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Ting Wang, Yan Cui, Penggang Liu, Junfeng He, Qian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Kidney has long been thought to be a body's largest organ of elimination for maintain acid-base balance. In recent years, the research on kidneys has mainly focused on the structural characteristics of the kidney of single age group animals. In this Paper we used histological and immunohistochemical methods to observe and compare the structure characteristics of yak kidney and the expression of EGFR BMP-2 and p53 in the kidney of yaks of three different age groups. AIMS: To investigate histological characteristics of age-related changes in the kidney of yak and expression and localization of kidney related factors...
August 14, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Haiguang Wang, Kristin A Hogquist
The precise steps of iNKT subset differentiation in the thymus and periphery have been controversial. We demonstrate here that the small proportion of thymic iNKT and mucosal associated invariant T cells that express CCR7 represent a multi-potent progenitor pool that gives rise to effector subsets within the thymus. Using intra-thymic labeling, we also showed that CCR7+ iNKT cells emigrate from the thymus in a Klf2 dependent manner, and undergo further maturation after reaching the periphery. Ccr7 deficiency impaired differentiation of iNKT effector subsets and localization to the medulla...
August 13, 2018: ELife
S S Panteleev, I B Sivachenko, O A Lyubashina
BACKGROUND: Buspirone, a partial agonist of the 5-HT1a receptor (5-HT1a R), owing to potential antinociceptive properties may be useful in treatment of abdominal pain in IBS patients. The pain-related effects of buspirone are mediated via the 5-HT1a Rs, specifically located within the ventrolateral medulla (VLM). The most animal studies of the 5-HT1a R involvement in pain control have been carried out with somatic behavioral tests. The 5-HT1a R contribution in visceral pain transmission within the VLM is unclear...
August 13, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
David Muchuweti, Edwin G Muguti, Bothwell A Mbuwayesango, Simbarashe Gift Mungazi, Rudo Makunike-Mutasa
INTRODUCTION: Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine producing tumours which arise from chromaffin cells within the adrenal medulla. Patients with these tumours commonly present with a triad of headache, palpitations and hypertension. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 37-year-old male patient who presented with dull left sided abdominal pain and discomfort for 6 weeks. A preoperative Computed tomography (CT) scan showed a huge left suprarenal tumour but urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were negative...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Ajay Patel, Tuo Dong, Shaheryar Ansari, Aaron Cohen-Gadol, Gordon Watson, Fabio Ynoe de Moraes, Masaki Nakamura, Judith Murovic, Steven D Chang, Mustafa Aziz Hatiboglu, Caroline Chung, James Miller, Tim Lautenschlaeger
Although stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an effective modality in the treatment of brainstem metastases (BSM), radiation induced toxicity remains a critical concern. To better understand how severe or life-threatening toxicity is affected by the location of lesions treated in the brainstem, a review of all available studies reporting SRS treatment for BSM was performed. Twenty-nine retrospective studies investigating SRS to BSM were reviewed. The rates of grade 3 or greater toxicity, based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events varied from 0-9...
August 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Susanne G Mueller, Maromi Nei, Lisa M Bateman, Robert Knowlton, Kenneth D Laxer, Daniel Friedman, Orrin Devinsky, Alica M Goldman
Observations in witnessed Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) suggest that a fatal breakdown of the central autonomic control could play a major role in SUDEP. A previous MR study found volume losses in the mesencephalon in focal epilepsy that were more severe and extended into the lower brainstem in two patients who later died of SUDEP. The aims of this study were to demonstrate an association (1) between brainstem volume loss and impaired autonomic control (reduced heart rate variability [HRV]); (2) between brainstem damage and time to SUDEP in patients who later died of SUDEP...
August 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Chiao-Lin Chuang, Ching-Chih Chang, Shao-Jung Hsu, Hui-Chun Huang, Fa-Yauh Lee, Ling-Ju Huang, Shou-Dong Lee
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), a severe complication of advanced cirrhosis, is defined as hypo-perfusion of kidneys resulting from intense renal vasoconstriction in response to generalized systemic arterial vasodilatation. Nevertheless, the mechanisms were barely investigated. Cumulative studies demonstrated renal vasodilatation in portal hypertensive and compensated cirrhotic rats. Previously, we identified that blunted renal vascular reactivity of portal hypertensive rats was reversed following lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Satoshi Matsuyama, Mohammad Rabiul Karim, Takeshi Izawa, Mitsuru Kuwamura, Jyoji Yamate
Macrophages are required during kidney development and appear in the initiation and propagation of renal injury. To establish baseline data, we analyzed the kinetics of the macrophage with different immunophenotypes in the developing rat kidney (fetus at 18 and 20 days, neonate at 1-21 days, and adult at 7-weeks old). Macrophages reacting to CD68, CD163, and MHC class II were identified in the cortex and medulla of the developing rat kidney. CD68+ macrophages appeared in the fetal kidney as early as fetal day 18, and the number increased gradually in the neonatal kidney, whereas MHC class II+ and CD163+ macrophages first appeared on neonatal days 4 and 8, respectively...
July 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
A Imam, A Ogunniyi, A Ibrahim, W I Abdulmajeed, L O Aboyeji, A H Lawan, F A Sulaimon, M Y Adana, S M Ajao
Poisoning from Organophosphates (OPs), especially Dichlorvos (DDVP) has become endemic due to theincreasing use in house hold and agricultural pests control, with most marked effects in the nervous system. However, it isevidenced that natural antioxidants are efficacious against OPs toxicity. Thus, this study investigated the possible antidotalefficacy of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) in Dichlovos (DDVP) induced oxidative and neuronal damages in Wistar rats. DDVPwas administered at sub-chronic daily dosage of 8...
June 30, 2018: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Mohammed Zacky Ariffin, Khairunisa Mohamad Ibrahim, Andy Thiam-Huat Lee, Rui Zhi Lee, Shou Yu Poon, Hwai Kit Thong, Eugene Hern Choon Liu, Chian-Ming Low, Sanjay Khanna
The present study explored the role of the medial septal region (MS) in experimental neuropathic pain. For the first time, we found that the MS sustains nociceptive behaviors in rodent models of neuropathic pain, especially in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model and the paclitaxel model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. For example, inactivation of the MS with intraseptal muscimol (2 μg/μl, 0.5 μl), a GABA mimetic, reversed peripheral hypersensitivity (PH) in the CCI model and induced place preference in a conditioned place preference task, a surrogate measure of spontaneous nociception...
August 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Philipp Brand, Virginie Larcher, Antoine Couto, Jean-Christophe Sandoz, Santiago R Ramírez
Insect mating behavior is controlled by a diverse array of sex-specific traits and strategies that evolved to maximize mating success. Orchid bees exhibit a unique suite of perfume-mediated mating behaviors. Male bees collect volatile compounds from their environment to concoct species-specific perfume mixtures that are presumably used to attract conspecific females. Despite a growing understanding of the ecology and evolution of chemical signaling in orchid bees, many aspects of the functional adaptations involved, in particular regarding sensory systems, remain unknown...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Yoshinori Kawai
To integrate and broadcast neural information, local microcircuits and global macrocircuits interact within certain specific nuclei of the central nervous system. The structural and functional architecture of this interaction was determined for the caudal nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) at the level of the area postrema (AP), a relay station of peripheral viscerosensory information that is processed and conveyed to brain regions concerned with autonomic-affective and other interoceptive reflexive functions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Lusine Gomtsian, Kirsty Bannister, Nathan Eyde, Dagoberto Robles, Anthony H Dickenson, Frank Porreca, Edita Navratilova
Modulation of pain may result from engagement of opioid receptors in multiple brain regions. Whether sensory and affective qualities of pain are differentially affected by brain opioid receptor circuits remains unclear. We previously reported that opioid actions within the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) produces selective modulation of affective qualities of neuropathic pain in rodents but whether such effects may occur in other areas of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is not known. Here, morphine was microinjected in three regions of the ACC or in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and pain behaviors in naïve, sham or spinal nerve ligated (SNL) rats were evaluated...
August 2, 2018: Pain
Serena Boccella, Francesca Guida, Francesco De Logu, Danilo De Gregorio, Mariacristina Mazzitelli, Carmela Belardo, Monica Iannotta, Nicola Serra, Romina Nassini, Vito de Novellis, Pierangelo Geppetti, Sabatino Maione, Livio Luongo
The mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain are poorly understood. Here we show the unexplored role of the hydroxyl carboxylic acid receptor type 2 (HCAR2) in 2 models of neuropathic pain. We used an oral treatment with dimethyl fumarate and the HCAR2 endogenous ligand β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in wild-type (WT) and HCAR2-null mice. We found an up-regulation of the HCAR2 in the sciatic nerve and the dorsal root ganglia in neuropathic mice. Accordingly, acute and chronic treatment with dimethylfumarate (DMF) and BHB reduced the tactile allodynia...
August 7, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
José A Villegas, Angeline Gradolatto, Frédérique Truffault, Régine Roussin, Sonia Berrih-Aknin, Rozen Le Panse, Nadine Dragin
Thymic epithelial cells are one of the main components of the thymic microenvironment required for T-cell development. In this work, we describe an efficient method free of enzymatic and Facs-sorted methods to culture human medullary thymic epithelial cells without affecting the cell phenotypic, physiologic and functional features. Human medulla thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) are obtained by culturing thymic biopsies explants. After 7 days of primo-culture, mTECs keep their ability to express key molecules involved in immune tolerance processes such as autoimmune regulator, tissue-specific antigens, chemokines, and cytokines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yufeng Zhao, Daniel Bushey, Yongxin Zhao, Eric R Schreiter, D Jed Harrison, Allan M Wong, Robert E Campbell
We have developed a series of yellow genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators for optical imaging (Y-GECOs) with inverted responses to Ca2+ and apparent dissociation constants (Kd ') ranging from 25 to 2400 nM. To demonstrate the utility of this affinity series of Ca2+ indicators, we expressed the four highest affinity variants (Kd 's = 25, 63, 121, and 190 nM) in the Drosophila medulla intrinsic neuron Mi1. Hyperpolarization of Mi1 by optogenetic stimulation of the laminar monopolar neuron L1 produced a decrease in intracellular Ca2+ in layers 8-10, and a corresponding increase in Y-GECO fluorescence...
August 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amber V Buhler, Sean Tachibana, Yangmiao Zhang, Raymond M Quock
The present study examined the co-expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and A5 regions of the mouse brainstem within several neurochemical populations involved in nociceptive modulation. Double immunohistochemical methods showed that nNOS+ neurons do not co-localize with serotonergic neurons within any of these regions. Within the RVM, the nuclei raphe magnus and gigantocellularis contain a population of nNOS+/GAD67+ neurons, and within the paragigantocellularis lateralis, there is a smaller population of nNOS+/CHAT+ neurons...
August 3, 2018: Brain Research
Shigehiro Namiki, Ryohei Kanzaki
Sex pheromones orient male moths toward conspecific female moths; the presence of visual information modulates this behavior. In the current study, we explore candidate neuronal pathways for the interaction between vision and the locomotor signal for pheromone orientation. We describe the connectivity between visual neuropils and brain premotor centers, the posterior slope (PS) and the lateral accessory lobe (LAL), in the silkmoth Bombyx mori. Using a single-cell labeling technique, we analyze visual projection neurons supplying these areas...
August 4, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Jun Liu, Yan Cui, Sijiu Yu, Yufeng Huang, Penggang Liu, Liangli Song, Juan Sun, Qian Zhang, Junfeng He
Yaks (Bos grunniens) have special physiological structures that help them adapt to high-altitude environments. Survivin is actively studied in cancer tissues, but less in normal tissues. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analysis the relationship between survivin expression and apoptosis rate in yaks. A partial gene sequence of survivin was cloned and characterized using bioinformatics. The expression of survivin was investigated using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot (WB) analysis and localized using immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
August 2, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Ming-Guo Xie, Xin-Ru Xiao, Fang-Zhou Guo, Jun-Ting Zhang, Zhen Wu, Li-Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate patient clinical features, surgical complications and functional outcomes of surgical treatment of cavernous malformations (CMs) involving the medulla oblongata. METHODS: The charts of 69 patients undergoing surgical treatment of CMs in the medulla oblongata, pontomedullary and cervicomedullary junctions between 2011 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, lesion characteristics, operative documents, and patient outcomes were examined...
August 2, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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