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Jae-Ok Kim, Jong-Oh Kim, Soo-Jin Kim, Wi-Sik Kim, Myung-Joo Oh
In situ hybridization (ISH) of genomic segments using RNA-RNA hybrid for nervous necrosis virus (NNV) detection has not been reported yet. The objective of this study was to develop RNA-ISH using RNA probes for the detection of NNV in infects SSN-1 cells or sevenband grouper Hyporthodus septemfasciatus. Two viral RNA segments viz., RNA1 and RNA2 were synthesized by in vitro transcription and labeled with fluorescein UTP and dignoxigenin dUTP, respectively. These labeled RNA probes specifically detected NNV in infected SSN-1 cells...
October 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Jinjiang Fan, Enrico Campioli, Vassilios Papadopoulos
Translocator protein (TSPO) is a high-affinity cholesterol- and drug-binding mitochondrial protein. Nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 1 or steroidogenic factor 1 (Nr5a1)-Cre mice were previously used to generate steroidogenic cell-specific Tspo gene conditional knockout (cKO) mice. TSPO-depleted homozygotes showed no response to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in stimulating adrenal cortex corticosterone production but showed increased epinephrine synthesis in the medulla. No other phenotype was observed under normal growth conditions...
October 18, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Ram B Singh, Krasimira Hristova, Jan Fedacko, Galal El-Kilany, Germaine Cornelissen
The underlying mechanism for clinical and biochemical manifestations of chronic heart failure (HF) may be due in part to neurohumoral adaptations, such as activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems in the periphery and the brain. Internet search and discussion with colleagues are the methods for this study. Since chronic HF is associated with autonomic imbalance with increased sympathetic nerve activity and a withdrawal of parasympathetic activity, it may be considered a brain disease...
October 20, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Jae-Hwan Choi, Eun Hye Oh, Min-Gyu Park, Seung Kug Baik, Han-Jin Cho, Seo Young Choi, Tae-Hong Lee, Ji Soo Kim, Kwang-Dong Choi
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, clinical and radiological features, and efficacy of clinical evaluation and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) for the prediction of final stroke in patients with DWI/MRI-negative posterior circulation stroke (PCS) presenting acute dizziness/vertigo. From our comprehensive prospective stroke registry of acute ischemic stroke during a 7-year period, we identified 1846 consecutive patients with PCS, 850 of whom presented with acute dizziness/vertigo. Of these 850 patients, initial DWI-MRI was negative in 35 (4...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Kasia K Marciszewski, Noemi Meylakh, Flavia Di Pietro, Emily P Mills, Vaughan G Macefield, Paul M Macey, Luke A Henderson
The neural mechanism responsible for migraine remains unclear. Whilst an external trigger has been proposed to initiate a migraine, it has also been proposed that changes in brainstem function are critical for migraine headache initiation and maintenance. Although the idea of altered brainstem function has some indirect support, no study has directly measured brainstem pain modulation circuitry function in migraineurs particularly immediately prior to a migraine. In male and female humans, we performed functional magnetic resonance imaging in 31 control and 31 migraineurs at various times in their migraine cycle...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ryuichiro Yagi, Yoshinori Nishimoto, Satoshi Yamada, Hanae Nakashima, Kensuke Okada, Fumie Konoeda, Haruhiko Hoshino
Medullary hemorrhage is quite rare among brain stem hemorrhage cases, thus the clinical course remains unclear. In the medulla oblongata, respiratory centers are located and previous reports indicate that medullary lesions have possible relationship with acute respiratory distress syndrome. This kind of respiratory failure is commonly caused by neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE), which is defined as noncardiac noninfectious acute respiratory distress syndrome with changes in intracranial condition including cerebrovascular events...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Bożena Bądzyńska, Iwona Baranowska, Olga Gawryś, Janusz Sadowski
KEY POINTS: The development of new effective methods to treat arterial hypertension is hindered by uncertainty regarding its causes. According to one widespread concept hypertension is caused by abnormal blood circulation in the kidney, specifically by reduction of blood flow through the kidney medulla. However. such causal relationship has never been rigorously verified. We checked if in rats with three different forms of experimental hypertension prolonged selective elevation of renal medullary blood flow using local infusion of vasodilator bradykinin would lower arterial pressure...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Arata Takeuchi, Madoka Ozawa, Yasuhiro Kanda, Mina Kozai, Izumi Ohigashi, Yoichi Kurosawa, Md Azizur Rahman, Toshihiko Kawamura, Yuto Shichida, Eiji Umemoto, Masayuki Miyasaka, Burkhard Ludewig, Yousuke Takahama, Takashi Nagasawa, Tomoya Katakai
The spatiotemporal regulation of immune responses in the lymph node (LN) depends on its sophisticated tissue architecture, consisting of several subcompartments supported by distinct fibroblastic stromal cells (FSCs). However, the intricate details of stromal structures and associated FSC subsets are not fully understood. Using several gene reporter mice, we sought to discover unrecognized stromal structures and FSCs in the LN. The four previously identified FSC subsets in the cortex are clearly distinguished by the expression pattern of reporters including PDGFRβ, CCL21-ser, and CXCL12...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Beatrice Paradiso, Stefano Ferrero, Gaetano Thiene, Anna Maria Lavezzi
INTRODUCTION: The arcuate nucleus is a component of the ventral medullary surface involved in chemoreception and breathing control. The hypoplasia of this nucleus is a very frequent finding in victims of sudden unexplained fetal and infant death (from the last weeks of pregnancy to the first year of life). On the contrary, this developmental alteration is rarely present in age-matched controls who died of defined causes. These observations lead to hypothesize that a well-developed and functional arcuate nucleus is generally required to sustain life...
October 17, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Effie Lee, Maria Fuller, Mandi Carr, Jim Manavis, John Finnie
We describe the clinicopathologic features of an ovine case of Krabbe disease (globoid cell leukodystrophy). Brain lesions, sometimes bilaterally distributed, were present in the cerebellar peduncles, cerebellar folia white matter, medulla, pons, and spinal cord and characterized by marked myelin loss and numerous large macrophages (globoid cells), which tended to aggregate perivascularly. Gemistocytic astrocytes were abundant, and their nuclei were frequently abnormal. The activity of the deficient enzyme, galactosylceramide β-galactosidase, was undetectable in this neurologic disorder compared to age- and breed-matched control brains, and levels of the neurotoxic substrate, psychosine, were markedly elevated...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Genwen Hu, Zhong Yang, Wen Liang, Caiyong Lai, Yingjie Mei, Yufa Li, Jianmin Xu, Liangping Luo, Xianyue Quan
BACKGROUND: Renal fibrosis is a common consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is the mechanism by which various forms of CKD progress to endstage renal failure. Accurate assessment of renal fibrosis is important for treatment. PURPOSE: To measure longitudinal changes of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) before and after reversible unilateral ureteral obstruction in an animal model. STUDY TYPE: Self-controlled animal study...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Te-Jung Lu, Chee-Hong Chan, Pin Ling, Yung-Mei Chao, Bo-Ying Bao, Chun-Yen Chiang, Te-Hsiu Lee, Yui-Ping Weng, Wei-Chih Kan, Te-Ling Lu
Defective renal salt and water excretion, together with increased salt intake, frequently contributes to hypertension. Recent studies indicate that Ste20 family kinases, such as proline-alanine-rich Ste20-related kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-response protein 1 (OSR1), are regulators of cell volume, ion transport, and hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mammalian sterile 20-like protein kinase 3 (MST3), which is also a stress-regulated kinase, is involved in the development of hypertension...
October 16, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Ching-Yi Tsai, Yan-Yuen Poon, Julie Y H Chan, Samuel H H Chan
By application of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a physiological tool to evaluate changes in functional connectivity between key brain stem nuclei in the baroreflex neural circuits of mice and rats, recent work revealed several hitherto unidentified phenomena regarding baroreflex functionality. (1) The presence of robust functional connectivity between nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and nucleus ambiguus (NA) or rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) offers a holistic view on the moment-to-moment modus operandi of the cardiac vagal baroreflex or baroreflex-mediated sympathetic vasomotor tone...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Jianjun Xue, Huili Li, Ziqing Xu, Danxu Ma, Ruijuan Guo, Kehu Yang, Yun Wang
The mechanisms underlying the pronociceptive effect of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) are not fully established. The modulation of BDNF signaling-mediated descending facilitation from the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) of brain stem has been demonstrated in persistent pain models of inflammatory pain, but not in incisional pain model. Recent study has shown that PSD increases the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brainstem structure. Therefore, in the current study, we asked whether the BDNF signaling-mediated descending facilitation was involved in the PSD-induced pronociceptive effect on incisional pain and delay the recovery period of postoperative pain in rats...
October 15, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Pushpa Raj Puri, Michael Anders Petersen
Vertebral artery aneurysms are rare and challenging as they are usually asymptomatic and, therefore, often overlooked. We report the case of a 73-year-old man with a history of progressive dysphagia for 1 year. Computed tomography (CT) and computed tomography with angiography (CTA) of the cerebrum revealed a giant vertebral artery aneurysm compressing the medulla. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) revealed recurrent nerve paralysis. The patient was managed conservatively since the aneurysm was completely thrombosed...
September 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
Avital Weiss, Lior Spektor, Lyora A Cohen, Lena Lifshitz, Inbar Magid Gold, De-Liang Zhang, Marianna Truman-Rosentsvit, Yael Leichtmann-Bardoogo, Abraham Nyska, Sefi Addadi, Tracey A Rouault, Esther G Meyron-Holtz
The exact route of iron through the kidney and its regulation during iron overload are not completely elucidated. Under physiologic conditions, non-transferrin and transferrin bound iron passes the glomerular filter and is reabsorbed through kidney epithelial cells, so that hardly any iron is found in the urine. To study the route of iron reabsorption through the kidney, we analyzed the location and regulation of iron metabolism related proteins in kidneys of mice with iron overload, elicited by iron dextran injections...
2018: PloS One
Ranjan K Roy, Rachael A Augustine, Colin H Brown, Daryl O Schwenke
Myocardial infarction (MI) initiates an increase in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) that facilitates potentially fatal arrhythmias. The mechanism(s) underpinning sympathetic activation remain unclear. Some neuronal populations within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) have been implicated in SNA. This study elucidated the role of the PVN in triggering cardiac SNA following MI (left anterior descending coronary artery ligation). By means of c-Fos, oxytocin, and vasopressin immunohistochemistry accompanied by retrograde tracing we showed that MI activates parvocellular oxytocin neurons projecting to the rostral ventral lateral medulla...
2018: Communications biology
Pei-Ju Chen, Atsuko Matsushita, Motohiro Wakakuwa, Kentaro Arikawa
Spectrally opponent responses, i.e. wavelength-dependent inversions of response polarity, have been observed at the level of photoreceptors in butterflies. Since inter-photoreceptor connections have been found in the butterfly Papilio xuthus, and histamine is the only neurotransmitter so far identified in insect photoreceptors, we hypothesize that histaminergic sign-inverting synapses exist in the lamina between different spectral receptors as a mechanism for spectral opponency as in the medulla of Drosophila...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Yu Deng, Xing Tan, Miao-Ling Li, Wei-Zhong Wang, Yang-Kai Wang
The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is a key region in cardiovascular regulation. It has been demonstrated that cholinergic synaptic transmission in the RVLM is enhanced in hypertensive rats. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the brain plays beneficial roles in cardiovascular function in hypertension. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ACE2 overexpression in the RVLM on cholinergic synaptic transmission in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Four weeks after injecting lentiviral particles containing enhanced green fluorescent protein and ACE2 bilaterally into the RVLM, the blood pressure and heart rate were notably decreased...
October 15, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Shijia Ren, Meifang Chen, Lanying Yang, Zaiqun Liu
Nissl and immunohistochemical staining methods were used to morphologically characterize the cerebellum of the new-hatching Yangtze alligator, and the cerebellar histological structure and the distribution profiles of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) neurons were investigated for the first time. The results of cerebellar histological structure showed that there was a ventriculus cerebelli in the cerebellum of the new-hatching Yangtze alligator, the surface of the cerebellar cortex was not very smooth, the cerebellar cortex could be divided into four layers which include external granular layer, molecular layer, Purkinje cell layer and granular layer, Purkinje cell layer could be characterized specially by multilayer, two cerebellar nuclei termed as the nucleus cerebelli lateralis and the nucleus cerebelli medialis were found in the cerebellar medulla...
October 13, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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