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Central pattern generator

Harald Hessel, Manuela Poignée-Heger, Sabine Lohmann, Bianca Hirscher, Andrea Herold, Gerald Assmann, Jan Budczies, Karl Sotlar, Thomas Kirchner
Background: "Triple-negative breast cancers" (TNBC) comprise a heterogeneous group of about 15% of invasive BCs lacking the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR) and the expression of HER2 (ERBB2) and are therefore no established candidates for targeted treatment options in BC, i.e., endocrine and anti-HER2 therapy. The aim of the present study was to use gene expression profiling and immunohistochemical (IHC) characterization to identify receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) profiles that would allow patient stratification for the purposes of target-oriented personalized tumor therapy in TNBC...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Payam Atoofi, Fred H Hamker, John Nassour
How do robots learn to perform motor tasks in a specific condition and apply what they have learned in a new condition? This paper proposes a framework for motor coordination acquisition of a robot drawing straight lines within a part of the workspace. Then, it addresses transferring the acquired coordination into another area of the workspace while performing the same task. Motor patterns are generated by a Central Pattern Generator (CPG) model. The motor coordination for a given task is acquired by using a multi-objective optimization method that adjusts the CPGs' parameters involved in the coordination...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Damianos S Skopelitis, Kristine Hill, Simon Klesen, Cristina F Marco, Patrick von Born, Daniel H Chitwood, Marja C P Timmermans
Mobile small RNAs serve as local positional signals in development and coordinate stress responses across the plant. Despite its central importance, an understanding of how the cell-to-cell movement of small RNAs is governed is lacking. Here, we show that miRNA mobility is precisely regulated through a gating mechanism polarised at defined cell-cell interfaces. This generates directional movement between neighbouring cells that limits long-distance shoot-to-root trafficking, and underpins domain-autonomous behaviours of small RNAs within stem cell niches...
August 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Jake Luo, Christy Erbe, David R Friedland
OBJECTIVE: To identify novel language usage by expert providers predictive of specific vestibular conditions. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review and natural language processing. Level IV. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Patients seen for vestibular complaint. INTERVENTION(S): Natural language processing and machine learning analyses of semantic and syntactic patterns in clinical documentation from vestibular patients...
August 3, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Nobuyuki Fukuoka, Masahiro Miyata, Tatsuro Hamada, Eishin Takeshita
The mechanism underlying internal browning (IB), or brown discoloration, of the central region of tuberous roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was examined. IB disorder begins in roots from approx. 90 days after transplanting, and the severity increases significantly with time. IB damage initially occurs in cells around the secondary vascular tissue, and the area per cell occupied by starch grains in this region was larger than in the unaffected region. High levels of reducing sugars, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities, chlorogenic acid, and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) were detected in cells from the IB damaged regions...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Thomas S Wilhelm, Zihao Wang, Mohadeseh A Baboli, Jian Yan, Stefan F Preble, Parsian K Mohseni
The ternary III-V semiconductor compound, Al x Ga1 -x As, is an important material that serves a central role within a variety of nanoelectronic, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic devices. With all of its uses, the material itself poses a host of fabrication difficulties stemming from conventional top-down processing, including standard wet-chemical etching and reactive-ion etching (RIE). Metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) techniques provide low-cost and benchtop methods that combine many of the advantages of RIE and wet-chemical etching, without being hindered by many of their disadvantages...
August 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
L M Wade-Bohleber, H Böker, J Ernst, S Grimm, N Brügger, I M Berwian, J Vetter, K H Preller, H Himmighoffen, B Kleim, E Seifritz, A Richter
Reflecting on oneself and others in relationships is an ability that is central to our social existence. Specifically, considering formative autobiographical experiences in relationships may contribute to more flexibility in perceiving, as well as in shaping present relationships. Reflecting on such experiences mobilizes different social cognitive and affective processes. We aim to explore the neural basis of these processes. With a newly developed functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) task, we investigated brain activation in 35 healthy individuals during recall of relationship episodes involving themselves or others...
August 2, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Davood Khodadad, Sven Nordebo, Beat Mueller, Andreas Daniel Waldmann, Rebecca Yerworth, Tobias Becher, Inez Frerichs, Louiza Sophocleous, Anton van Kaam, Martijn Miedema, Nima Seifnaraghi, Richard H Bayford
OBJECTIVE: This paper defines a method for optimizing the breath delineation algorithms used in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). In lung EIT the identification of the breath phases is central for generating tidal impedance variation images, subsequent data analysis and clinical evaluation. The optimisation of these algorithms is particularly important in neonatal care since the existing breath detectors developed for adults may give insufficient reliability in neonates due to their very irregular breathing pattern...
August 3, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Marcello Alessandro Caria, Francesca Biagi, Ombretta Mameli
It has been previously demonstrated that the Me5 nucleus is involved in the genesis of reflex activities at whisker pad level. Specific Me5 neurons, which provide sensory innervation of the macrovibrissae, are monosynaptically connected with small hypoglossal neurons innervating the extrinsic muscles that control macrovibrissal movements. Artificial whisking, induced by the electrical stimulation of the peripheral stump of the facial nerve and the electrical stimulation of the XII nucleus or the infraorbital nerve, induced evoked responses in the whisker pad extrinsic motor units, along with a significant increase in the electromyographic activity of the extrinsic pad muscles (Mameli et al...
August 2, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Joshua G Puhl, Anthony W Bigelow, Mara C P Rue, Karen A Mesce
Many animals depend on descending information from the brain for the initiation and proper execution of locomotion. Interestingly, after injury and the loss of such inputs, locomotor function can sometimes be regained without the regrowth of central connections. In the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana , we have shown that crawling reemerges after removal of descending inputs. Here, we studied the mechanisms underlying this return of locomotion by asking if central pattern generators (CPGs) in crawl-recovered leeches are sufficient to produce crawl-specific intersegmental coordination...
July 2018: ENeuro
Grisel Cavieres, José M Bogdanovich, Paloma Toledo, Francisco Bozinovic
Organismal performance in a changing environment is dependent on temporal patterns and duration of exposure to thermal variability. We experimentally assessed the time-dependent effects of thermal variability (i.e., patterns of thermal exposure) on the hatching performance of Drosophila melanogaster . Flies were collected in central Chile and maintained for four generations in laboratory conditions. Fourth generation eggs were acclimated to different thermal fluctuation cycles until hatching occurred. Our results show that the frequency of extreme thermal events has a significant effect on hatching success...
July 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Elizabeth J Radford
The astonishing array of cellular phenotypes required to make a complex organism such as a human is generated from an identical genetic sequence in the nucleus of each cell. The central nervous system is a highly ordered, complex system composed of multiple neuronal and glial cell types. Both neurons and glia are derived from neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) in a temporally and spatially patterned process of cellular division and differentiation, migration, maturation and the establishment of neuronal connectivity...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Elizabeth A Newman, Dan Wu, Makoto Mark Taketo, Jiangyang Zhang, Seth Blackshaw
The hypothalamus is a small, but anatomically and functionally complex, region of the brain whose development is poorly understood. In this study, we have explored its development by studying the canonical Wnt signalling pathway, generating gain and loss of function mutations of beta-catenin (Ctnnb1) in both hypothalamic and prethalamic neuroepithelium. Deletion of Ctnnb1 resulted in an anteriorized and hypoplastic hypothalamus. Posterior structures were lost or reduced, and anterior structures were expanded...
July 28, 2018: Developmental Biology
Ernst Pöppel
Research is a very personal matter. On the basis of experiences in different countries with researchers from different cultures over many years, some observations will be described. The conceptual frame of this attempt is to look for anthropological universals and cultural specifics. Much can be learned from spatial representations in the arts. Whereas in the West since Renaissance time the central perspective has become dominant in visual art, in Eastern landscape paintings the "floating view" is typical...
July 30, 2018: Cognitive Processing
Berenice Juan-Martínez, Lubia Del Carmen Castillo-Arcos, Leticia Cortaza-Ramírez
OBJECTIVE: To analyze publications of qualitative studies that addressed the phenomenon of violence in indigenous population. METHOD: Meta-synthesis of studies published in the period of 2006 to 2016, with search in the Ebsco Host, Cuiden Plus, Science Direct, Springer, and Web of Science databases. RESULTS: A new reinterpretation of the findings was generated from the codes and categories of the primary articles. Five categories emerged: living violence, factors associated with patterns of violence, consequences of violence, interaction dynamics in situations of violence, and how to deal with violence...
July 23, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Sanjib K Paul, Sudipto Sarkar, Laxmi Narayan Sethi, Sujit K Ghosh
In the present work experiments were carried out to optimize coating formulation in central composite rotatable design varying chitosan and glycerol concentration from 0.5 to 3% (w/w) and 0 to 3% (w/w) respectively as two independent factors. Total color difference and respiration rate was selected for tomato parameters and water vapor permeability and percentage solubility was selected for coating parameters as response. Quadratic polynomial models generated was adequate to explain the effects of the chitosan and glycerol concentrations on response variables...
July 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Renay Weiner, Micah Fineberg, Bridget Dube, Prabuddhagopal Goswami, Shajan Mathew, Gina Dallabetta, Saul Johnson
BACKGROUND: The Avahan India AIDS Initiative was implemented to provide HIV prevention services to key populations including female sex workers (FSWs) who carry the burden of India's concentrated HIV epidemic. Established in 2003 and handed over to the Indian government in 2009, the Initiative included peer-led outreach education, condom promotion and distribution and STI treatment. This study aimed to determine if HIV prevention cascades could be generated using routine monitoring and evaluation data from the Avahan program and to assess their value in identifying and responding to program gaps for FSWs...
July 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Andrea Ferrario, Robert Merrison-Hort, Stephen R Soffe, Wen-Chang Li, Roman Borisyuk
We present the study of a minimal microcircuit controlling locomotion in two-day-old Xenopus tadpoles. During swimming, neurons in the spinal central pattern generator (CPG) generate anti-phase oscillations between left and right half-centres. Experimental recordings show that the same CPG neurons can also generate transient bouts of long-lasting in-phase oscillations between left-right centres. These synchronous episodes are rarely recorded and have no identified behavioural purpose. However, metamorphosing tadpoles require both anti-phase and in-phase oscillations for swimming locomotion...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
Matthew Karl Kirchner, Robert C Foehring, Joseph C Callaway, William E Armstrong
Magnocellular oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons express an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) following spike trains that attenuates firing rate and contributes to burst patterning. This AHP includes contributions from an apamin-sensitive, medium duration AHP (mAHP) and from an apamin-insensitive, slow duration AHP (sAHP). These AHPs are Ca2+ dependent and activated by Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Across central nervous system neurons that generate Ca2+ - dependent AHPs, the Ca2+ channels that couple to the mAHP and sAHP differ greatly, but for MNCs this relationship is unknown...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Matteo Malgaroli, Fiona Maccallum, George A Bonanno
BACKGROUND: Complicated and persistent grief reactions afflict approximately 10% of bereaved individuals and are associated with severe disruptions of functioning. These maladaptive patterns were defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD), but its criteria remain debated. The condition has been studied using network analysis, showing potential for an improved understanding of PCBD. However, previous studies were limited to self-report and primarily originated from a single archival dataset...
July 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
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