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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031210/effect-of-photoactivated-riboflavin-on-the-biodegradation-resistance-of-root-dentin-collagen
#1
Balasankar Meera Priyadarshini, Thong Beng Lu, Amr S Fawzy
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of UVA-activated 1% riboflavin solution on structural integrity; mechanical properties and stability; and collagenase-mediated collagen solubilisation resistance of demineralized root dentin collagen matrix. Root dentin specimens demineralized with 17% EDTA for 7days were treated with 1% RF for 1min followed by UVA photo-activation at intensity 7mW/cm(2) for 1min. Control specimens were completely devoid of riboflavin and/or UVA treatments. Specimens were challenged with bacterial collagenase type-I solution for different time-periods at 37°C...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029228/development-of-a-whole-task-simulator-for-carotid-endarterectomy
#2
Gabrielle Santangelo, Doran Mix, Ahmed Ghazi, Michael Stoner, G Edward Vates, Jonathan J Stone
BACKGROUND: Surgical education relies on operative exposure with live patients. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) demands an experienced surgeon with a very low complication rate. The high-risk nature of this procedure and the decline in number of CEAs performed annually has created a gap in residency training. OBJECTIVE: To develop a high-fidelity whole-task simulation for CEA that demonstrates content, construct, and face validity. METHODS: Anatomically accurate models of the human neck were created using multilayered poly-vinyl alcohol hydrogels...
September 27, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028608/establishment-of-nerve-growth-factor-gradients-on-aligned-chitosan-polylactide-alginate-fibers-for-neural-tissue-engineering-applications
#3
Hua Wu, Jiaoyan Liu, Qing Fang, Bo Xiao, Ying Wan
Nerve conduits containing aligned fibrous fillers with gradiently distributed signal molecules are essential for long-gap nerve repair. This study was to develop an approach for establishing nerve growth factor (NGF) gradients onto the aligned chitosan-polylactide (CH-PLA) fibers. CH-PLA containing 37wt% of PLA was spun into fibers using a wet-spinning technique. CH-PLA fibers showed much higher wet-state tensile strength, enhanced degradation tolerance and significantly lower swelling degree in comparison to chitosan fibers...
October 5, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028411/expanding-the-map-of-protein-rna-interaction-sites-via-cell-fusion-followed-by-par-clip
#4
Florian Hinze, Philipp Drewe-Boß, Miha Milek, Uwe Ohler, Markus Landthaler, Michael Gotthardt
PAR-CLIP (photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation) facilitates the identification and mapping of protein/RNA interactions. So far, it has been limited to select cell-lines as it requires efficient 4SU uptake. To increase transcriptome complexity and thus identify additional RNA-protein interaction sites we fused HEK 293 T-Rex cells (HEK293-Y) that express the RNA binding protein YBX1 with PC12 cells expressing eGFP (PC12-eGFP). The resulting hybrids enable PAR-CLIP on a neuronally expanded transcriptome (Fusion-CLIP) and serve as a proof of principle...
October 13, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027584/the-ceratopteris-fern-developing-motile-gamete-walls-contain-diverse%C3%A2-polysaccharides-but-not-pectin
#5
Renee A Lopez, Karen S Renzaglia
Unlike most plant cell walls, the five consecutive walls laid down during spermatogenesis in the model fern Ceratopteris contain sparse cellulose, lack pectin and are enriched with callose and hemicelluloses. Seed-free plants like bryophytes and pteridophytes produce swimming male gametes for sexual reproduction. During spermatogenesis, unique walls are formed that are essential to the appropriate development and maturation of the motile gametes. Other than the detection of callose and general wall polysaccharides in scattered groups, little is known about the sequence of wall formation and the composition of these walls during sperm cell differentiation in plants that produce swimming sperm...
October 13, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027170/chromatin-immunoprecipitation-of-skeletal-muscle-tissue
#6
Amarjit Saini, Carl Johan Sundberg
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is an invaluable method for studying interactions between histone proteins and genomic DNA regions and transcriptional regulation using antibodies to enrich genomic regions associated with these epitopes. Either to monitor the presence of histones with post-translational modifications at specific genomic locations or to measure transcription factor interactions with a candidate target gene, protein-DNA complexes are most commonly crosslinked using formaldehyde, which stabilizes these transient interactions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027167/characterization-of-the-nucleosome-landscape-by-micrococcal-nuclease-sequencing-mnase-seq
#7
Wieteke Anna Maria Hoeijmakers, Richárd Bártfai
MNase-seq allows the genome-wide examination of the nucleosome landscape by determination of nucleosome positioning and occupancy. Typically, native or formaldehyde fixed chromatin is subjected to digestion by micrococcal nuclease (MNase), which degrades linker DNA and yields mainly mono-nucleosomes. The resulting material can be processed directly or can be subjected to an optional chromatin immunoprecipitation step (MNase-ChIP-seq). De-crosslinked and purified DNA is then subjected to next-generation sequencing...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025662/synthesis-and-characterization-of-a-novel-double-cross-linked-hydrogel-based-on-diels-alder-click-reaction-and-coordination-bonding
#8
Shubin Li, Lu Wang, Xuemei Yu, Chengli Wang, Zhenyu Wang
Hydrogels, promising biological materials, need to have both strong mechanical properties and also inherent self-healing properties. In this work a double cross-linked network (DN) hydrogel was designed and prepared by combining a Diels-Alder click reaction and coordination effects. This DN hydrogel had good thermodynamic properties, anti-EDTA performance and self-healing properties. In addition, the mechanical properties, swelling properties and surface morphology of DN hydrogels can be controlled by adjusting the ratio of Fe(3+)-catechol...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025659/multi-responsive-hydrogels-with-ucst-and-lcst-induced-shrinking-and-controlled-release-behaviors-of-rhodamine-b
#9
Hui Sun, Jing Chen, Xia Han, Honglai Liu
By using a disulfide-functionalized crosslinker, a pH- and thermo-responsive 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) monomer and a zwitterionic sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) monomer were conjugated to fabricate a multi-responsive P(DMAEMA-SS-SBMA) copolymeric hydrogel. Apparent UCST and LCST volume transitions were observed in the P(DMAEMA-SS-SBMA) hydrogels with equivalent weight fractions of monomers. Different pore size and response sensitivity of shrunken structures below UCST and above LCST were visualized by SEM images...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025638/identification-of-anti-cancer-potential-of-doxazocin-loading-into-chitosan-based-biodegradable-hydrogels-for-on-site-delivery-to-treat-cervical-cancer
#10
Arshad Jamal, Lubna Shahzadi, Samreen Ahtzaz, Saba Zahid, Aqif Anwar Chaudhry, Ihtesham Ur Rehman, Muhammad Yar
In this study, an effective, biocompatible and biodegradable co-polymer comprising of chitosan (CS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogels, chemically crosslinked and impregnated with doxazocin, is reported. The chemical structural properties of the hydrogels were evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and physical properties were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The swelling behaviour is an important parameter for drug release mechanism and was investigated to find out the solution absorption capacity of the synthesized hydrogels...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025637/electrospun-biphasic-tubular-scaffold-with-enhanced-mechanical-properties-for-vascular-tissue-engineering
#11
Abdalla Abdal-Hay, Michal Bartnikowski, Stephen Hamlet, Sašo Ivanovski
Polymer scaffolds produced through an electrospinning process are frequently explored as tissue substitutes for regenerative medicine. Despite offering desirable surface area to volume ratios and tailorable pore sizes, their poor structural mechanical properties limit their applicability in load-bearing regions. In this study, we present a simple strategy to improve the mechanical properties of a vascular graft scaffold. We achieved the formation of biphasic tubular scaffolds by electrospinning polyurethane (PU) onto an airbrushed tube made of polycaprolactone (PCL)...
January 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024920/chitosan-hydroxyapatite-ha-hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose-hpmc-spongy-scaffolds-synthesis-and-evaluation-as-potential-alveolar-bone-substitutes
#12
Haffsah Iqbal, Moazzam Ali, Rabia Zeeshan, Zeeshan Mutahir, Farasat Iqbal, Muhammad Azhar Hayat Nawaz, Lubna Shahzadi, Aqif Anwar Chaudhry, Muhammad Yar, Shifang Luan, Ather Farooq Khan, Ihtesham-Ur Rehman
Alveolar bone loss is associated with infections and its augmentation is a pre-requisite for the success of dental implants. In present study, we aim to develop and evaluate novel freeze dried doxycycline loaded chitosan (CS)/hydroxyapatite (HA) spongy scaffolds where hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) was added as a crosslinker. Scaffolds displayed compressive strength of 14MPa/cm(3) and 0.34 as elastic response. The interconnected pore diameter was 41-273μm, favorably provided the template supporting cells and transport...
October 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024724/paxgene-fixation-enables-comprehensive-metabolomic-and-proteomic-analyses-of-tissue-specimens-by-maldi-msi
#13
Christian Urban, Achim Buck, Jens T Siveke, Florian Lordick, Birgit Luber, Axel Walch, Michaela Aichler
An alcohol-based non-crosslinking tissue fixative, PAXgene Tissue System, has been proposed as alternative fixation method to formalin, providing superior and morphological preservation. To date, metabolites have not been assessed in PAXgene-fixed tissues. The study focuses on a comparison between PAXgene and standard formalin fixation for metabolomic analysis by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging. Therefore, fifty-six samples from seven mice organs were fixed with PAXgene (PFPE) or formalin (FFPE), embedded in paraffin, and processed to a tissue microarray...
October 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024393/directed-assembly-of-gold-nanorods-by-terminal-base-pairing-of-surface-grafted-dna
#14
Guoqing Wang, Yoshitsugu Akiyama, Naoki Kanayama, Tohru Takarada, Mizuo Maeda
Directed assemblies of anisotropic metal nanoparticles exhibit attractive physical and chemical properties. However, an effective methodology to prepare differently directed assemblies from the same anisotropic nanoparticles is not yet available. Gold nanorods (AuNRs) region-selectively modified with different DNA strands can form side-by-side (SBS) and end-to-end (ETE) assemblies in a non-crosslinking manner. When the complementary DNA is hybridized to the surface-bound DNA, stacking interaction between the blunt ends takes place in the designated regions...
October 12, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024376/evaluation-of-collagen-foam-poly-l-lactic-acid-nanofiber-mesh-and-decellularized-matrices-for-corneal-regeneration
#15
Bahar Aslan, Selcan Guler, Atakan Tevlek, Halil Murat Aydin
Corneal tissue engineering efforts to obtain corneal tissue matrices through various types of materials for the replacement of damaged tissues. In this study, three different corneal constructs were prepared and evaluated in terms of morphological, optical, and biological characteristics. Type-I collagen was used to obtain collagen foam scaffolds through dehydrothermal crosslinking, while poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) was used to produce both random and aligned oriented electrospun corneal constructs. Bovine corneas were decellularized as third matrix...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024110/therapeutic-gas-responsive-hydrogel
#16
Junghong Park, Swapan Pramanick, Dongsik Park, Jiwon Yeo, Jihyun Lee, Haeshin Lee, Won Jong Kim
Nitric oxide (NO) is a crucial signaling molecule with various functions in physiological systems. Due to its potent biological effect, the preparation of responsive biomaterials upon NO having temporally transient properties is a challenging task. This study represents the first therapeutic-gas (i.e., NO)-responsive hydrogel by incorporating a NO-cleavable crosslinker. The hydrogel is rapidly swollen in response to NO, and not to other gases. Furthermore, the NO-responsive gel is converted to enzyme-responsive gels by cascade reactions from an enzyme to NO production for which the NO precursor is a substrate of the enzyme...
October 11, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023400/electrostatic-self-assembled-chitosan-pectin-nano-and-microparticles-for-insulin-delivery
#17
Vinicius B V Maciel, Cristiana M P Yoshida, Susana M S S Pereira, Francisco M Goycoolea, Telma T Franco
A polyelectrolyte complex system of chitosan-pectin nano- and microparticles was developed to encapsulate the hormone insulin. The aim of this work was to obtain small particles for oral insulin delivery without chemical crosslinkers based on natural and biodegradable polysaccharides. The nano- and microparticles were developed using chitosans (with different degrees of acetylation: 15.0% and 28.8%) and pectin solutions at various charge ratios (n⁺/n(-) given by the chitosan/pectin mass ratio) and total charge...
October 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021793/intracellular-crosslinking-of-filoviral-nucleoproteins-with-xintrabodies-restricts-viral-packaging
#18
Tamarand Lee Darling, Laura Jo Sherwood, Andrew Hayhurst
Viruses assemble large macromolecular repeat structures that become part of the infectious particles or virions. Ribonucleocapsids (RNCs) of negative strand RNA viruses are a prime example where repetition of nucleoprotein (NP) along the genome creates a core polymeric helical scaffold that accommodates other nucleocapsid proteins including viral polymerase. The RNCs are transported through the cytosol for packaging into virions through association with viral matrix proteins at cell membranes. We hypothesized that RNC would be ideal targets for crosslinkers engineered to promote aberrant protein-protein interactions, thereby blocking their orderly transport and packaging...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021344/a-microtubule-polymerase-cooperates-with-the-kinesin-6-motor-and-a-microtubule-crosslinker-to-promote-bipolar-spindle-assembly-in-the-absence-of-kinesin-5-and-kinesin-14-in-fission-yeast
#19
Masashi Yukawa, Tomoki Kawakami, Masaki Okazaki, Kazunori Kume, Ngang Heok Tang, Takashi Toda
Accurate chromosome segregation relies on the bipolar mitotic spindle. In many eukaryotes, spindle formation is driven by the plus-end directed motor Kinesin-5 that generates outward force to establish spindle bipolarity. Its inhibition leads to the emergence of monopolar spindles with mitotic arrest. Intriguingly, simultaneous inactivation of the minus-end directed motor Kinesin-14 restores spindle bipolarity in many systems. Here we show that in fission yeast, three independent pathways contribute to spindle bipolarity in the absence of Kinesin-5/Cut7 and Kinesin-14/Pkl1...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021208/constitutive-role-of-the-fanconi-anemia-d2-gene-in-the-replication-stress-response
#20
Yanyan Tian, Xi Shen, Rui Wang, Naeh Klages-Mundt, Erica J Lynn, Sara K Martin, Yin Ye, Min Gao, Junjie Chen, Katharina Schlacher, Lei Li
In response to DNA crosslinking damage, the Fanconi anemia (FA) core complex activates the FA pathway by monoubiquitinating Fanconi anemia complementation group D2 (FANCD2) for the initiation of the nucleolytic processing of the DNA crosslinks and stabilization of stalled replication forks. Given that all the classic FA proteins coordinately monoubiquitinate FANCD2, it is unclear why losses of individual classic FA genes yield varying cellular sensitivities to crosslinking damage. To address this question, we generated cellular knockout models of FA core complex components and FANCD2 and found that FANCD2-null mutants display higher levels of spontaneous chromosomal damage and hypersensitivity to replication-blocking lesions than Fanconi anemia complementation group L (FANCL)-null mutants, suggesting that FANCD2 provides a basal level of DNA protection countering endogenous lesions in the absence of monoubiquitination...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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