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A Muth, J Crona, O Gimm, A Elmgren, K Filipsson, M Stenmark Askmalm, J Sandstedt, M Tengvar, E Tham
Pheochromocytomas (PCC) and paragangliomas (PGL), collectively abbreviated PPGL are rare tumours originating from the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla (PCC) or the sympathetic or parasympathetic extra-adrenal paraganglia (PGL) (1, 2), Figure 1. The enlarged cell volume leads to increased levels of catecholamines (adrenaline, noraderenaline and/or dopamine) and their metabolites which can be measured in plasma or urine for biochemical diagnosis. Hormone-producing PPGL commonly originate from sympathetic paraganglia in the adrenal glands, abdomen or pelvis (3)...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
Jianwei Wang, Miho Sekai, Takeshi Matsui, Yosuke Fujii, Mitsuru Matsumoto, Osamu Takeuchi, Nagahiro Minato, Yoko Hamazaki
Hassall's corpuscles (HCs) are composed of cornifying, terminally differentiated medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) that are developed under the control of Aire. Here, we demonstrated that HC-mTECs show features of cellular senescence and produce inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including CXCL5, thereby recruiting and activating neutrophils to produce IL-23 in the thymic medulla. We further indicated that thymic plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) expressing IL-23 receptors constitutively produced Ifna, which plays a role in single positive (SP) cell maturation, in an Il23a-dependent manner...
December 10, 2018: International Immunology
Laura Emilia Toader, Gabriela Camelia Roşu, Bogdan Cătălin, Ionica Pirici, Ion Cristian Gîlceavă, Valeria Carmen Albu, Anca Maria Istrate-Ofiţeru, Dafin Fior Mureşanu, Daniel Pirici
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex chronic neurodegenerative disease that involves an abnormal autoimmune response directed against the brain, nerves and spinal cord; it is considered the most frequent cause of neurological disability, because MS-associated inflammatory lesions can affect a wide range of systems to a varying degree and may cause a plethora of neurological comorbidities and symptoms. The symptoms are quite variable from patient to patient and depend on the spatial distribution of the central nervous system (CNS) lesions, but usually involve sensory disturbances, cognitive deficits, unilateral vision loss, bladder dysfunction, ataxia, fatigue, double vision, weakness of the limbs and intestinal disorders...
2018: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Zdravka Daneva, Sara K Dempsey, Ashfaq Ahmad, Ningjun Li, Pin-Lan Li, Joseph Ritter
The relationship between the endocannabinoid system in the renal medulla and the long-term regulation of blood pressure is not understood. To investigate the possible role of the endocannabinoid system in renomedullary interstitial cells, mouse medullary interstitial cells (MMICs) were obtained, cultured and characterized for their responses to treatment with a selective inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), PF-3845. Treatment of MMICs with PF-3845 increased cytoplasmic lipid granules detected by Sudan Black B staining and multilamellar bodies identified by transmission electron microscopy...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Zhi-Ling Guo, Shaista Malik
Our previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) at the Jianshi-Neiguan acupoints (P5-6, overlying the median nerve) attenuates sympathoexcitatory responses through its influence on neuronal activity in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM). The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) receives input from somatic nerve stimulation. Connections between the NTS and the rVLM during EA stimulation have not been investigated and thus were the focus of the present study. Seven to ten days after unilateral microinjection of a rhodamine-conjugated microsphere retrograde tracer (100 nl) into the rVLM, rats were subjected to EA or sham-EA without electrical stimulation...
December 6, 2018: Brain Research
Minzi Qiu, Jiawen Li, Lishan Tan, Mengbi Zhang, Guang Zhou, Tao Zeng, Aiqing Li
The potential function of distal cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (dCSF-CNs) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) development is poorly understood. We hypothesized that dCSF-CNs might affect the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in kidney injury progression, with dCSF-CNs ablation potentially alleviating local RAS and renal fibrosis in rats after five-sixths nephrectomy (5/6Nx). Part of rats were randomly administered artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) intracerebroventricularly (icv), followed by 5/6Nx or sham operation; and other part of rats were administered Cholera toxin B subunit conjugated with saporin (CB-SAP) for dCSF-CNs lesion before 5/6Nx...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Fabrício S Oliveira, Fernanda Macitelli, Caio C C Santos, Janaina S Braga, Barbara C Costa, Marina Pastore, Thiago A S S Rocha, Mateus J R P DA Costa
Chronic stress exposure commonly increases adrenals weight and changes their morphology. This study aimed to compare four methods to delimitate the cortical and medullary layers of adrenals glands in Nelore bulls. Fresh adrenals did not present differentiation between layers. Then, frozen adrenals were distributed in plastics bags with fixative Bouin (G1), 96ºGL ethylic alcohol (G2), 10% formaldehyde (G3), or 2.5% glutaraldehyde (G4). After 12 hours of fixation, the G1 adrenal glands did not show the entire cortical layer marked by Bouin's solution...
October 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Charlotte Steenblock, Maria F Rubin de Celis, Luis F Delgadillo Silva, Verena Pawolski, Ana Brennand, Martin Werdermann, Ilona Berger, Alice Santambrogio, Mirko Peitzsch, Cynthia L Andoniadou, Andrew V Schally, Stefan R Bornstein
The adrenal gland is a master regulator of the human body during response to stress. This organ shows constant replacement of senescent cells by newly differentiated cells. A high degree of plasticity is critical to sustain homeostasis under different physiological demands. This is achieved in part through proliferation and differentiation of adult adrenal progenitors. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a Nestin+ population of adrenocortical progenitors located under the adrenal capsule and scattered throughout the cortex...
December 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Malini Mukherjee, Jennifer deRiso, Karla Otterpohl, Ishara Ratnayake, Divya Kota, Phil Ahrenkiel, Indra Chandrasekar, Kameswaran Surendran
BACKGROUND: Notch signaling is required during kidney development for nephron formation and principal cell fate selection within the collecting ducts. Whether Notch signaling is required in the adult kidney to maintain epithelial diversity, or whether its loss can trigger principal cell transdifferentiation (which could explain acquired diabetes insipidus in patients receiving lithium) is unclear. METHODS: To investigate whether loss of Notch signaling can trigger principal cells to lose their identity, we genetically inactivated Notch1 and Notch2 , inactivated the Notch signaling target Hes1 , or induced expression of a Notch signaling inhibitor in all of the nephron segments and collecting ducts in mice after kidney development...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Giorgio Vescovo, Chiara Castellani, Marny Fedrigo, Grazia Maria Virzì, Giovanni Maria Vescovo, Regina Tavano, Michela Pozzobon, Annalisa Angelini
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the effects of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFS) and rat adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction GFP-positive cells (rSVC-GFP) in a model of cardio-renal syndrome type II (CRSII). METHODS AND RESULTS: RHF was induced by monocrotaline (MCT) in 28 Sprague-Dawley rats. Three weeks later, four million hAFS or rSVC-GFP cells were injected via tail vein. BNP, sCreatinine, kidney and heart NGAL and MMP9, sCytokines, kidney and heart apoptosis and cells (Cs) engraftment were evaluated...
January 15, 2019: International Journal of Cardiology
Takanori Kanazawa, Mitsuyoshi Fukuda, Naoto Suzuki, Toyofumi Suzuki
Intranasal administration has been reported to be a potential pathway for nose-to-brain delivery of therapeutic agents that circumvents the blood-brain barrier. However, there have been few reports regarding not only the quantitative analysis but also optimal administration conditions and dosing regimens for investigations of nose-to-brain delivery. The limited progress in research on nose-to-brain pathway mechanisms using rodents represents a significant impediment in terms of designing nose-to-brain delivery systems for candidate drugs...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Qiuping Ye, Chunyan Liu, Junheng Shi, Hue You, Jiaying Zhao, Jianhua Liu, Nenggui Xu, Zhenhua Xu
Ventrolateral medulla(VLM) was one of the essential part of central pattern generator(CPG) in swallowing and electro-acupuncture(EA) was an important intervention in swallowing disorder. But the effect and mechanism of EA at acupoints on swallowing were unknown. The present aim to detect the effect of EA at Lianquan (CV23) on swallowing and swallowing-related(SR) interneuron in VLM. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were operated and the swallowing reflex was induced through Double distilled water (DDW) infusion...
November 28, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Zohra M Kakall, Polina E Nedoboy, Melissa M J Farnham, Paul M Pilowsky
Activation of neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) following glucoprivation initiates sympathoadrenal activation, adrenaline release, and increased glucose production. Here, we aimed to determine the role of RVLM µ-opioid receptors in the counterregulatory response to systemic glucoprivation. Experiments were performed in pentobarbital sodium anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats ( n = 30). Bilateral activation of RVLM µ-opioid receptors with [d-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) (8 mM, 50 nl) depressed adrenal sympathetic nerve activity for ~60 min ( n = 6; Δ49...
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Benjamin Hebant, Evelyne Guegan-Massardier, Aude Triquenot-Bagan, Ozlem Ozkul-Wermester
We report here the case of a 80-year-old woman for the assessment of an acute confusional state since 2 days asssociated with diffuse and gradual headache. Brain MRI disclosed isolated hyperintense signal on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence involving the medulla and the right inferior cerebellar peduncle with moderate swelling, consistent with vasogenic oedema, without abnormalities on diffusion-weighted imaging sequence. PRES diagnosis was suspected and antihypertensive therapy was introduced to achieve a blood pressure goal < 140/90 mmHg, allowing a quickly favourable clinical course...
November 29, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Chisato Kasuya, Mina Suzuki, Yukako Koda, Hitomi Sato, Katsunori Kashima, Keisuke Honda, Yoshiki Kazama, Katsuhiko Akiyama, Yasuhiro Seki, Yuichiro Yoneoka
A 32-year-old pregnant woman in her 39th week of pregnancy presented at the emergency room complaining of sudden-onset dizziness with gaze disturbance and was admitted to our hospital. Her past medical history included hypertension, diabetes mellitus and infarction in the right medulla oblongata 18 months prior to this event. Magnetic resonance (MR) angiography showed multiple irregular stenosis of the intracranial arterial system. Although MR images revealed no fresh ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions, she was diagnosed with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RVCS) associated with pregnancy...
December 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Thomaz A Fleury Curado, Huy Pho, Olga Dergacheva, Slava Berger, Rachel Lee, Carla Freire, Aya Asherov, Luis U Sennes, David Mendelowitz, Alan R Schwartz, Vsevolod Y Polotsky
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a prevalent condition and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western Society. The loss of motor input to the tongue and specifically to the genioglossus muscle during sleep is associated with pharyngeal collapsibility and the development of OSA. We applied a novel chemogenetic method to develop a mouse model of sleep disordered breathing Our goal was to reversibly silence neuromotor input to the genioglossal muscle using an adeno-associated viral vector carrying inhibitory designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs AAV5-hM4Di-mCherry (DREADD), which was delivered bilaterally to the hypoglossal nucleus in fifteen C57BL/6J mice...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Yunshan Zhang, Mei Wang, Qiuhua Lu, Qi Li, Mingyan Lin, Jianzhong Huang, Yanguo Hong
Glial activation plays a pivotal role in morphine tolerance. This study investigated effect of Mas-related gene (Mrg) C receptor on morphine-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes in the spinal cord and its underlying mechanisms. Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of morphine (20 µg, daily) for 6 days induced a great decline of morphine antinociception and increased expression of GFAP and OX-42 in the spinal dorsal horn. These changes were greatly attenuated by the intermittent co-injection of bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22, 1 nmol), a specific agonist of MrgC receptor...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Luis Rodrigo Hernandez-Miranda, Daniel M Ibrahim, Pierre-Louis Ruffault, Madeleine Larrosa, Kira Balueva, Thomas Müller, Willemien de Weerd, Irene Stolte-Dijkstra, Robert M W Hostra, Jean-François Brunet, Gilles Fortin, Stefan Mundlos, Carmen Birchmeier
The respiratory rhythm is generated by the preBötzinger complex in the medulla oblongata, and is modulated by neurons in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), which are essential for accelerating respiration in response to high CO2 Here we identify a LBX1 frameshift ( LBX1 FS ) mutation in patients with congenital central hypoventilation. The mutation alters the C-terminal but not the DNA-binding domain of LBX1 Mice with the analogous mutation recapitulate the breathing deficits found in humans. Furthermore, the mutation only interferes with a small subset of Lbx1 functions, and in particular with development of RTN neurons that coexpress Lbx1 and Phox2b...
November 28, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yiming Shen, Jin Bong Park, So Yeong Lee, Seong Kyu Han, Pan Dong Ryu
Exercise training (ExT) normalizes elevated sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure (HF), but the underlying mechanisms are not well-understood. In this study, we examined the effects of 3 weeks of ExT on the electrical activity of the hypothalamic presympathetic neurons in the brain slice of HF rats. HF rats were prepared by ligating the left descending coronary artery. Electrophysiological properties of paraventricular nucleus neurons projecting to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (PVN-RVLM) was examined using slice patch-clamp technique...
November 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Paul F McCulloch, Kenneth A Lahrman, Benjamin DelPrete, Karyn M DiNovo
Most terrestrial animals demonstrate an autonomic reflex that facilitates survival during prolonged submersion under water. This diving response is characterized by bradycardia, apnea and selective increases in peripheral vascular resistance. Stimulation of the nose and nasal passages is thought to be primarily responsible for providing the sensory afferent signals initiating this protective reflex. Consequently, the primary objective of this research was to determine the central terminal projections of nerves innervating the external nose, nasal vestibule and nasal passages of rats...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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