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salt tolerance mechanism

Chakkree Lekklar, Supachitra Chadchawan, Preeda Boon-Long, Wolfgang Pfeiffer, Anchalee Chaidee
How many subcellular targets of the beneficial silicon effect do exist in salt-stressed rice? Here, we investigate the effects of silicon on the different components of salt stress, i.e., osmotic stress, sodium, and chloride toxicity. These components are separated by multivariate analysis of 18 variables measured in rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L.). Multivariate analysis can dissect vectors and extract targets as principal components, given the regressions between all variables are known. Consequently, the exploration of 153 correlations and 306 regression models between all variables is essential, and regression parameters for variables of shoot (silicon, sodium, chloride, carotenoids, chlorophylls a and b, and relative growth rate) and variables of shoot and root (hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), fresh weight, dry weight, root-to-shoot ratio) are determined...
August 10, 2018: Protoplasma
Laura-Jayne Gardiner, Ryan Joynson, Jimmy Omony, Rachel Rusholme-Pilcher, Lisa Olohan, Daniel Lang, Caihong Bai, Malcolm Hawkesford, David Salt, Manuel Spannagl, Klaus F X Mayer, John Kenny, Michael Bevan, Neil Hall, Anthony Hall
Wheat has been domesticated into a large number of agricultural environments and has the ability to adapt to diverse environments. To understand this process, we survey genotype, repeat content, and DNA methylation across a bread wheat landrace collection representing global genetic diversity. We identify independent variation in methylation, genotype, and transposon copy number. We show that these, so far unexploited, sources of variation have had a significant impact on the wheat genome and that ancestral methylation states become preferentially "hard coded" as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) via 5-methylcytosine deamination...
August 9, 2018: Genome Research
Yuanqin Zhao, Yang Yang, Yongpeng Song, Qiang Li, Jie Song
Suaeda salsa is an annual euhalophytic herb that produces dimorphic seeds, such as small black seeds and big brown seeds. In the present study, the fatty acid composition, content of total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoid and inorganic ions in dimorphic seeds of the species collected in the field were measured. There was no significant difference in total oil content between black and brown seeds. Seed total oil content was approximately 19% based on dry weight. The most abundant fatty acid was linoleic acid, and the content was 76...
August 3, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Damián Balfagón, Sara I Zandalinas, Aurelio Gómez-Cadenas
Plants growing in the field are subjected to multiple stress factors acting simultaneously. Abnormally high temperatures are expecting to affect wild plants and crops in the next years due to global warming. In this work, we have studied physiological, hormonal and molecular responses of the citrus rootstock, Carrizo citrange (Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. × Citrus sinensis L. Osb.) subjected to wounding or high salinity individually occurring or in combination with heat stress. According to our results, combination of high salinity and heat stress aggravated the negative effects of salt intoxication in Carrizo...
August 9, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Harinder Singh
Cyanobacteria are among the oldest living organisms on this planet, existing since more than 3 billion years. They are ideal organisms for investigating biological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, circadian rhythm, photoregulation of gene expression, developmental gene rearrangements, and specialized cell differentiation. They are nearly ubiquitous in distribution, have colonized a wide range of ecosystems including soil, air, dry rock, and aquatic systems, and even occupy extreme niches that are inaccessible to other organisms...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Zhi-Chen Wu, Nicholas A Isley, Dale L Boger
A series of vancomycin derivatives alkylated at the N-terminus amine were synthesized, including those that contain quaternary trimethylammonium salts either directly at the terminal amine site or with an intervening three-carbon spacer. The examination of their properties provide important comparisons with a C-terminus trimethylammonium salt modification that we recently found to improve the antimicrobial potency of vancomycin analogs through an added mechanism of action. The N-terminus modifications disclosed herein were well tolerated, minimally altering model ligand binding affinities (ᴅ-Ala-ᴅ-Ala) and antimicrobial activity, but did not induce membrane permeabilization that was observed with a similar C-terminus modification...
August 1, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Md Mezanur Rahman, Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Md Abiar Rahman, Md Giashuddin Miah, Satya Ranjan Saha, M Abdul Karim, Sanjida Sultana Keya, Munny Akter, Mohidul Islam, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Sapota (Achras sapota), a fruit tree with nutritional and medicinal properties, is known to thrive in salt-affected areas. However, the underlying mechanisms that allow sapota to adapt to saline environment are yet to be explored. Here, we examined various morphological, physiological, and biochemical features of sapota under a gradient of seawater (0, 4, 8, and 12 dS m-1 ) to study its adaptive responses against salinity. Our results showed that seawater-induced salinity negatively impacted on growth-related attributes, such as plant height, root length, leaf area, and dry biomass in a dose-dependent manner...
July 30, 2018: Protoplasma
Xiliu Cheng, Shaoxuan Zhang, Weichun Tao, Xiangxiang Zhang, Jie Liu, Jiaqiang Sun, Haiwen Zhang, Li Pu, Rongfeng Huang, Tao Chen
Perception and transduction of salt stress signals are critical for plant survival, growth and propagation. Thus, identification of components of the salt stress signaling pathway is important for rice (Oryza sativa) molecular breeding of salt stress resistance. Here, we report the identification of an AP2/ERF (apetala2/ethylene response factor) transcription factor indeterminate spikelet 1 (IDS1) and its roles in the regulation of rice salt tolerance. By genetic screening and phenotype analysis, we demonstrated that IDS1 conferred transcriptional repression activity and acted as a negative regulator of salt tolerance in rice...
July 30, 2018: Plant Physiology
Panpan Zhu, Zhen Cheng, Lingling Du, Qian Chen, Ke Jun Tan
A new Cu-doped dual-emission carbon dots was synthesized rapidly and simply via one-pot solvothermal method and its special photoluminescence mechanism was studied. Dual-emission carbon dots have two fluorescence emission peaks under one-wavelength excitation and can be used as dual-signal sensor which is usually designed with two or more substances. The prepared carbon dots show excellent water solubility, photostability, salt tolerance and special optical properties. The raw material ratio, solvent, pH, time and synthesis temperature were optimized...
July 29, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Sheng Qin, Wei-Wei Feng, Yue-Ji Zhang, Tian-Tian Wang, You-Wei Xiong, Ke Xing
Plant-associated microorganisms are considered a key determinant of plant health and growth. However, little information is available regarding the composition and ecological function of the roots and leaves bacterial microbiota of halophytes. Here, using both culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, we characterized the bacterial communities of the roots, leaves as well as the rhizosphere and bulk soils of the coastal halophyte Limonium sinense in Jiangsu Province, China. We identified 49 representative bacterial strains belonging to 17 genera across all samples, with Glutamicibacter as the most dominant genus...
July 27, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Jianlong Li, Jun Huang, Yao Jin, Chongde Wu, Dazhan Shen, Suyi Zhang, Rongqing Zhou
Four products were identified by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS) for the degradation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is by salt tolerant Candida versatilis CGMCC 3790 (C. versatilis CGMCC 3790), includingⅡ(C14H10O4), Ⅲ (C14H12O3), Ⅳ (C13H12O2), Ⅴ (C11H10O4), which were not toxic. Based on these products, it is speculated that AFB1 degradation has two pathways. The degradation ratio of active cell component (69.40%) and intracellular component (64.99%) was significantly higher than extracellular component (29...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Zhengwen Sun, Hanli Li, Yan Zhang, Zhikun Li, Huifeng Ke, Liqiang Wu, Guiyin Zhang, Xingfen Wang, Zhiying Ma
Salt tolerance in cotton is highly imperative for improvement in the response to decreasing farmland and soil salinization. However, little is known about the genetic basis underlying salt tolerance in cotton, especially the seedling stage. In this study, we evaluated two salt-tolerance-related traits of a natural population comprising 713 upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) accessions worldwide at the seedling stage and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify marker-trait associations under salt stress using the Illumina Infinium CottonSNP63K array...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Conglong Lian, Qing Li, Kun Yao, Ying Zhang, Sen Meng, Weilun Yin, Xinli Xia
NF-YAs play important roles in abiotic stress. However, their characteristics and functions in abiotic stress of poplar , a model woody plant, have not been fully investigated. Here, the biological functions of PtNF-YA9 (Potri.011G101000), an NF-YA gene from Populus trichocarpa , were first fully investigated. PtNF-YA9 is located in the nucleus. The expression of PtNF-YA9 was reduced by mannitol, NaCl, and abscisic acid (ABA). The GUS staining of ProNF-YA9::GUS transgenic lines was also reduced by mannitol treatments...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mingna Li, Kun Zhang, Yan Sun, Huiting Cui, Shihao Cao, Li Yan, Mengxin Xu
Salt stress is a major abiotic stress threatening plant growth and development throughout the world. In this study, we investigated the salt stress adaptation mechanism of Carex rigescens (Franch.) V. Krecz, a stress-tolerant turfgrass species with a wide distribution in northern China. Specifically, we analyzed the growth, physiology, and transcript expression patterns of two C. rigescens genotypes (Huanghua and Lvping No.1) exposed to salt stress. Results show that Huanghua demonstrated better growth performance, and higher turf quality (TQ), photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), relative water content (RWC), proline content, and lower relative electrolyte leakage (REL) during seven days of salt treatment compared to Lvping No...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Xiaoming Tian, Zhenyu Wang, Qing Zhang, Huacong Ci, Pengshan Wang, Lu Yu, Guixia Jia
Plants regulate responses to salt stress using biological pathways, such as signal perception and transduction, photosynthesis, and energy metabolism. Little is known about the genetics of salt tolerance in Rosa chinensis. Tineke and Hiogi are salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive varieties of R. chinensis, respectively, and are good choices for studying salt-tolerance genes. We studied leaf and root tissues from 1-year-old Hiogi and Tineke plants simultaneously grown under the same conditions. A 0.4%-mmol/L salt ion mixture was added to the basic growth medium...
2018: PloS One
Wim van den Brink, Giovanni Addolorato, Henri-Jean Aubin, Amine Benyamina, Fabio Caputo, Maurice Dematteis, Antoni Gual, Otto-Michael Lesch, Karl Mann, Icro Maremmani, David Nutt, François Paille, Pascal Perney, Jürgen Rehm, Michel Reynaud, Nicolas Simon, Bo Söderpalm, Wolfgang H Sommer, Henriette Walter, Rainer Spanagel
Medication development for alcohol relapse prevention or reduction of consumption is highly challenging due to methodological issues of pharmacotherapy trials. Existing approved medications are only modestly effective with many patients failing to benefit from these therapies. Therefore, there is a pressing need for other effective treatments with a different mechanism of action, especially for patients with very high (VH) drinking risk levels (DRL) because this is the most severely affected population of alcohol use disorder patients...
July 2018: Addiction Biology
Adel M Elmaghrabi, Hilary J Rogers, Dennis Francis, Sergio Ochatt
Changes in global climate and the nonstop increase in demographic pressure have provoked a stronger demand for agronomic resources at a time where land suitable for agriculture is becoming a rare commodity. They have also generated a number of abiotic stresses which exacerbate effects of diseases and pests and result in physiological and metabolic disorders that ultimately impact on yield when and where it is most needed. Therefore, a major scientific and agronomic challenge today is that of understanding and countering the impact of stress on yield...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Roohollah Shamloo-Dashtpagerdi, Hooman Razi, Esmaeil Ebrahimie, Ali Niazi
Many studies have been performed to identify regulatory circuit underlying plant stress tolerance. However, the reliability of some findings has been criticized because of exclusive use of stress sensitive plant species such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Sensitive plant species often harbor narrow defensive mechanisms and have relatively low capacity for adaptive responses. Therefore, it is useful to employ tolerant model plants, such as Eutrema salsugineum, to provide comprehensive insights into various mechanisms involved in response to abiotic stresses...
July 23, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Juanjuan Yu, Yongxue Zhang, Junming Liu, Lin Wang, Panpan Liu, Zepeng Yin, Siyi Guo, Jun Ma, Zhuang Lu, Tai Wang, Yimin She, Yuchen Miao, Ling Ma, Sixue Chen, Ying Li, Shaojun Dai
Hydrogen peroxide-responsive pathways in roots of alkaligrass analyzed by proteomic studies and PutGLP enhance the plant tolerance to saline-, alkali- and cadmium-induced oxidative stresses. Oxidative stress adaptation is critical for plants in response to various stress environments. The halophyte alkaligrass (Puccinellia tenuiflora) is an outstanding pasture with strong tolerance to salt and alkali stresses. In this study, iTRAQ- and 2DE-based proteomics approaches, as well as qRT-PCR and molecular genetics, were employed to investigate H2 O2 -responsive mechanisms in alkaligrass roots...
July 23, 2018: Planta
Chunsheng Li, Xianqing Yang, Ying Xu, Laihao Li, Yueqi Wang
Heavy metal tolerance of microorganisms is the basis of heavy metal removal by growing cells. In this study, a cross-protection effect generated by salt stress significantly enhanced the cadmium tolerance of multi-stress-tolerant Pichia kudriavzevii. Comparative transcriptome analysis using RNA-Seq linked with physiological and biochemical observation was used to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the improved cadmium tolerance. The expression of cadmium transport related genes (GSTY2, GLR1, GLO2, YCF1 and YOR1), GSH content and GST activity were elevated by salt stress, suggesting enhanced cadmium conjugation and detoxification in yeast cells...
July 17, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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