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salt tolerance mechanism

Mitchell J L Morton, Mariam Awlia, Nadia Al-Tamimi, Stephanie Saade, Yveline Pailles, Sónia Negrão, Mark Tester
Salt stress limits the productivity of crops grown under saline conditions, leading to substantial yield losses in saline soils and under brackish and saline irrigation. Salt tolerant crops could alleviate these losses while both increasing irrigation opportunities and reducing agricultural demands on dwindling freshwater resources. However, despite significant efforts, progress towards this goal has been limited, largely because of genetic complexity of salt tolerance for agronomically important yield-related traits...
December 12, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Le Guan, Muhammad Salman Haider, Nadeem Khan, Maazullah Nasim, Songtao Jiu, Muhammad Fiaz, Xudong Zhu, Kekun Zhang, Jinggui Fang
Salinity is ubiquitous abiotic stress factor limiting viticulture productivity worldwide. However, the grapevine is vulnerable to salt stress, which severely affects growth and development of the vine. Hence, it is crucial to delve into the salt resistance mechanism and screen out salt-resistance prediction marker genes; we implicated RNA-sequence (RNA-seq) technology to compare the grapevine transcriptome profile to salt stress. Results showed 2472 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in total in salt-responsive grapevine leaves, including 1067 up-regulated and 1405 down-regulated DEGs...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Liangliang Zhang, Martin Oestreich
A silylation of vinyliodonium salts using zinc-based silicon reagents as nucleophiles is reported. This cross-coupling is catalyzed by copper, and vinylsilanes are obtained in high yield likely following a Cu(I)/Cu(III) reaction mechanism. The procedure is operationally simple, neither air- nor moisture-sensitive, and tolerant of a range of functional groups. The new method is an addition to the still limited number of transition-metal-catalyzed vinyl C(sp2 )-Si cross-coupling reactions.
December 12, 2018: Organic Letters
Cunzhi Peng, Lili Chang, Qian Yang, Zheng Tong, Dan Wang, Yanhua Tan, Yong Sun, Xiaoping Yi, Guohua Ding, Junhan Xiao, Ying Zhang, Xuchu Wang
Sesuvium portulacastrum, an important mangrove-associated true halophyte belongs to the family Aizoaceae, has excellent salt tolerance. Chloroplasts are the most sensitive organelles involved in the response to salinity. However, the regulation mechanism of chloroplasts of S. portulacastrum under salinity stress has not been reported. In this study, morphological and physiological analyses of leaves and comparative proteomics of chloroplasts isolated from the leaves of S. portulacastrum under different NaCl treatments were performed...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Péter Poór, Péter Borbély, Zalán Czékus, Zoltán Takács, Attila Ördög, Boris Popović, Irma Tari
Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many salt stress-related processes of plants such as water balance, osmotic stress tolerance and photosynthesis. In this study we investigated the responses of wild type (WT) and the ABA-deficient sitiens mutant of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Rheinlands Ruhm) to sublethal and lethal salt stress elicited by 100 mM and 250 mM NaCl, respectively. Sitiens mutants displayed much higher decrease in water potential, stomatal conductance and net CO2 assimilation rate under high salinity, especially at lethal salt stress, than the WT...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Chuanying Fang, Kang Li, Yangyang Wu, Dehong Wang, Junjie Zhou, Xiaoli Liu, Yufei Li, Cheng Jin, Xianqing Liu, Luis Alejandro José Mur, Jie Luo
Salt stress is a major environmental threat to meeting the food demands of an increasing global population. The identification and exploitation of salt adaption mechanisms in plants is therefore vital for crop breeding. We here define the rice mutant (sstm1) whose salt-sensitivity was unambiguously assigned to a single T-DNA insertion through segregational analysis following backcrossing to the wild type line. Insertion was within OsTSD2, which encoded a pectin methyltransferase. The sstm1 and allelic mutants, collectively known as tsd2, displayed higher content of Na+ and lower level of K+ in the shoot, which is likely to lead to reduced salt tolerance...
December 7, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Hengyou Zhang, Christine Zuelsdorf, Darin Penneys, Shoujin Fan, Janice Kofsky, Bao-Hua Song
Strophostyles helvola is a close relative to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and inhabits both coastal and non-coastal regions in North America. However, the mechanism of saline adaptation in S. helvola remains unclear. A transcriptome profiling would facilitate dissecting the underlying molecular mechanisms in salinity-adapted S. helvola. In this study, we reported the RNA-seq analyses of two genotypes (a salt-tolerant beach genotype and a salt-sensitive inland genotype) of S. helvola stressed with salt. S...
December 11, 2018: Scientific Data
Silvia Busoms, Pirita Paajanen, Sarah Marburger, Sian Bray, Xin-Yuan Huang, Charlotte Poschenrieder, Levi Yant, David E Salt
Stressors such as soil salinity and dehydration are major constraints on plant growth, causing worldwide crop losses. Compounding these insults, increasing climate volatility requires adaptation to fluctuating conditions. Salinity stress responses are relatively well understood in Arabidopsis thaliana , making this system suited for the rapid molecular dissection of evolutionary mechanisms. In a large-scale genomic analysis of Catalonian A. thaliana , we resequenced 77 individuals from multiple salinity gradients along the coast and integrated these data with 1,135 worldwide A...
December 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Guang-Long Wang, Xu-Qin Ren, Jie-Xia Liu, Feng Yang, Yun-Peng Wang, Ai-Sheng Xiong
Salt stress is one of the environmental factors that evidently limit plant growth and yield. Despite the fact that understanding plant response to salt stress is important to agricultural practice, the molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance in garlic remain unclear. In this study, garlic seedlings were exposed to 200 mM NaCl stress for 0, 1, 4, and 12 h, respectively. RNA-seq was applied to analyze the transcriptional response under salinity conditions. A total of 13,114 out of 25,530 differentially expressed unigenes were identified to have pathway annotation, which were mainly involved in purine metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, isoflavonoid biosynthesis, MAPK signaling pathway, and circadian rhythm...
November 29, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Chunzhao Zhao, Omar Zayed, Zheping Yu, Wei Jiang, Peipei Zhu, Chuan-Chih Hsu, Lingrui Zhang, W Andy Tao, Rosa Lozano-Durán, Jian-Kang Zhu
The perception and relay of cell-wall signals are critical for plants to regulate growth and stress responses, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that the cell-wall leucine-rich repeat extensins (LRX) 3/4/5 are critical for plant salt tolerance in Arabidopsis The LRXs physically associate with the RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR (RALF) peptides RALF22/23, which in turn interact with the plasma membrane-localized receptor-like protein kinase FERONIA (FER). The lrx345 triple mutant as well as fer mutant plants display retarded growth and salt hypersensitivity, which are mimicked by overexpression of RALF22 / 23 Salt stress promotes S1P protease-dependent release of mature RALF22 peptides...
December 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
William D Hintz, Devin K Jones, Rick A Relyea
Recent discoveries have documented evolutionary responses to freshwater salinization. We investigated if evolutionary responses to salinization exhibit life-history trade-offs or if they can mitigate ecological impacts such as cascading effects through mechanisms of tolerance and cross-tolerance. We conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment using populations of Daphnia pulex -a ubiquitous algal grazer-that were either naive or had previously experienced selection to become more tolerant to sodium chloride (NaCl)...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Hyun Jin Chun, Dongwon Baek, Hyun Min Cho, Hyun Suk Jung, Myeong Seon Jeong, Wook-Hun Jung, Cheol Woo Choi, Su Hyeon Lee, Byung Jun Jin, Mi Suk Park, Hyun-Jin Kim, Woo Sik Chung, Sang Yeol Lee, Hans J Bohnert, Ray A Bressan, Dae-Jin Yun, Young-Shick Hong, Min Chul Kim
Sessile plants reprogram their metabolic and developmental processes during adaptation to prolonged environmental stresses. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation of plant cells to saline stress, we established callus suspension cell cultures from Arabidopsis roots adapted to high salt for an extended period of time. Adapted cells exhibit enhanced salt tolerance compared to control cells. Moreover, acquired salt tolerance is maintained even after the stress is relieved, indicating the existence of a memory of acquired salt tolerance during mitotic cell divisions, known as mitotic stress memory...
November 28, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Chunji Li, Bingxue Li, Ning Zhang, Na Wei, Qifan Wang, Wenjing Wang, Yiwei Xie, Hongtao Zou
Carotenoids represent a diverse class of aliphatic C40 molecules with a variety of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Sporidiobolus pararoseus NGR produces various carotenoids, including torulene, torularhodin and β-carotene. Salt stress significantly increases the torulene accumulation of S. pararoseus NGR. However, little is known, about the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased torulene biosynthesis. In this work, we investigated the effects of NaCl treatment on the contents of carotenoids (both qualitatively and quantitatively) and transcriptome...
November 29, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Elizabeth A McDaniel, Tara N Stuecker, Manasa Veluvolu, Audrey P Gasch, Jeffrey A Lewis
All living organisms must recognize and respond to various environmental stresses throughout their lifetime. In natural environments, cells frequently encounter fluctuating concentrations of different stressors that can occur in combination or sequentially. Thus, the ability to anticipate an impending stress is likely ecologically relevant. One possible mechanism for anticipating future stress is acquired stress resistance, where cells preexposed to a mild sublethal dose of stress gain the ability to survive an otherwise lethal dose of stress...
November 28, 2018: MSphere
Linh Vu Nguyen, Hye-Yeon Seok, Dong-Hyuk Woo, Sun-Young Lee, Yong-Hwan Moon
Plants adapt to abiotic stresses by complex mechanisms involving various stress-responsive genes. Here, we identified a DEAD-box RNA helicase (RH) gene, AtRH17 , in Arabidopsis , involved in salt-stress responses using activation tagging, a useful technique for isolating novel stress-responsive genes. AT895, an activation tagging line, was more tolerant than wild type (WT) under NaCl treatment during germination and seedling development, and AtRH17 was activated in AT895. AtRH17 possesses nine well-conserved motifs of DEAD-box RHs, consisting of motifs Q, I, Ia, Ib, and II-VI...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qi Xu, Zhengyuan Zhai, Haoran An, Yang Yang, Jia Yin, Guohong Wang, Fazheng Ren, Yanling Hao
In order to colonize the human gastrointestinal tract and exert their beneficial effects, bifidobacteria must effectively cope with the toxic bile salts in the intestine, but the molecular mechanism underlying bile tolerance is poorly understood. In this study, heterologous expression of a MarR family transcriptional regulator BmrR significantly reduced ox-bile resistance of Lactococcus lactis NZ9000, suggesting that it might play a role in bile stress response. In silico analysis combined with RT-PCR assay demonstrated that bmrR was co-transcribed with bmrA and bmrB , which encoded multidrug resistance (MDR) ABC transporters...
November 26, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Xuanwen Yang, Kang He, Xiaoyuan Chi, Guohua Chai, Yiping Wang, Chunlin Jia, Hongpeng Zhang, Gongke Zhou, Ruibo Hu
NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) transcription factors play critical roles in plant abiotic stress responses. However, knowledge regarding the functional roles of NACs in abiotic stress tolerance and its underlying mechanisms is relatively limited in Miscanthus. In this study, we functionally characterized a novel Miscanthus NAC gene MlNAC12 by ectopic expression in Arabidopsis. MlNAC12 was localized in the nucleus. It could specifically binds to the NAC recognition sequence (NACRS) and has a transactivation activity in the C-terminus...
December 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Min Chen, Zhen Yang, Jing Liu, Tingting Zhu, Xiaocen Wei, Hai Fan, Baoshan Wang
Global soil salinization is increasingly a serious threat to agriculture worldwide. Therefore, it is imperative to improve crop salt tolerance as a means of adaptation to saline habitats. Some halophytes and most monocotyledonous crops are salt-excluders. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of salt exclusion at the molecular level in salt-exclusion plants is critical for improving the salt tolerance of monocotyledonous crops such as maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum. In this review, we summarize recent research into salt-exclusion mechanisms and the genes that underlie them...
November 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xiaoshuang Li, Bei Gao, Daoyuan Zhang, Yuqing Liang, Xiaojie Liu, Jinyi Zhao, Jianhua Zhang, Andrew J Wood
Bryum argenteum is a desert moss which shows tolerance to the desert environment and is emerging as a good plant material for identification of stress-related genes. AP2/ERF transcription factor family plays important roles in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. AP2/ERF genes have been identified and extensively studied in many plants, while they are rarely studied in moss. In the present study, we identified 83 AP2/ERF genes based on the comprehensive dehydrationrehydration transcriptomic atlas of B...
November 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Fatma Ece Altinisik Kaya, Fatma Gizem Avci, Nihat Alpagu Sayar, Dilek Kazan, Ahmet Alp Sayar, Berna Sariyar Akbulut
Alkaliphilic organisms are among an industrially important class of extremophile microorganisms with the ability to thrive at pH 10-11.5. Microorganisms that exhibit alkaliphilic characteristics are sources of alkali-tolerant enzymes such as proteases, starch degrading enzymes, cellulases, and metabolites such as antibiotics, enzyme inhibitors, siderophores, organic acids, and cholic acid derivatives, which have found various applications in industry for human and environmental health. Yet, multi-omics mechanisms governing adaptation to high alkalinity have been poorly studied...
November 2018: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
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