-derived nucleic acids may contribute to autoinflammation and cancer. DNA sensing in the cytosol requires the stimulator of interferon genes (STING), while cytosolic RNA sensors use mitochondrial antiviral-signalling protein (MAVS). In a murine model of two-thirds hepatectomy, combined deficiency of MAVS and STING resulted in strongly impaired hepatocyte proliferation and delayed recovery of liver mass...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Susan E Logue, Eoghan P McGrath, Patricia Cleary, Stephanie Greene, Katarzyna Mnich, Aitor Almanza, Eric Chevet, Róisín M Dwyer, Anup Oommen, Patrick Legembre, Florence Godey, Emma C Madden, Brian Leuzzi, Joanna Obacz, Qingping Zeng, John B Patterson, Richard Jäger, Adrienne M Gorman, Afshin Samali
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks targeted therapies and has a worse prognosis than other breast cancer subtypes, underscoring an urgent need for new therapeutic targets and strategies. IRE1 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor, whose activation is predominantly linked to the resolution of ER stress and, in the case of severe stress, to cell death. Here we demonstrate that constitutive IRE1 RNase activity contributes to basal production of pro-tumorigenic factors IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1, GM-CSF, and TGFβ2 in TNBC cells...
August 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Stephen A Hill, David Benito-Alifonso, Sean A Davis, David J Morgan, Monica Berry, M Carmen Galan
We report a one-pot, three-minute synthesis of carboxylic acid-decorated fluorescent carbon dots (COOH-FCDs) with tuneable core morphology dependent on the surface passivating agent. Mechanism investigations highlighted the presence of key pyrazine and polyhydroxyl aromatic motifs, which are formed from the degradation of glucosamine in the presence of a bifunctional linker bearing acid and amine groups. The novel COOH-FCDs are selective Fe3+ and hemin sensors. Furthermore, the FCDs are shown to be non-toxic, fluorescent bioimaging agents for cancer cells...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Afu Fu, Yu Ming Peh, Weida Ngan, Na Wei, Kathy Qian Luo
Treating systemic metastases at the micrometastatic stage is a potential strategy to inhibit cancer metastasis. This study aims to establish an apoptosis sensor-based platform for rapid, effective, and non-invasive identification of drugs that can inhibit the proliferation of micrometastatic cancer cells. We stably transfected the plasmid DNA encoding the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based caspase-3 sensor into highly metastatic melanoma B16F10 cells. The resulting B16F10-C3 cells were applied for screening of anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic drugs in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer, three-dimensional (3D) spheroids, and zebrafish xenotransplantation tumors...
August 13, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Alexey A Vasiliev, Andrey E Varfolomeev, Ivan A Volkov, Nikolay P Simonenko, Pavel V Arsenov, Ivan S Vlasov, Victor V Ivanov, Alexander V Pislyakov, Alexander S Lagutin, Igor E Jahatspanian, Thomas Maeder
The application of gas sensors in breath analysis is an important trend in the early diagnostics of different diseases including lung cancer, ulcers, and enteric infection. However, traditional methods of synthesis of metal oxide gas-sensing materials for semiconductor sensors based on wet sol-gel processes give relatively high sensitivity of the gas sensor to changing humidity. The sol-gel process leading to the formation of superficial hydroxyl groups on oxide particles is responsible for the strong response of the sensing material to this factor...
August 8, 2018: Sensors
Le Fang, Giuseppe Trigiante, Christina J Kousseff, Rachel Crespo-Otero, Michael P Philpott, Michael Watkinson
A cancer cell-targeting fluorescent sensor has been developed to image mobile Zn2+ by introducing a biotin group. It shows a highly selective response to Zn2+ in vitro, no toxicity in cellulo and images 'mobile' Zn2+ specifically in cancer cells. We believe this probe has the potential to help improve our understanding of the role of Zn2+ in the processes of cancer initiation and development.
August 10, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Samira Yazdanparast, Ali Benvidi, Maryam Banaei, Habib Nikukar, Marzieh Dehghan Tezerjani, Mostafa Azimzadeh
This paper reports on a sensitive and selective method for the detection of Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) human breast cancer cells and MUC1 biomarker by using an aptamer-based sandwich assay. A biocompatible nanocomposite consisting of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and poly(glutamic acid) is placed on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The sandwich assay relies on the use of a mucin 1 (MUC1)-binding aptamer that is first immobilized on the surface of modified GCE. Another aptamer (labeled with silver nanoparticles) is applied for secondary recognition of MCF-7 cells in order to increase selectivity and produce an amplified signal...
August 9, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Chiao-Yun Chang, Hsiang-Ting Lin, Ming-Sheng Lai, Teng-Yi Shieh, Chien-Chung Peng, Min-Hsiung Shih, Yi-Chung Tung
The small sized, flexible, high-performed and bio-compatible sensing devices are the critical elements to realize the bio-related detection or on-site health monitoring systems. In this work, the flexible localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) bio-sensors were demonstrated by integrating the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) nanodisks with bio-compatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The different geometries of MIM nanodisk sensors were investigated and optimized to enhance the spatial overlap of the LSPR waves with the environment, which lead to a high sensitivity of 1500 nm/RIU...
August 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Troy F Langford, Beijing K Huang, Joseph B Lim, Sun Jin Moon, Hadley D Sikes
Redox cancer therapeutics target the increased reliance on intracellular antioxidant systems and enhanced susceptibility to oxidant-induced stress of some cancer cells compared to normal cells. Many of these therapeutics are thought to perturb intracellular levels of the oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), a signaling molecule that modulates a number of different processes in human cells. However, fluorescent probes for this species remain limited in their ability to detect the small perturbations induced during successful treatments...
August 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Kathleen A Boyle, Jonathan Van Wickle, R Blake Hill, Adriano Marchese, Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Michael B Dwinell
Mutations in the KRAS proto-oncogene are present in 50% of all colorectal cancers and are increasingly associated with chemotherapeutic resistance to frontline biologic drugs. Accumulating evidence indicates key roles for overactive KRAS mutations in the metabolic reprogramming from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. Here, we sought to exploit the more negative membrane potential of cancer cell mitochondria as an untapped avenue for interfering with energy metabolism in KRAS variant-containing and KRAS wild-type colorectal cancer cells...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Wenhao Dong, Yipeng Ren, Zhixue Bai, Yi Yang, Zihua Wang, Cong Zhang, Qiang Chen
Recently, great efforts have been made to use biosensors for the early diagnosis of cancer. Specifically, using a biomarker to detect H2 O2 in physiological conditions is of great significance for understanding the signal transduction pathways and achieving early cancer diagnosis. In this work, we report an innovative H2 O2 sensor that was fabricated by trimetallic AuPtPd nanocomposites platform on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets with the modification of the rGO and trimetallic AuPtPd nanoparticles on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by physical adsorption...
November 1, 2018: Talanta
Fangmei Zhang, Xu He, Pinyi Ma, Ying Sun, Xinghua Wang, Daqian Song
Early diagnosis of chronic, critical diseases improves clinical outcomes, and biomarkers play an important role as an indicator of severity or presence of a disease. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is one such vital biomarker in the diagnosis of several diseases. Herein we introduce a facile, sensitive fluorescent assay, based on the inner filter effect (IFE), for ALP activity determination in serum and in living cells. It is well known that the key to maximize the sensitivity of an IFE-based fluorescence assays is to broaden the overlap between the absorption of an absorber and the excitation/emission of a fluorophore...
November 1, 2018: Talanta
Qibin Fu, Jing Wang, Tuchen Huang
Hyperthermia (HT) acts as a cancer treatment by direct cell killing, radiosensitization, and promotion of tumor reoxygenation. The sensor proteins of the DNA damage response (DDR) are the direct targets of HT. However, the spatiotemporal properties of sensor proteins under HT are still unclear. Therefore, investigating the impact of HT on sensor proteins is of great importance. In the present study, the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 stably transfected with 53BP1-GFP [the DDR protein 53BP1 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP)] was used to investigate the real-time cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by γ-rays...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
Naomichi Fukushima, Atena Sugiyama, Takeshi Sato
The increased expression of β4-galactosyltransferase (β4GalT) 4 is closely associated with poor prognosis of colon cancer. Recently, we showed that the expression of the β4GalT4 gene is regulated by the 0.17 kb core promoter region containing one binding site for Specificity protein 1 (Sp1). To develop a screening method for anti-colon cancer drugs, two sensor cell lines having the luciferase gene under the control of two β4GalT4 gene promoters that differed in length were established from SW480 human colon cancer cells...
August 6, 2018: Sensors
Hang T Ta, Nina Arndt, Yuao Wu, Hui Jean Lim, Shea Landeen, Run Zhang, Danielle Kamato, Peter J Little, Andrew K Whittaker, Zhi Ping Xu
The early detection and accurate characterization of life-threatening diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer are critical to the design of treatment. Knowing whether or not a thrombus in a blood vessel is new (fresh) or old (constituted) is very important for physicians to decide a treatment protocol. We have designed smart MRI nano-sensors that can detect, sense and report the stage or progression of cardiovascular diseases such as thrombosis. The nanosensors were functionalized with fibrin-binding peptide to specifically target thrombus and were also labelled with fluorescent dye to enable optical imaging...
August 9, 2018: Nanoscale
Venkatramana D Krishna, Kai Wu, Diqing Su, Maxim C J Cheeran, Jian-Ping Wang, Andres Perez
In recent years a number of new nanotechnology based platforms have been developed for detection of wide variety of targets including infectious agents, protein biomarkers, nucleic acids, drugs, and cancer cells. Nanomaterials such as magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, nanowires, and nanosensors like giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors are used to quantitatively detect biomolecules with, experimentally, relatively good accuracy. There has been a growing interest in the use of magnetic fields in biosensing applications...
October 2018: Food Microbiology
Mohammad Saeed Nikshoar, Safoora Khosravi, Mojtaba Jahangiri, Ashkan Zandi, Zohreh Sadat Miripour, Shahin Bonakdar, Mohammad Abdolahad
Determining the migratory and invasive capacity of cancer cells as well as clarifying the underlying mechanisms are most relevant for developing biosensors in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, drug development and treatment. Intravasation of metastatic cells into blood stream initiated by their invasion to vascular layer would be a significant characteristic of metastasis. Many types of biochemical and bioelectrical sensors were developed for early detection of metastasis. The simplicity of the setup, the ease of the readout, detection of the trace of rare metastatic cells and the feasibility to perform the assay with standard laboratory equipment are some of the challenges limiting the usability of the sensors in tracing the metastasis...
July 17, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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