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Cancer Sensor

Leonardo Puppulin, Shigekuni Hosogi, Hongxin Sun, Kazuhiko Matsuo, Toshio Inui, Yasuaki Kumamoto, Toshinobu Suzaki, Hideo Tanaka, Yoshinori Marunaka
Regulation of intracellular pH is critically important for many cellular functions. The quantification of proton extrusion in different types of cells and physiological conditions is pivotal to fully elucidate the mechanisms of pH homeostasis. Here we show the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) to create a high spatial resolution sensor for measuring extracellular pH in proximity of the cell membrane. We test the sensor on HepG2 liver cancer cells and MKN28 gastric cancer cells before and after inhibition of Na+ /H+ exchanger...
December 11, 2018: Nature Communications
Sorour Shojaeian, Abdolamir Allameh, Mahmood Jeddi-Tehrani, Roya Ghods, Jaleh Shojaeian, Akram-Sadat Tabatabaei-Panah, Amir-Hassan Zarnani
In recent years, a lot of attention has been paid to quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles as fluorescent sensors for sensitive and accurate detection of cancer biomarkers. Here, using a homemade specific monoclonal antibody against CA125 and QD525- or FITC-labeled probes, expression of this marker in an ovarian cancer cell line and cancer tissues were traced and optical properties of fluorophores were compared qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results clearly showed that besides lower background and exceptionally higher photobleaching resistance, QD525 exhibited higher fluorescent intensity for both ovarian cancer cell and tissues at different exposure times (p<0...
August 12, 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Carole Vitellius, Margot Laly, Anne-Sophie Banaszuk, Isabelle Deherce, Nathanaëlle Cornet, Sandrine Bertrais, Patrick Saulnier, François-Xavier Caroli-Bosc
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer-related death of worldwide with high incidence and mortality rate, accessible to a screening program in France, first with guaiac- based fecal occult blood test (g-FOBT) then with fecal immunochemical tests (FIT), since 2015, because of better accuracy. The aim of our study was to compare the characteristics of screen-detected lesions in two successive CRC screening campaigns, using two different tests (Hemoccult II® and OC Sensor® ) in the department of Maine-et-Loire, and to precise the performance of these tests [participation rate, detection rates (DR), positive predictive value (PPV)]...
December 8, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Katia Rupel, Luisa Zupin, Andrea Colliva, Anselmo Kamada, Augusto Poropat, Giulia Ottaviani, Margherita Gobbo, Lidia Fanfoni, Rossella Gratton, Massimo Santoro, Roberto Di Lenarda, Matteo Biasotto, Serena Zacchigna
Photobiomodulation (PBM) is emerging as an effective strategy for the management of multiple inflammatory conditions, including oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients who receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Still, the poor understanding of the mechanisms by which the light interacts with biological tissues and the heterogeneity of light sources and protocols employed worldwide significantly limits its applicability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are massively generated during the early phases of OM and play a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammation in general...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Reza Mosayeb, Arman Ahmadzadeh, Wayan Wicke, Vahid Jamali, Robert Schober, Masoumeh Nasiri-Kenari
In this paper, we propose using mobile nanosensors (MNSs) for early stage anomaly detection. For concreteness, we focus on the detection of cancer cells located in a particular region of a blood vessel. These cancer cells produce and emit special molecules, so-called biomarkers, which are symptomatic for the presence of anomaly, into the cardiovascular system. Detection of cancer biomarkers with conventional blood tests is difficult in the early stages of a cancer due to the very low concentration of the biomarkers in the samples taken...
December 7, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Midori Maeda, Taisuke Kojima, Yang Song, Shuichi Takayama
Man-made DNA materials hold the potential to modulate specific immune pathways toward immunoactivating or immunosuppressive cascades. DNA-based biomaterials introduce DNA into the extracellular environment during implantation or delivery, and subsequently intracellularly upon phagocytosis or degradation of the material. Therefore, the immunogenic functionality of biological and synthetic extracellular DNA should be considered to achieve desired immune responses. In vivo, extracellular DNA from both endogenous and exogenous sources holds immunoactivating functions which can be traced back to the molecular features of DNA, such as sequence and length...
December 5, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Aziz Eftekhari, Mohammad Hasanzadeh, Simin Sharifi, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj, Rovshan Khalilov, Elham Ahmadian
Non-invasive diagnosis of cancer is often the key to effective treatment and patient survival. Saliva as a multi-constituent oral fluid comprises various disease signaling biomarkers, holds great potential for early-stage cancer diagnostics with cost-effective and easy collection, storage, transport and processing. Therefore, detection of biomarkers and proteins in the saliva samples is highly demand. The current review was performed using reliable internet database (mainly PubMed) to provide an overview of the most recent developments on non-invasive diagnosis of cancers in saliva and highlights main challenges and future prospects in sensing of the salivary biomarkers...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Colin G Buss, Jaideep S Dudani, Reid T K Akana, Heather E Fleming, Sangeeta N Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections represent a significant public health risk, and timely and accurate detection of bacterial infections facilitates rapid therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, monitoring the progression of infections after intervention enables 'course correction' in cases where initial treatments are ineffective, avoiding unnecessary drug dosing that can contribute to antibiotic resistance. However, current diagnostic and monitoring techniques rely on non-specific or slow readouts, such as radiographic imaging and sputum cultures, which fail to specifically identify bacterial infections and take several days to identify optimal antibiotic treatments...
November 26, 2018: EBioMedicine
R Shrestha, R Atluri, D P Simmons, D S Kim, T Y Choi
This research work demonstrates an innovative technique to measure the thermal conductivity of a small volume of non-volatile liquids. The method utilizes a micro-pipette thermal sensor (MPTS) (tip diameter < 2 μ m) and is based on laser point heating thermometry and transient heat transfer. A laser beam is irradiated at the sensor tip immersed in a few microliters of the test fluid and the transient temperature change is recorded with the sensor. This temperature change is dependent on the surrounding fluid's thermal properties, such as thermal conductivity and diffusivity...
November 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Luke A J O'Neill
Luke O'Neill is professor of biochemistry in the School of Biochemistry and Immunology at Trinity College Dublin, and his main research focus is innate immunity and its key output, inflammation. His work has explored the key sensors and mediators of infection, including the Toll-like receptors, inflammasomes and cytokines in the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family. Luke received the Royal Irish Academy Gold Medal for Life Sciences in 2012 and the European Federation of Immunology Societies Medal in 2014. He was elected a member of the European Molecular Biology Organisation (EMBO) in 2005 and a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2016...
November 29, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Clasine M de Klerk, Els Wieten, Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Patrick M Bossuyt, Manon Cw Spaander, Evelien Dekker
BACKGROUND: Faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) are recommended for colorectal cancer screening. Two frequently used FIT methods (FOB-Gold, Sentinel Diagnostics, Milan, Italy and OC-Sensor, Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan) perform similarly in detecting advanced neoplasia (ie, colorectal cancer and advanced adenoma) at a fixed positivity cutoff for faecal haemoglobin concentration. It is unclear whether the performance of the two methods is also comparable at other thresholds. We compared the accuracy of the two assays in detecting advanced neoplasia across various thresholds...
November 26, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Pegah Mahmoodi, Mona Fani, Majid Rezayi, Amir Avan, Zahra Pasdar, Ehsan Karimi, Iraj S Amiri, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
Human papillomavirus type (HPV) is a common cause of sexually transmitted disease (STD) in humans. HPV types 16 and 18 as the highest risk types are related with gynecologic malignancy and cervical cancer (CC) among women worldwide. Recently, considerable development of genosensors, which allows dynamic monitoring of hybridization events for HPV-16 and 18, has been a topic of focus by many researchers. In this systematic review, we highlight the route of development of DNA-based genosensory detection methods for diagnosis of high risk of HPV precancer...
November 29, 2018: BioFactors
Yongliang Wang, Yuanchang Zhao, Anwesha Sarkar, Xuefeng Wang
Nucleases are important enzymes that cleave nucleic acids and play critical roles in DNA repair, immune defense and potentially in cancer invasion. However, their spatial dynamics at subcellular level is much less studied. Here we developed a surface-tethered nuclease sensor (SNS) which directly converts membrane-bound nuclease (MN) activity to fluorescent signal, therefore mapping MN activity on cell adhesion sites with high resolution and sensitivity. With SNS, we studied MN activity on the ventral membrane of cancer cells, where MN activity initially occurs in punctate regions and advances in a coral-shaped pattern...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Vladimir Mulens-Arias, Alice Balfourier, Alba Nicolás-Boluda, Florent Carn, Florence Gazeau
Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have been thoroughly studied as multifunctional theranosis agents for cell imaging and cancer therapy as well as sensors due to their tunable physical and chemical properties. Although AuNP have proved to be safe in a wide concentration range, yet other important biological effects can arise in the sublethal window of treatment. This is especially pivotal to understand how AuNP can affect cell biology when labeling steps are needed for cell tracking in vivo, as nanoparticle loading can affect cell migratory/invasion ability, a function mediated by filamentous actin-rich nanometric structures collectively called adhesomes...
November 28, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Tonći Šuštić, Sake van Wageningen, Evert Bosdriesz, Robert J D Reid, John Dittmar, Cor Lieftink, Roderick L Beijersbergen, Lodewyk F A Wessels, Rodney Rothstein, René Bernards
BACKGROUND: Mutations in KRAS are frequent in human cancer, yet effective targeted therapeutics for these cancers are still lacking. Attempts to drug the MEK kinases downstream of KRAS have had limited success in clinical trials. Understanding the specific genomic vulnerabilities of KRAS-driven cancers may uncover novel patient-tailored treatment options. METHODS: We first searched for synthetic lethal (SL) genetic interactions with mutant RAS in yeast with the ultimate aim to identify novel cancer-specific targets for therapy...
November 27, 2018: Genome Medicine
Patrick von Morgen, John Maciejowski
Telomere crisis is linked with many of the genomic alterations found in cancer genomes. A new understanding of how these alterations arise points towards an active role for innate immune sensors during crisis and to new opportunities for the treatment and diagnosis of cancer.
November 27, 2018: Genome Medicine
N Malara, F Gentile, N Coppedè, M L Coluccio, P Candeloro, G Perozziello, L Ferrara, M Giannetto, M Careri, A Castellini, C Mignogna, I Presta, C K Pirrone, D Maisano, A Donato, G Donato, M Greco, D Scumaci, G Cuda, F Casale, E Ferraro, S Bonacci, V Trunzo, V Mollace, V Onesto, R Majewska, F Amato, M Renne, N Innaro, G Sena, R Sacco, F Givigliano, C Voci, G Volpentesta, G Guzzi, A Lavano, E Scali, U Bottoni, E Di Fabrizio
Secretome of primary cultures is an accessible source of biological markers compared to more complex and less decipherable mixtures such as serum or plasma. The protonation state (PS) of secretome reflects the metabolism of cells and can be used for cancer early detection. Here, we demonstrate a superhydrophobic organic electrochemical device that measures PS in a drop of secretome derived from liquid biopsies. Using data from the sensor and principal component analysis (PCA), we developed algorithms able to efficiently discriminate tumour patients from non-tumour patients...
2018: NPJ Precision Oncology
Mari B Ishak Gabra, Ying Yang, Xazmin H Lowman, Michael A Reid, Thai Q Tran, Mei Kong
One of the hallmarks of cancer is the ability to reprogram cellular metabolism to increase the uptake of necessary nutrients such as glucose and glutamine. Driven by oncogenes, cancer cells have increased glutamine uptake to support their highly proliferative nature. However, as cancer cells continue to replicate and grow, they lose access to vascular tissues and deplete local supply of nutrients and oxygen. We previously showed that many tumor cells situate in a low glutamine microenvironment in vivo, yet the mechanisms of how they are able to adapt to this metabolic stress are still not fully understood...
November 26, 2018: Oncogenesis
Gohar Hakobyan, Hasmik Davtyan, Kristine Harutyunyan, Knarik Alexanyan, Yelizaveta Amirkhanyan, Anna L Gharibyan, Liana Asatryan, Yuri Tadevosyan
Phospholipids (PLs), key elements of cellular membranes, are regulated reciprocally with membrane proteins and can act as sensors for alterations in physiological or pathological states of cells including initiation and development of cancer. On the other hand, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) play an important role in antitumor immune response by reacting to cancerous modifications in distant organs. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that tumor initiation and development are reflected in the alteration pattern of the MNC PL component...
November 23, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
Xin Yan, Maosheng Yang, Zhang Zhang, Lanju Liang, Dequan Wei, Meng Wang, Mengjin Zhang, Tao Wang, Longhai Liu, Jianhua Xie, Jianquan Yao
A kind of novel biosensor based on the electromagnetic induced transparency like (EIT-like) metamaterials (MMs) have been proposed. It demonstrates that the symmetry-breaking double-splits ring resonators can realize the EIT-like plasmonic resonance, the according transparency window occurs at 1.67 THz. The coupled oscillators model illustrates that with the increase of asymmetry degree of double splits, the coupling between bright and dark mode is enhanced. Consequently, the non-radiative damping γ2 grows from 1...
November 14, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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