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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103321/derivative-of-extremophilic-50s-ribosomal-protein-l35ae-as-an-alternative-protein-scaffold
#1
Anna V Lomonosova, Andrei B Ulitin, Alexei S Kazakov, Tajib A Mirzabekov, Eugene A Permyakov, Sergei E Permyakov
Small antibody mimetics, or alternative binding proteins (ABPs), extend and complement antibody functionality with numerous applications in research, diagnostics and therapeutics. Given the superiority of ABPs, the last two decades have witnessed development of dozens of alternative protein scaffolds (APSs) for the design of ABPs. Proteins from extremophiles with their high structural stability are especially favorable for APS design. Here, a 10X mutant of the 50S ribosomal protein L35Ae from hyperthermophilic archaea Pyrococcus horikoshii has been probed as an APS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101961/antibody-formation-towards-porcine-tissue-in-patients-implanted-with-crosslinked-heart-valves-is-directed-to-antigenic-tissue-proteins-and-%C3%AE-gal-epitopes-and-is-reduced-in-healthy-vegetarian-subjects
#2
Ulrike Böer, Falk F R Buettner, Ariane Schridde, Melanie Klingenberg, Samir Sarikouch, Axel Haverich, Mathias Wilhelmi
BACKGROUND: Glutaraldehyde-fixed porcine heart valves (ga-pV) are one of the most frequently used substitutes for insufficient aortic and pulmonary heart valves which, however, degenerate after 10-15 years. Yet, xeno-immunogenicity of ga-pV in humans including identification of immunogens still needs to be investigated. We here determined the immunogenicity of ga-pV in patients with respect to antibody formation, identity of immunogens and potential options to reduce antibody levels. METHODS: Levels of tissue-specific and anti-αGal antibodies were determined retrospectively in patients who received ga-pV for 51 months (n=4), 25 months (n=6) or 5 months (n=4) and compared to age-matched untreated subjects (n=10) or younger subjects with or without vegetarian diet (n=12/15)...
January 18, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101861/structural-transition-of-trichocyte-keratin-intermediate-filaments-during-development-in-the-hair-follicle
#3
R D Bruce Fraser, David A D Parry
The intermediate filaments (IF) in trichocyte (hard α-) keratin are unique amongst the various classes of IF in having not one but two topologically-distinct structures. The first is formed at an early stage of hair development in a reducing environment within the cells in the lower part of the follicle. The second structure occurs at a later stage of hair development in the upper part of the follicle, where there is a transition to an oxidizing environment. Crosslinking studies reveal that molecular slippage occurs within the IF upon oxidation and that this results in many cysteine residues lying in near axial alignment, thereby facilitating disulphide bond formation...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101692/the-assembly-and-function-of-perinuclear-actin-cap-in-migrating-cells
#4
Miloslava Maninova, Josef Caslavsky, Tomas Vomastek
Stress fibers are actin bundles encompassing actin filaments, actin-crosslinking, and actin-associated proteins that represent the major contractile system in the cell. Different types of stress fibers assemble in adherent cells, and they are central to diverse cellular processes including establishment of the cell shape, morphogenesis, cell polarization, and migration. Stress fibers display specific cellular organization and localization, with ventral fibers present at the basal side, and dorsal fibers and transverse actin arcs rising at the cell front from the ventral to the dorsal side and toward the nucleus...
January 18, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101423/assessing-the-effects-of-riboflavin-uv-a-crosslinking-on-porcine-corneal-mechanical-anisotropy-with-optical-coherence-elastography
#5
Manmohan Singh, Jiasong Li, Zhaolong Han, Raksha Raghunathan, Achuth Nair, Chen Wu, Chih-Hao Liu, Salavat Aglyamov, Michael D Twa, Kirill V Larin
In this work we utilize optical coherence elastography (OCE) to assess the effects of UV-A/riboflavin corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) on the mechanical anisotropy of in situ porcine corneas at various intraocular pressures (IOP). There was a distinct meridian of increased Young's modulus in all samples, and the mechanical anisotropy increased as a function of IOP and also after CXL. The presented noncontact OCE technique was able to quantify the Young's modulus and elastic anisotropy of the cornea and their changes as a function of IOP and CXL, opening new avenues of research for evaluating the effects of CXL on corneal biomechanical properties...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100778/structure-of-the-z-ring-associated-protein-zapd-bound-to-the-c-terminal-domain-of-the-tubulin-like-protein-ftsz-suggests-mechanism-of-z-ring-stabilization-through-ftsz-crosslinking
#6
Maria Schumacher, Kuo-Hsiang Huang, Wenjie Zeng, Anuradha Janakiraman
Cell division in most bacteria is mediated by the tubulin-like FtsZ protein, which polymerizes in a GTP-dependent manner to form the cytokinetic Z ring. A diverse repertoire of FtsZ binding proteins affect FtsZ localization and polymerization to ensure correct Z ring formation. Many of these proteins bind the C-terminal domain (CTD) of FtsZ, which serves as a hub for FtsZ regulation. FtsZ ring-associated proteins, ZapA-D (Zaps), are important FtsZ regulatory proteins that stabilize FtsZ assembly and enhance Z ring formation by increasing lateral assembly of FtsZ protofilaments, which then form the Z ring...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099890/an-investigation-on-biosorption-of-nitrate-from-water-by-chitosan-based-organic-inorganic-hybrid-biocomposites
#7
Wondalem Misganaw Golie, Sreedevi Upadhyayula
In this study, three types of crosslinked organic-inorganic hybrid biocomposites, such as chitosan/bentonite, chitosan/titanium oxide, and chitosan/alumina (ChBT, ChTi, and ChAl respectively) were prepared and utilized for the removal of nitrate from water by batch biosorption experiments. Effects of crosslinker dose, initial nitrate concentration, contact time, initial pH of the nitrate solution, biosorbent dose, temperature, and the presence of competitive ions on adsorption capacities were investigated. Actual adsorption capacities of ChBT, ChTi, and ChAl at a crosslinker to chitosan solution ratio of 1:40 were 35...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098999/dna-deformation-coupled-recognition-of-8-oxoguanine-conformational-kinetic-gating-in-human-dna-glycosylase
#8
Haoquan Li, Anton V Endutkin, Christina Bergonzo, Fu Lin, Arthur P Grollman, Dmitry O Zharkov, Carlos Simmerling
8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a mutagenic DNA lesion generated under oxidative stress, differs from its precursor guanine by only two substitutions (O8 and H7). Human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1) can locate and remove 8-oxoG through extrusion and excision. To date, it remains unclear how OGG1 efficiently distinguishes 8-oxoG from a large excess of undamaged DNA bases. We recently showed that formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg), a bacterial functional analog of OGG1, can selectively facilitate eversion of oxoG by stabilizing several intermediate states, and it is intriguing whether OGG1 also employs a similar mechanism in lesion recognition...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098968/functional-microcapsules-via-thiol-ene-photopolymerization-in-droplet-based-microfluidics
#9
Douglas V Amato, Hyomin Lee, Joerg G Werner, David A Weitz, Derek L Patton
Thiol-ene chemistry was exploited in droplet-based microfluidics to fabricate advanced microcapsules with tunable encapsulation, degradation, and thermal properties. In addition, by utilizing the thiol-ene photopolymerization with tunable crosslink density, we demonstrate the importance of monomer conversion on the retention of omniphilic cargo in double emulsion templated microcapsules. Furthermore, we highlight the rapid cure kinetics afforded by thiol-ene chemistry in a continuous flow photopatterning device for hemispherical microparticle production...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098316/a-family-of-mechanically-adaptive-supramolecular-graphene-oxide-poly-ethylenimine-hydrogels-from-aqueous-assembly
#10
Chao Wang, Yipin Duan, Nicole S Zacharia, Bryan D Vogt
Composite hydrogels containing graphene oxide (GO) offer advantageous mechanical properties, but tuning these properties generally requires the synthesis of new hydrogels or if the hydrogel is thermally responsive, utilization of a chemistry determined temperature window. Here, we demonstrate a simple route to generate a family of GO-based hydrogels from aqueous solution based assembly of GO with polycationic poly(ethylenimine), PEI, without any secondary chemical crosslinking. Tuning the ratio of GO : PEI during the assembly produces a family of hydrogels that responds to mechanical compression by irreversibly altering their equilibrium water content and mechanical properties in a controllable manner...
January 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097243/range-of-motion-sacral-screw-and-rod-strain-in-long-posterior-spinal-constructs-a-biomechanical-comparison-between-s2-alar-iliac-screws-with-traditional-fixation-strategies
#11
Chester E Sutterlin, Antony Field, Lisa A Ferrara, Andrew L Freeman, Kevin Phan
BACKGROUND: S1 screw failure and L5/S1 non-union are issues with long fusions to S1. Improved construct stiffness and S1 screw offloading can help avoid this. S2AI screws have shown to provide similar stiffness to iliac screws when added to L3-S1 constructs. We sought to examine and compare the biomechanical effects on an L2-S1 pedicle screw construct of adding S2AI screws, AxiaLIF, L5-S1 interbody support via transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), and to examine the effect of the addition of cross connectors to each of these constructs...
December 2016: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094986/improving-internal-cell-colonization-of-porous-scaffolds-with-chemical-gradients-produced-by-plasma-assisted-approaches
#12
Eloisa Sardella, Rania A Salama, Gihan H Waly, A Nour Habib, Pietro Favia, Roberto Gristina
Cell colonization of the surrounding environment is a very significant process in both physiological and pathological events. In order to understand the tissue regeneration process and thereby provide guidance principles for designing new biomaterials, it is of paramount importance to study the cell colonization in the presence of physical, chemical and biological cues. Flat "gradient" materials are generally used with this purpose. Three dimensional (3D) gradient scaffolds mimicking more precisely the situation in vivo, are somewhat more complex to fabricate and characterize...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094912/strong-strain-sensing-performance-of-natural-rubber-nanocomposites
#13
Tamil Selvan Natarajan, Eshwaran Subramani Bhagavatheswaran, Klaus Werner Stöckelhuber, Sven Wiessner, Petra Potschke, Gert Heinrich, Amit Das
A detail study concerning the strain (tensile) dependent electrical conductivity of elastomeric composites is reported in this present paper. Multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT), conducting carbon black (CB) and their combinations were considered as conducting filler in crosslinked natural rubber matrix. The loadings of the fillers were considered from 3 to 11 phr (filler concentration close to their percolation threshold). Without hindering the elastic nature of the composite (reversible stretchability up to several 100 %), the change of relative resistance, ∆R/R (∆R is the change in the resistance with respect to strain and R is the initial resistance of the sample) of the CB filled composites was found to be as much as ~1300 at around 120 % elongation...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094370/probing-sub-nano-level-molecular-packing-and-correlated-positron-annihilation-characteristics-of-ionic-cross-linked-chitosan-membranes-using-positron-annihilation-spectroscopy
#14
Rui Xia, Xingzhong Cao, Meizhen Gao, Peng Zhang, Minfeng Zeng, Baoyi Wang, Long Wei
Chitosan, CS, cross-linked with bivalent palladium has shown enhanced mechanical and thermal properties depending on the transformation of the structure at a microscopic scale. In the present study, CS directly cross-linked by palladium cation membranes (CS-cr-PM) was prepared through a solution-casting method. Mobility of chitosan chains were greatly reduced after crosslinking, making a great reduction in the swelling ratio studied by a water-swelling degree measurement, which led to an improvement in molecular chain rigidity...
January 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093865/nanoscale-physicochemical-properties-of-chain-and-step-growth-polymerized-peg-hydrogels-affect-cell-material-interactions
#15
Kanika Vats, Graham Marsh, Kristen Harding, Ioannis Zampetakis, Richard E Waugh, Danielle S W Benoit
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels provide a versatile platform to develop cell instructive materials through incorporation of a variety of cell adhesive ligands and degradable chemistries. Synthesis of PEG gels can be accomplished via two mechanisms: chain and step growth polymerizations. The mechanism dramatically impacts hydrogel nanostructure, whereby chain polymerized hydrogels are highly heterogeneous and step growth networks exhibit more uniform structures. Underpinning these alterations in nanostructure of chain polymerized hydrogels are densely-packed hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) or poly(acrylate) kinetic chains between hydrophilic PEG crosslinkers...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093074/insights-into-the-design-and-interpretation-of-iclip-experiments
#16
Nejc Haberman, Ina Huppertz, Jan Attig, Julian König, Zhen Wang, Christian Hauer, Matthias W Hentze, Andreas E Kulozik, Hervé Le Hir, Tomaž Curk, Christopher R Sibley, Kathi Zarnack, Jernej Ule
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) identifies the sites on RNAs that are in direct contact with RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Several variants of CLIP exist, which require different computational approaches for analysis. This variety of approaches can create challenges for a novice user and can hamper insights from multi-study comparisons. Here, we produce data with multiple variants of CLIP and evaluate the data with various computational methods to better understand their suitability...
January 16, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092855/lc-ms-ms-determination-of-d-mannose-in-human-serum-as-a-potential-cancer-biomarker
#17
Lyndsey White, Jing Ma, Su Liang, Beatriz Sanchez-Espiridion, Dong Liang
Several metabolites in human serum have been identified as potential cancer biomarkers for early detection. This study focuses on the LC-MS/MS method development and validation of d-mannose in human serum. Surrogate blank serum, coupled with stable isotope d-mannose-(13)C6, as internal standard, was used for generating standard curves ranging from 1 to 50μg/mL. Separation was achieved by an Agilent 1200 series HPLC equipped with a SUPELCOGELTM Pb, 6% Crosslinked column with HPLC water as a mobile phase at flow rate of 0...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092158/polyolefin-thermoplastics-for-multiple-shape-and-reversible-shape-memory
#18
Yuan Gao, Weifeng Liu, Shiping Zhu
This work reports the first pure hydrocarbon thermoplastic polyolefin material with reversible shape memory effect under stress-free or very small external loading condition. A thermoplastic ethylene/1-octene diblock copolymer with designed chain microstructure was synthesized. The polyolefin material performed not only the conventional one-way multi-shape memory effects, but also a two-way reversible shape memory effect (RSME). The elongation and contraction induced by oriented crystallization with heating was confirmed as the mechanism of RSME without chemical crosslinking...
January 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091670/enhanced-temperature-effect-of-electrorheological-fluid-based-on-cross-linked-poly-ionic-liquid-particles-rheological-and-dielectric-relaxation-studies
#19
Yang Liu, Jinhua Yuan, Yuezhen Dong, Xiaopeng Zhao, Jianbo Yin
Recent research of using poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) particles as the dispersal phase has provided a new strategy to develop a high-performance anhydrous polyelectrolyte-based electrorheological (ER) fluid. However, the working temperature range of the ER fluid of PIL particles is still narrow due to an inherently low glass transfer temperature caused by the plasticization of polyatomic organic counter ions in PILs. In this paper, we develop a new ER system based on cross-linked PIL (C-PIL) particles and demonstrate that crosslinking with a suitable degree only slightly degrades the ER properties but significantly improves the working temperature range of the ER fluid of PIL particles...
January 16, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088691/stability-effect-of-cholesterol-poly-acrylic-acid-in-a-stimuli-responsive-polymer-liposome-complex-obtained-from-soybean-lecithin-for-controlled-drug-delivery
#20
M G Simões, P Alves, Manuela Carvalheiro, P N Simões
The development of polymer-liposome complexes (PLCs), in particular for biomedical applications, has grown significantly in the last decades. The importance of these studies comes from the emerging need in finding intelligent controlled release systems, more predictable, effective and selective, for applications in several areas, such as treatment and/or diagnosis of cancer, neurological, dermatological, ophthalmic and orthopedic diseases, gene therapy, cosmetic treatments, and food engineering. This work reports the development and characterization of a pH sensitive system for controlled release based on PLCs...
January 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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