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Central pattern generator

Dongya Jia, Jason George, Satyendra Tripathi, Deepali Kundnani, Mingyang Lu, Samir Hanash, Jose Onuchic, Mohit Kumar Jolly, Herbert Levine
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a central role in cancer metastasis and drug resistance - two persistent clinical challenges. Epithelial cells can undergo a partial or full EMT, attaining either a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) or mesenchymal phenotype, respectively. Recent studies have emphasized that hybrid E/M cells may be more aggressive than their mesenchymal counterparts. However, mechanisms driving hybrid E/M phenotypes remain largely elusive. Here, to better characterize the hybrid E/M phenotype(s) and tumor aggressiveness, we integrate two computational methods - (a) RACIPE - to identify the robust gene expression patterns emerging from the dynamics of a given gene regulatory network, and (b) EMT scoring metric - to calculate the probability that a given gene expression profile displays a hybrid E/M phenotype...
December 17, 2018: Physical Biology
Alexandrine Robert, Tiphaine Monsinjon, Romain Péden, Virginie Rasoamampianina, Jean-Claude Le Mével, Thomas Knigge
Serotonin (5-HT) takes a key position in regulating vital functions, such as cardio-ventilatory activity, locomotion and behaviour. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) modulate the serotonergic system and thus affect these functions. Rhythmic behaviours, such as cardio-ventilatory activity, are controlled by central pattern generators, which in turn are regulated by 5-HT. In crustaceans, 5-HT also regulates the synthesis and secretion of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone, a pleiotropic hormone involved in the mobilisation and release of glucose into the haemolymph, thus stimulating the animal's activity...
December 5, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Ashley N Turner, Reagan S Andersen, Ivy E Bookout, Lauren N Brashear, James C Davis, David M Gahan, James C Davis, John P Gotham, Baraa A Hijaz, Ashish S Kaushik, Jordan B Mcgill, Victoria L Miller, Zachariah P Moseley, Cerissa L Nowell, Riddhi K Patel, Mia C Rodgers, Riddhi K Patel, Yazen A Shihab, Austin P Walker, Sarah R Glover, Samantha D Foster, Anil K Challa
Nodal-related protein (ndr2) is amember of the transforming growth factor type β superfamily of factors and is required for ventral midline patterning of the embryonic central nervous system in zebrafish. In humans, mutations in the gene encoding nodal cause holoprosencephaly and heterotaxy. Mutations in the ndr2 gene in the zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) lead to similar phenotypes, including loss of the medial floor plate, severe deficits in ventral forebrain development and cyclopia. Alleles of the ndr2 gene have been useful in studying patterning of ventral structures of the central nervous system...
December 2018: Journal of Genetics
Susanne S Scherrer, Mustapha Mekki, Claude Crottaz, Michael Gahlert, Eric Romelli, Laurine Marger, Stéphane Durual, Eric Vittecoq
OBJECTIVES: To provide fractographic analysis of clinically fractured zirconia implants recovered with their cemented crown. To calculate bending moments, corresponding stress and crack onset location on the implant's fracture surface using a mathematical model integrating spatial coordinates of the crown-implant part and occlusal loading obtained from 2D and 3D images. METHODS: 15 fractured zirconia implants parts (11 posterior and 4 anterior) with their all- ceramic crowns still cemented on it were recovered...
December 11, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Jaison Jiro Omoto, Bao-Chau Minh Nguyen, Pratyush Kandimalla, Jennifer Kelly Lovick, Jeffrey Michael Donlea, Volker Hartenstein
The central complex (CX) is a midline-situated collection of neuropil compartments in the arthropod central brain, implicated in higher-order processes such as goal-directed navigation. Here, we provide a systematic genetic-neuroanatomical analysis of the ellipsoid body (EB), a compartment which represents a major afferent portal of the Drosophila CX. The neuropil volume of the EB, along with its prominent input compartment, called the bulb, is subdivided into precisely tessellated domains, distinguishable based on intensity of the global marker DN-cadherin...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Inge Steuer, Pierre A Guertin
Central pattern generators (CPGs) are generally defined as networks of neurons capable of enabling the production of central commands, specifically controlling stereotyped, rhythmic motor behaviors. Several CPGs localized in brainstem and spinal cord areas have been shown to underlie the expression of complex behaviors such as deglutition, mastication, respiration, defecation, micturition, ejaculation, and locomotion. Their pivotal roles have clearly been demonstrated although their organization and cellular properties remain incompletely characterized...
December 13, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Quinn T Ostrom, Haley Gittleman, Carol Kruchko, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan
BACKGROUND: The Appalachian region is a large geographic and economic area, representing 7.69% of the United States (US). This region is more rural, whiter, older, and has a higher level of poverty as compared to the rest of the US. Limited research has been done on primary brain and other central nervous system tumors (PBT) epidemiology in this region. In this analysis we characterize incidence, mortality, and survival patterns. METHODS: Data from 2006 to 2015 were obtained from the central brain tumor registry of the US (provided by CDC and NCI)...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Jing Zhao, Liqin Zhang, Dongquan Zhang, Jinhui Tian, Tianpeng He, Dong Gong, Yuan Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To survey the distribution pattern and subject domain knowledge of the literatures about ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). METHODS: Literatures about VAP published until December 2017 were identified in SinoMed database for statistics and analysis. The information of author, organization and province was extracted by BICOMS software for generating co-occurrence matrix, at the same time, the topic words were cluster analyzed by Gcluto software to generate topical visual surface maps and visualization matrices, and the current research hotspots were analyzed...
November 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
José Teixeira, Helena Gonçalves, Nuno Ferrand, Mario García-París, Ernesto Recuero
Genetic characterization of species using phylogeographic approaches represents a basic reference to understand their evolutionary history as well as to identify conservation priorities to protect areas of particular interest regarding evolutionary potential. Even in well-studied regions such information is lacking for the majority of species, including many endemic species with reduced distribution ranges. We investigate the phylogeographic pattern of the Iberian frog Rana iberica , an endemic amphibian restricted to Central and North-Western Iberian Peninsula...
December 2018: Current Zoology
Frank A La Sorte, Kyle G Horton, Cecilia Nilsson, Adriaan M Dokter
Current climate models and observations indicate that atmospheric circulation is being affected by global climate change. To assess how these changes may affect nocturnally migrating bird populations, we need to determine how current patterns of wind assistance at migration altitudes will be enhanced or reduced under future atmospheric conditions. Here, we use information compiled from 143 weather surveillance radars stations within the contiguous United States to estimate the daily altitude, density, and direction of nocturnal migration during the spring and autumn...
December 9, 2018: Global Change Biology
Kate Radford, Ryan C Taylor, Judith G Hall, Bryan Gick
The aerodigestive and communicative behaviors of anencephalic and hydranencephalic patients are assessed from literature sources and are compared with documented neural structures present in the brainstem, subcortical, and cortical regions of the brain. Much of the data analyzed corroborate previous neurological studies, which focus on central pattern generators and development in model organisms. However, findings suggest that further research is necessary to determine which components of these systems support these behaviors...
December 10, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Mohamed M El-Zawahry, Eman M Ibraheem, Mohammad Zakaria Nassani, Sahar A Ghorab, Mohamed I El-Anwar
Background: The aim of this study is to compare stress patterns induced by ball attachments when used to retain mandibular overdentures supported by one, two, or four dental implants. Materials and Methods: In this finite element study, three 3D models were prepared to simulate mandibular implant overdentures retained by one or two or four ball attachments of 3.5 mm diameter with collar height 1.6 mm. The geometric solid models were created by commercial engineering computer-aided design package then transferred to ANSYS as set of standard ACIS text files...
November 2018: Dental Research Journal
Miki Kaneshige, Ken-Ichi Shibata, Jun Matsubayashi, Akira Mitani, Takahiro Furuta
The superior colliculus (SC) is an essential structure for the control of eye movements. In rodents, the SC is also considered to play an important role in whisking behavior, in which animals actively move their vibrissae (mechanosensors) to gather tactile information about the space around them during exploration. We investigated how the SC contributes to vibrissal movement control. We found that when the SC was unilaterally lesioned, the resting position of the vibrissae shifted backward on the side contralateral to the lesion...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Elena Kondratskaya, Oleksandr Ievglevskyi, Mark Züchner, Athina Samara, Joel C Glover, Jean-Luc Boulland
The spinal locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) in neonatal mice exhibits diverse output patterns, ranging from sub-rhythmic to multi-rhythmic to fictive locomotion, depending on its general level of excitation and neuromodulatory status (Sharples and Whelan, 2017). We have recently reported that the locomotor CPG in neonatal mice rapidly recovers the ability to produce neurochemically induced fictive locomotion following an upper lumbar spinal cord compression injury (Züchner et al., 2018). Here we address the question of recovery of multi-rhythmic activity and the serotonin-sensitivity of the CPG...
December 3, 2018: Brain Research
Martine Van Puyvelde, Xavier Neyt, Francis McGlone, Nathalie Pattyn
People rely on speech for communication, both in a personal and professional context, and often under different conditions of physical, cognitive and/or emotional load. Since vocalization is entirely integrated within both our central (CNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS), a mounting number of studies have examined the relationship between voice output and the impact of stress. In the current paper, we will outline the different stages of voice output, i.e., breathing, phonation and resonance in relation to a neurovisceral integrated perspective on stress and human performance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Qiuping Ye, Chunyan Liu, Junheng Shi, Hue You, Jiaying Zhao, Jianhua Liu, Nenggui Xu, Zhenhua Xu
Ventrolateral medulla(VLM) was one of the essential part of central pattern generator(CPG) in swallowing and electro-acupuncture(EA) was an important intervention in swallowing disorder. But the effect and mechanism of EA at acupoints on swallowing were unknown. The present aim to detect the effect of EA at Lianquan (CV23) on swallowing and swallowing-related(SR) interneuron in VLM. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were operated and the swallowing reflex was induced through Double distilled water (DDW) infusion...
November 28, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Rosa Linda Miyares, Tzumin Lee
A complex nervous system requires precise numbers of various neuronal types produced with exquisite spatiotemporal control. This striking diversity is generated by a limited number of neural stem cells (NSC), where spatial and temporal patterning intersect. Drosophila is a genetically tractable model system that has significant advantages for studying stem cell biology and neuronal fate specification. Here we review the latest findings in the rich literature of temporal patterning of neuronal identity in the Drosophila central nervous system...
November 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Tim Theissen, Joachim Aurbacher, David Bedoshvili, Peter Felix-Henningsen, Thomas Hanauer, Sarah Hüller, Besik Kalandadze, Ingrid-Ute Leonhäuser, Anja Magiera, Annette Otte, Rati Shavgulidze, Giorgi Tedoradze, Rainer Waldhardt
Mountain regions cover one quarter of the Earth's terrestrial surface, and are both valuable and vulnerable areas with complex human-environmental interrelationships. In this coupled system, land-use changes induced by political or socio-economic transformations generate consequences for ecological landscape functions like soil productivity and species richness, and integrative land-use concepts provide the potential of a sustainable land development. In the Kazbegi region in the central Greater Caucasus of Georgia, these transformations further lead to landscape-structure change and population marginalization...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Assessments of age-specific mortality and life expectancy have been done by the UN Population Division, Department of Economics and Social Affairs (UNPOP), the United States Census Bureau, WHO, and as part of previous iterations of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD). Previous iterations of the GBD used population estimates from UNPOP, which were not derived in a way that was internally consistent with the estimates of the numbers of deaths in the GBD...
November 10, 2018: Lancet
D M Santos, K Wachowicz, B Burke, B G Fallone
PURPOSE: Real-time MR-guidance is of interest to various groups globally because of the superior soft-tissue contrast MR images offer over other X-ray based imaging modalities. Because of the precision required in proton therapy, proton therapy treatments rely heavily on image-guidance. Integrating an MRI into a proton therapy treatment is a challenge. The charged particles (protons) used in proton therapy experience magnetic forces when travelling through the MRI magnetic fields. Given that it is desired that proton beams can be delivered with sub-millimetre accuracy, it is important that all potential sources of beam displacement are well modeled and understood...
November 29, 2018: Medical Physics
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