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salt tolerance mechanism

Jou-Chieh Lai, Yeong-Choy Kam, Hui-Chen Lin, Chi-Shiun Wu
Understanding physiological responses and osmoregulatory mechanisms for dealing with salinity stress is essential to clarify how amphibians living in coastal areas adapt to fluctuating salinity levels. Euryhaline species are rare among reported tadpole species inhabiting saline habitats, and few studies addressed the osmoregulatory mechanisms. We quantified the effects of salinity acclimation on survival, osmolality, water content, ion concentration, and gill Na+ , K+ -ATPase (NKA) expression of euryhaline tadpoles of Fejervarya cancrivora, to examine time-course changes of osmoregulatory responses of tadpoles subjected to salinity stress and how osmoregulatory mechanisms were involved in the process...
October 8, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Cuihua Chen, Chengcheng Wang, Zixiu Liu, Xunhong Liu, Lisi Zou, Jingjing Shi, Shuyu Chen, Jiali Chen, Mengxia Tan
As one of the major abiotic stresses, salinity stress may affect the physiology and biochemical components of Apocynum venetum L. To systematically evaluate the quality of Apocyni Veneti Folium (AVF) from the perspective of physiological and the wide variety of bioactive components response to various concentrations of salt stress, this experiment was arranged on the basis of ultra-fast liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-QTRAP-MS/MS) technology and multivariate statistical analysis...
October 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ruichang Zhang, Katja Tielbörger
Plant-plant interactions are reciprocal and include effects on and response to neighbours. Distinct traits confer competitive effect and response ability, but how specific traits determine effect and response in facilitative interactions has not been studied experimentally. We utilized the model species Arabidopsis thaliana to test for trait-dependence of facilitative interactions. Salt sensitive (sos) mutants or salt tolerant wildtypes were exposed to an experimental salinity gradient with and without intraspecific neighbours and the intensity of plant-plant interactions was measured for three performance variables...
October 9, 2018: New Phytologist
Li Li, Mimi Li, Xiwu Qi, Xingli Tang, Yifeng Zhou
Soil salinity is one of the major environmental stresses affecting plant growth, development, and reproduction. Salt stress also affects the accumulation of some secondary metabolites in plants. Glehnia littoralis is an endangered medicinal halophyte that grows in coastal habitats. Peeled and dried Glehnia littoralis roots, named Radix Glehniae, have been used traditionally as a Chinese herbal medicine. Although Glehnia littoralis has great ecological and commercial value, salt-related mechanisms in Glehnia littoralis remain largely unknown...
2018: PeerJ
Francisco Remonsellez, Juan Castro-Severyn, Coral Pardo-Esté, Pablo Aguilar, Jonathan Fortt, Cesar Salinas, Sergio Barahona, Joice León, Bárbara Fuentes, Carlos Areche, Klaudia L Hernández, Daniel Aguayo, Claudia P Saavedra
Poly-extremophiles microorganisms have the capacity to inhabit hostile environments and can survive several adverse conditions that include as variations in temperature, pH, and salinity, high levels UV light and atmospheric pressure, and even the presence of toxic compounds and the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A halotolerant Exiguobacterium strain was isolated from Salar de Huasco (Chilean Altiplano), a well-known shallow lake area with variable salinity levels, little human intervention, and extreme environmental conditions, which makes it ideal for the study of resistant mechanisms and the evolution of adaptations...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bhushan Vishal, Pannaga Krishnamurthy, Rengasamy Ramamoorthy, Prakash P Kumar
Class I TREHALOSE-PHOSPHATE-SYNTHASE (TPS) genes affect salinity tolerance and plant development. However, the function of class IITPS genes and their underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. We report the identification and functional analysis of a rice class IITPS gene (OsTPS8). The ostps8 mutant was characterised by GC-MS analysis, an abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity test and by generating transgenic lines. To identify the underlying mechanism, gene expression analyses, genetic complementation and examination of suberin deposition in the roots were conducted...
October 5, 2018: New Phytologist
Peiyan Guan, Jun Wang, Hui Li, Chen Xie, Shizhong Zhang, Changai Wu, Guodong Yang, Kang Yan, Jinguang Huang, Chengchao Zheng
Salt stress seriously affects plant growth and development. Through genetic screening, we identified and characterized an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) sensitive to salt1 (ses1) mutant. SES1 was ubiquitously expressed and induced by salt treatment. The salt sensitive phenotype of ses1 was neither due to the overaccumulation of Na+ nor due to the suppression of salt tolerance-associated genes. SES1 encoded an uncharacterized endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protein. Coinciding with its subcellular distribution, ses1 exhibited overactivation of unfolded protein response genes and was largely influenced by severe ER stress...
October 4, 2018: Plant Physiology
Tengqian Zhang, Yulin Zhao, Yucheng Wang, Zhongyuan Liu, Caiqiu Gao
The MYB transcription factors (TFs) is a plant TF families, which involves in hormone signal transduction, and abiotic stress tolerance, etc. However, there are few studies on the MYB TFs family and its regulatory mechanism in Tamarix hispida . In this study, 14 MYB genes (named ThMYB1 - ThMYB14 ) were cloned and characterized from T. hispida . The transcription profiles of ThMYBs in T. hispida under different abiotic stress conditions were monitored using qRT-PCR. Most of studied ThMYBs were significantly downregulated and/or upregulated by salt and osmotic stress, ABA, GA3 and JA treatments in at least one organ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Li Huang, Xiangjing Yin, Xiaomeng Sun, Jinhua Yang, Mohammad Zillur Rahman, Zhiping Chen, Xiping Wang
Stilbene synthase genes make a contribution to improving the tolerances of biotic and abiotic stress in plants. However, the mechanisms mediated by these STS genes remain unclear. To provide insight into the role of STS genes defense against biotic and abiotic stress, we overexpressed VqSTS36 in Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Micro-Tom) via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. VqSTS36 -transformed Arabidopsis lines displayed an increased resistance to powdery mildew, but both VqSTS36 -transformed Arabidopsis and tomato lines showed the increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea ...
September 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jaroslav Nisler, Marek Zatloukal, Roman Sobotka, Jan Pilný, Barbora Zdvihalová, Ondrej Novák, Miroslav Strnad, Lukáš Spíchal
Stress-induced senescence is a global agro-economic problem. Cytokinins are considered to be key plant anti-senescence hormones, but despite this practical function their use in agriculture is limited because cytokinins also inhibit root growth and development. We explored new cytokinin analogs by synthesizing a series of 1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea derivatives. The most potent compound, 1-(2-methoxy-ethyl)-3-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-yl urea (ASES - Anti-Senescence Substance), strongly inhibited dark-induced senescence in leaves of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lifei Yang, Yuhuan Jin, Wei Huang, Qi Sun, Fang Liu, Xianzhong Huang
BACKGROUND: Arabidopsis pumila is native to the desert region of northwest China and it is extraordinarily well adapted to the local semi-desert saline soil, thus providing a candidate plant system for environmental adaptation and salt-tolerance gene mining. However, understanding of the salt-adaptation mechanism of this species is limited because of genomic sequences scarcity. In the present study, the transcriptome profiles of A. pumila leaf tissues treated with 250 mM NaCl for 0, 0...
September 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
Qinglong Dong, Ke Mao, Dingyue Duan, Shuang Zhao, Yanpeng Wang, Qian Wang, Dong Huang, Chao Li, Changhai Liu, Xiaoqing Gong, Fengwang Ma
BACKGROUND: The FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) play diverse roles in numerous critical processes for plant growth, development, and abiotic stress responses. However, the FKBP gene family in the important fruit crop apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) has not been studied as thoroughly as in other species. Our research objective was to investigate the mechanisms by which apple FKBPs enable apple plants to tolerate the effects of abiotic stresses. RESULTS: Using bioinformatics-based methods, RT-PCR, and qRT-PCR technologies, we identified 38 FKBP genes and cloned 16 of them in the apple genome...
September 25, 2018: BMC Genomics
Erick Amombo, Xiaoning Li, Guangyang Wang, Shao An, Wei Wang, Jinmin Fu
Soil salinity is a serious threat to plant growth and crop productivity. Tall fescue utilization in saline areas is limited by its inferior salt tolerance. Thus, a transcriptome study is a prerequisite for future research aimed at providing deeper insights into the molecular mechanisms of tall fescue salt tolerance as well as molecular breeding. Recent advances in sequencing technology offer a platform to achieve this. Here, Illumina RNA sequencing of tall fescue leaves generated a total of 144,339 raw reads...
September 21, 2018: Genes
Chun-Ling Zhang, Ke Mao, Li-Jie Zhou, Gui-Luan Wang, Ya-Li Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Li, Yu-Jin Hao
Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (LACSs) are members of the acyl-activating enzyme superfamily that have important roles in lipid synthesis and storage, fatty acid catabolism, vectorial acylation, and synthesis of cutin and wax. Here, 11 apple MdLACS genes were identified based on the Malus × domestica reference genome, clustered into six groups and mapped to ten chromosomes. Multiple sequence alignment and conserved motifs analyses showed that the sequences of the AtLACS and MdLACS proteins were highly conserved...
September 15, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Chunman Zuo, Yuhong Tang, Hao Fu, Yiming Liu, Xunzhong Zhang, Bingyu Zhao, Ying Xu
Switchgrass is an important bioenergy crop typically grown in marginal lands, where the plants must often deal with abiotic stresses such as drought and salt. Alamo is known to be more tolerant to both stress types than Dacotah, two ecotypes of switchgrass. Understanding of their stress response and adaptation programs can have important implications to engineering more stress tolerant plants. We present here a computational study by analyzing time-course transcriptomic data of the two ecotypes to elucidate and compare their regulatory systems in response to drought and salt stresses...
2018: PloS One
Cristina Alcántara, José M Coll-Marqués, Carlos Jadán-Piedra, Dinoraz Vélez, Vicenta Devesa, Manuel Zúñiga, Vicente Monedero
The synthesis of the inorganic polymer polyphosphate (poly-P) in bacteria has been linked to stress survival and to the capacity of some strains to sequester heavy metals. In addition, synthesis of poly-P by certain strains of probiotic lactobacilli has been evidenced as a probiotic mechanism due to the homeostatic properties of this compound at the intestinal epithelium. We analyzed the link between poly-P synthesis, stress response, and mercury toxicity/accumulation by comparing wild-type strains of Lactobacillus and their corresponding mutants devoid of poly-P synthesis capacity (defective in the poly-P kinase, ppk , gene)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jennifer Böhm, Maxim Messerer, Heike M Müller, Joachim Scholz-Starke, Antonella Gradogna, Sönke Scherzer, Tobias Maierhofer, Nadia Bazihizina, Heng Zhang, Christian Stigloher, Peter Ache, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid, Klaus F X Mayer, Sergey Shabala, Armando Carpaneto, Georg Haberer, Jian-Kang Zhu, Rainer Hedrich
Soil salinity is destroying arable land and is considered to be one of the major threats to global food security in the 21st century. Therefore, the ability of naturally salt-tolerant halophyte plants to sequester large quantities of salt in external structures, such as epidermal bladder cells (EBCs), is of great interest. Using Chenopodium quinoa, a pseudo-cereal halophyte of great economic potential, we have shown previously that, upon removal of salt bladders, quinoa becomes salt sensitive. In this work, we analyzed the molecular mechanism underlying the unique salt dumping capabilities of bladder cells in quinoa...
October 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Ningning Li, Chao Du, Binjie Ma, Ziqi Gao, Zhigang Wu, Linlin Zheng, Yiding Niu, Yingchun Wang
Reaumuria trigyna is an endangered recretohalophyte and a small archaic feral shrub that is endemic to arid and semiarid plateau regions of Inner Mongolia, China. Based on transcriptomic data, we isolated a high-affinity potassium transporter gene (RtHKT1) from R. trigyna, which encoded a plasma membrane-localised protein. RtHKT1 was rapidly upregulated by high Na+ or low K+ and exhibited different tissue-specific expression patterns before and after stress treatment. Transgenic yeast showed tolerance to high Na+ or low K+, while transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited tolerance to high Na+ and sensitivity to high K+, or high Na+-low K+, confirming that Na+ tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis depends on a sufficient external K+ concentration...
September 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Shi-Wei Liu, Mohammed Esmail Abdalla Elzaki, Christian Staehelin, Zhi-Hui Ma, Zhong Qin, Rui-Long Wang
Herbicides and insecticides are widely used in modern agriculture. It has been reported in various studies that application of insecticides can increase tolerance of herbivorous insects to insecticides. However, limited information exists on susceptibility to insecticides when insects are exposed to herbicides. This study was conducted to investigate the potential impact of the herbicides trifluralin and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid sodium salt (MCPA-Na) on the susceptibility of the nocturnal moth Spodoptera litura to the insecticides λ-cyhalothrin, phoxim and bifenthrin...
September 21, 2018: Insect Science
Hai An Truong, Won Je Lee, Chan Young Jeong, Cao Sơn Trịnh, Seokjin Lee, Chon-Sik Kang, Young-Keun Cheong, Suk-Whan Hong, Hojoung Lee
Plants require nitrogen (N) for growth and development. However, they are frequently exposed to conditions of nitrogen deficiency. In addition, anthocyanin accumulation is induced under salt stress and nitrate deficiency. To date, most studies have revealed that nitrate deficiency under high sucrose levels induce high levels of anthocyanin accumulation in plants. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Under nitrate-starved conditions, plant growth rapidly worsens and cells eventually die. In addition, plants are severely affected by salt exposure...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
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