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Cancer Sensor

Jingheng Ning, Long Liu, Xin Luo, Min Wang, Donglin Liu, Rong Hou, Donger Chen, Jianhui Wang
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a key tumor marker for several common and deadly cancers. It is of great importance to develop efficient detection methods for its over-expression. In this work, an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method adjustable by anionic porphyrin for HER2 gene detection has been proposed, based on the impedance difference between multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and DNA. The interesting finding herein is that with the addition of anionic porphyrin, i...
October 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Maria Soler, Xiaokang Li, Aurelian John-Herpin, Julien Schmidt, George Coukos, Hatice Altug
The screening and analysis of T cells functional avidity for specific tumor-associated antigens is crucial for the development of personalized immunotherapies against cancer. The affinity and kinetics of a T cell receptor (TCR) binding to the peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC), expressed on tumor or antigen-presenting cells, have shown major implications in T cell activation and effector functions. We introduce an innovative methodology for the two-dimensional affinity analysis of TCR-pMHC in a label-free configuration by employing a multiparametric Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor (MP-SPR) functionalized with artificial cell membranes...
October 19, 2018: ACS Sensors
Johannes Blom, Christian Löwbeer, K Miriam Elfström, Marika Sventelius, Daniel Öhman, Deborah Saraste, Sven Törnberg
Objective Using quantitative Faecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) in colorectal cancer screening enables adjustment of the cut-off for a positive test. As men have higher stool blood levels and higher prevalence of colorectal neoplasia, different cut-off levels can be chosen for men and women. We evaluated participation and positivity rates switching from guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) (Hemoccult®) to FIT (OC-Sensor), using gender-specific cut-offs. Methods The colorectal cancer screening programme of Stockholm-Gotland, Sweden, started in 2008 and invited individuals aged 60-69 to biennial testing using gFOBT...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Screening
Hao He, Baolei Liu, Shihui Wen, Jiayan Liao, Gungun Lin, Jiajia Zhou, Dayong Jin
Paper-based lateral flow assays, though being low-cost and widely used for rapid in vitro diagnostics, are indicative and do not provide sufficient sensitivity for the detection and quantification of low abundant biomarkers for early stage cancer diagnosis. Here, we design a compact device to create a focused illumination spot with high irradiance, which activates a range of highly doped 50 nm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) to produce orders of magnitude brighter emissions. The device employs a very low-cost laser diode, simplified excitation, and collection optics and permits a mobile phone camera to record the results...
October 18, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Shunbin Ning, Ling Wang
The multifunctional signaling hub p62 is well recognized as ubiquitin sensor and selective autophagy adaptor under myriad stress conditions including cancer. As a ubiquitin sensor, p62 promotes NFκB activation by facilitating TRAF6 ubiquitination and aggregation. As a selective autophagy receptor, p62 links ubiquitinated substrates including p62 itself for lysosome-mediated degradation. p62 plays crucial roles in myriad cellular processes including DNA damage response, aging/senescence, infection and immunity, chronic inflammation, and cancerogenesis, dependent on or independent of autophagy...
October 16, 2018: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Dina Lakayan, Rob Haselberg, Rabah Gahoual, Govert W Somsen, Jeroen Kool
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are highly potent biopharmaceuticals designed for targeted cancer therapies. mAbs and ADCs can undergo modifications during production and storage which may affect binding to target receptors, potentially altering drug efficacy. In this work, liquid chromatography was coupled online to surface plasmon resonance (LC-SPR) to allow label-free affinity evaluation of mAb and ADC sample constituents (size and charge variants), under near-native conditions...
October 17, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Jingyun Luan, Dianwen Ju
Inflammasomes have emerged as critical innate sensors of host immune that defense against pathogen infection, metabolism syndrome, cellular stress and cancer metastasis in the liver. The assembly of inflammasome activates caspase-1, which promotes the maturation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-18 (IL-18), and initiates pyroptotic cell death (pyroptosis). IL-18 exerts pleiotropic effects on hepatic NK cells, priming FasL-mediated cytotoxicity, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-dependent responses to prevent the development of liver diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yih-Fung Chen, Li-Hsien Chen, Meng-Ru Shen
Stromal interaction molecules STIM1 and STIM2 are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ sensors that initiate store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE). The roles of STIM1-mediated SOCE in cancer biology have been highlighted in different types of cancer, but that of STIM2 is unknown. By the model of cervical cancer, here we focus on the cooperative regulation of SOCE by STIM proteins and their distinct roles in cellular function. Immunofluorescent stainings of surgical specimens of cervical cancer show that STIM1 and STIM2 are abundant in tumor tissues, but STIM1 is the major ER Ca 2+ sensor identified in the invasive front of cancer tissues...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jessica D Guillaume, Stephanie L Celano, Katie R Martin, Jeffrey P MacKeigan
Tumorigenesis relies on the ability of cancer cells to obtain necessary nutrients and fulfill increased energy demands associated with rapid proliferation. However, as a result of increased metabolite consumption and poor vascularization, most cancer cells must survive in a nutrient poor and high cellular stress microenvironment. Cancer cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to evade cell death and ensure proliferation; in particular, cancer cells utilize the catabolic process of autophagy. Autophagy creates an intracellular pool of metabolites by sequestering cytosolic macromolecules in double-membrane vesicles targeted for lysosomal degradation...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Katharine A White, Bree K Grillo-Hill, Mario Esquivel, Jobelle Peralta, Vivian N Bui, Ismahan Chire, Diane L Barber
β-Catenin functions as an adherens junction protein for cell-cell adhesion and as a signaling protein. β-catenin function is dependent on its stability, which is regulated by protein-protein interactions that stabilize β-catenin or target it for proteasome-mediated degradation. In this study, we show that β-catenin stability is regulated by intracellular pH (pHi) dynamics, with decreased stability at higher pHi in both mammalian cells and Drosophila melanogaster β-Catenin degradation requires phosphorylation of N-terminal residues for recognition by the E3 ligase β-TrCP...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Catheryn W Gray, Adelle C F Coster
Akt/PKB is an important crosstalk node at the junction between a number of major signalling pathways in the mammalian cell. As a significant nutrient sensor, Akt plays a central role in many cellular processes, including cell growth, cell survival and glucose metabolism. The dysregulation of Akt signalling is implicated in the development of many diseases, from diabetes to cancer. The translocation of Akt from cytosol to plasma membrane is a crucial step in Akt activation. Akt is initially synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum, but translocates to the plasma membrane (PM) in response to insulin stimulation, where it may be activated...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
H Rudolf de Boer, Martin Pool, Esméé Joosten, Marieke Everts, Douwe F Samplonius, Wijnand Helfrich, Harry J M Groen, Suzanne van Cooten, Fabrizia Fusetti, Rudolf S N Fehrmann, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Marcel A T M van Vugt
Tumor responses to cancer therapeutics are generally monitored every 2-3 months based on changes in tumor size. Dynamic biomarkers that reflect effective engagement of targeted therapeutics to the targeted pathway, so-called "effect sensors", would fulfill a need for non-invasive, drug-specific indicators of early treatment effect. Using a proteomics approach to identify effect sensors, we demonstrated MUC1 upregulation in response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting treatments in breast and lung cancer models...
October 10, 2018: Oncogene
Junko Johzuka, Toshihiro Ona, Masatoshi Nomura
In anti-cancer drug (candidate) screening, there is the need for evaluation at physiological concentrations similar to in vivo. This is often performed by three-dimensionally (3D) cultured cells; however, it requires a long culture period of 2 - 4 weeks with tedious experimental procedures. Here, we report on a high precision surface plasmon resonance (HP-SPR)-3D system. We developed the system with average fluctuation of 50 ndeg s-1 using two-dimensionally cultured cells attached onto a sensor chip by applying collagen on the top to change their activity into in vivo-like conditions without cell division...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Gnana P Krishnamoorthy, Natalie R Davidson, Steven D Leach, Zhen Zhao, Scott W Lowe, Gina Lee, Iñigo Landa, James Nagarajah, Mahesh Saqcena, Kamini Singh, Hans-Guido Wendel, Snjezana Dogan, Prasanna P Tamarapu, John Blenis, Ronald Ghossein, Jeffrey A Knauf, Gunnar Rätsch, James A Fagin
Translation initiation is orchestrated by the cap binding and 43S pre-initiation complexes (PIC). Eukaryotic initiation factor 1A (EIF1A) is essential for recruitment of the ternary complex and for assembling the 43S PIC. Recurrent EIF1AX mutations in papillary thyroid cancers are mutually exclusive with other drivers, including RAS. EIF1AX is enriched in advanced thyroid cancers, where it displays a striking co-occurrence with RAS, which cooperates to induce tumorigenesis in mice and isogenic cell lines. The C-terminal EIF1AX-A113splice mutation is the most prevalent in advanced thyroid cancer...
October 10, 2018: Cancer Discovery
Claire L Lyons, Helen M Roche
Nutritional status provides metabolic substrates to activate AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), the energy sensor that regulates metabolism. Recent evidence has demonstrated that AMPK has wider functions with respect to regulating immune cell metabolism and function. One such example is the regulatory role that AMPK has on NLRP3-inlflammasome and IL-1β biology. This in turn can result in subsequent negative downstream effects on glucose, lipid and insulin metabolism. Nutrient stress in the form of obesity can impact AMPK and whole-body metabolism, leading to complications such as type 2 diabetes and cancer risk...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Alisha Prasad, Syed Mohammad Abid Hasan, Steven Grouchy, Manas Ranjan Gartia
DNA microarrays are used to examine changes in gene expression of a large number of genes simultaneously by fluorescent labeling of complementary DNAs (cDNAs). The major bottleneck in implementing microarray technology in resource-limited settings lies in the detection instrument used for generating images of spotted oligonucleotides post-hybridization. While various methods such as a lateral flow assay have been presented to accomplish point-of-care disease detection, there is no simple and effective instrument available to gather spot images maintaining the standard microarray procedures...
October 10, 2018: Analyst
Yi-Fang Huang, Chung-Ta Chang, Chih-Hsin Muo, Hsiang-Hsi Hong, Yu-Fu Shen, Chia-Chang Lin, Shih-Ping Liu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate how the physical variables of fibular reconstructed mandibles with dental implants affects the relative bite force in oral cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over 7 years of follow-up, 13 oral cancer patients were enrolled who included 51 successful implants in the fibular flap. The tactile sensor analyzer evaluated the bite force. The crown-implant ratio, fibular, and rehabilitated dental length were measured using radiographic images...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Shuai Wang, Fei Qu, Wenli Han, Jinmao You
BACKGROUND: Differentiation of telomere length is of vital importance because telomere length is closely related with several deadly diseases such as cancer. Additionally, G-quadruplex and i-motif formation in telomeric DNA have been shown to act as a negative regulator of telomere elongation by telomerase in vivo and are considered as an attractive drug target for cancer chemotherapy. RESULTS: In this assay, Ag nanoclusters templated by hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (PEI-Ag NCs) are designed as a new novel resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) probe for sensitive differentiation of telomere length and monitoring special motifs (G-quadruplex and i-motif)...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Gayatri S Phadke, Jennifer E Satterwhite-Warden, Dharamainder Choudhary, John A Taylor, James F Rusling
We report a low-cost, sensitive, bead-based electrochemical immunoarray for soluble L-selectin (or CD62L protein), a potential biomarker for staging bladder cancer. We used a semi-automated modular microfluidic array with online antigen capture on superparamagnetic beads, which were subsequently delivered to a detection chamber housing multiple sensors. The assay was designed to accurately detect CD62L in diluted serum with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.25 ng mL-1 and a dynamic range of 0.25-100 ng mL-1. The microfluidic array gave significantly better accuracy and higher sensitivity than a standard ELISA kit, which was shown to be subject to significant systematic error at high and low concentration ranges...
October 8, 2018: Analyst
Franklin L Zhong, Kim Robinson, Daniel Eng Thiam Teo, Kiat-Yi Tan, Chrissie Lim, Cassandra R Harapas, Chien-Hsiung Yu, William H Xie, Radoslaw M Sobota, Veonice Bijin Au, Richard Hopkins, Andrea D'Osualdo, John C Reed, John E Connolly, Seth L Masters, Bruno Reversade
The inflammasome is a critical molecular complex that activates IL-1 driven inflammation in response to pathogen- and danger-associated signals. Germline mutations in the inflammasome sensor, NLRP1 cause Mendelian systemic autoimmunity and skin cancer susceptibility, but its endogenous regulation remains less understood. Here we use a proteomics screen to uncover dipeptidyl dipeptidase, DPP9 as a novel interacting partner with human NLRP1 and a related inflammasome regulator, CARD8. DPP9 functions as an endogenous inhibitor of NLRP1 inflammasome in diverse primary cell types from human and mice...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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