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Central pattern generator

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339703/muscle-patterns-underlying-voluntary-modulation-of-co-contraction
#1
Daniele Borzelli, Benedetta Cesqui, Denise J Berger, Etienne Burdet, Andrea d'Avella
Manipulative actions involving unstable interactions with the environment require controlling mechanical impedance through muscle co-contraction. While much research has focused on how the central nervous system (CNS) selects the muscle patterns underlying a desired movement or end-point force, the coordination strategies used to achieve a desired end-point impedance have received considerably less attention. We recorded isometric forces at the hand and electromyographic (EMG) signals in subjects performing a reaching task with an external disturbance...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335763/uncovering-vector-parasite-blood-meal-and-microbiome-patterns-from-mixed-dna-specimens-of-the-chagas-disease-vector-triatoma-dimidiata
#2
Lucia C Orantes, Carlota Monroy, Patricia L Dorn, Lori Stevens, Donna M Rizzo, Leslie Morrissey, John P Hanley, Antonieta Guadalupe Rodas, Bethany Richards, Kimberly F Wallin, Sara Helms Cahan
Chagas disease, considered a neglected disease by the World Health Organization, is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and transmitted by >140 triatomine species across the Americas. In Central America, the main vector is Triatoma dimidiata, an opportunistic blood meal feeder inhabiting both domestic and sylvatic ecotopes. Given the diversity of interacting biological agents involved in the epidemiology of Chagas disease, having simultaneous information on the dynamics of the parasite, vector, the gut microbiome of the vector, and the blood meal source would facilitate identifying key biotic factors associated with the risk of T...
October 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320886/a-whole-methylome-study-of-ethanol-exposure-in-brain-and-blood-an-exploration-of-the-utility-of-peripheral-blood-as-proxy-tissue-for-brain-in-alcohol-methylation-studies
#3
Shaunna L Clark, Blair N Costin, Robin F Chan, Alexander W Johnson, Linying Xie, Jessica L Jurmain, Gaurav Kumar, Andrey A Shabalin, Ashutosh K Pandey, Karolina A Aberg, Michael F Miles, Edwin van den Oord
BACKGROUND: Recent reviews have highlighted the potential use of blood-based methylation biomarkers as diagnostic and prognostic tools of current and future alcohol use and addiction. Due to the substantial overlap that often exists between methylation patterns across different tissues, including blood and brain, blood-based methylation may track methylation changes in brain, however, little work has explored the overlap in alcohol related methylation in these tissues. METHODS: To study the effects of alcohol on the brain methylome and identify possible biomarkers of these changes in blood, we performed a methylome-wide association study in brain and blood from 40 male DBA/2J mice that received either an acute ethanol or saline intraperitoneal injection...
October 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319807/crystal-structures-of-the-solvent-free-and-ethanol-disolvate-forms-of-4-4-diazenediyl-bis-2-3-5-6-tetrafluorobenzoic-acid-exemplifying-self-stabilized-azo-benzene-cis-configurations
#4
Igor Elkin, Thierry Maris, Patrice Hildgen, Christopher J Barrett
cis -4,4'-(Diazenediyl)bis(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoic acid), C14 H2 F8 N2 O4 , and its ethanol disolvate, C14 H2 F8 N2 O4 ·2C2 H5 OH, represent new examples of self-stabilized cis -configured azo-benzenes obtained by a common crystallization procedure at room temperature under normal laboratory lighting conditions. The target structure constitutes of two 2,3,5,6-tetra-fluoro-benzoic acid residues linked to each other by a cis -configured azo group and was confirmed for two isolated specimens extracted from the same sample, corresponding to a solvent-free form and an ethanol disolvate...
October 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307884/matsuoka-s-cpg-with-desired-rhythmic-signals-for-adaptive-walking-of-humanoid-robots
#5
Yong Wang, Xihui Xue, Baifan Chen
The desired rhythmic signals for adaptive walking of humanoid robots should have proper frequencies, phases, and shapes. Matsuoka's central pattern generator (CPG) is able to generate rhythmic signals with reasonable frequencies and phases, and thus has been widely applied to control the movements of legged robots, such as walking of humanoid robots. However, it is difficult for this kind of CPG to generate rhythmic signals with desired shapes, which limits the adaptability of walking of humanoid robots in various environments...
October 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294702/potential-role-of-a-ventral-nerve-cord-central-pattern-generator-in-forward-and-backward-locomotion-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Erick O Olivares, Eduardo J Izquierdo, Randall D Beer
C. elegans locomotes in an undulatory fashion, generating thrust by propagating dorsoventral bends along its body. Although central pattern generators (CPGs) are typically involved in animal locomotion, their presence in C. elegans has been questioned, mainly because there has been no evident circuit that supports intrinsic network oscillations. With a fully reconstructed connectome, the question of whether it is possible to have a CPG in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) of C. elegans can be answered through computational models...
2018: Network neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30287305/changes-in-multiunit-activity-pattern-in-cerebellar-cortex-associated-to-olfactory-cues-during-sexual-learning-in-male-rats
#7
Amiel Tamariz Rodríguez, Lizbeth Vásquez-Celaya, Genaro A Coria-Avila, César A Pérez, Gonzalo E Aranda-Abreu, Porfirio Carrillo, Jorge Manzo, Luis I García
The cerebellum is a structure of the central nervous system which has been previously studied with different techniques and animal models and even humans, so it is associated with multiple functions such as cognition, memory, emotional processing, balance, control of movement, among others. Its relationship with sensory systems has already been explored, however, the role it plays in olfactory processing in the cerebellum is unclear. Several hypotheses have been proposed from work done in humans and animal models with neuroimaging and immunohistochemical techniques...
October 1, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285888/using-concept-mapping-to-develop-a-human-rights-based-indicator-framework-to-assess-country-efforts-to-strengthen-rehabilitation-provision-and-policy-the-rehabilitation-system-diagnosis-and-dialogue-framework-resyst
#8
Dimitrios Skempes, John Melvin, Per von Groote, Gerold Stucki, Jerome Bickenbach
BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation is crucial for the realization of the right to health and a proper concern of global health. Yet, reliable information to guide rehabilitation service planning is unavailable in many countries in part due to the lack of appropriate indicators. To ensure universal health coverage and meet the central imperative of "leaving no one behind" countries must be able to assess key aspects of rehabilitation policy and provision and monitor how they have discharged their human rights responsibilities towards those most disadvantaged, including people with disability...
October 1, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30285619/integration-of-small-rnas-and-transcriptome-sequencing-uncovers-a-complex-regulatory-network-during-vernalization-and-heading-stages-of-orchardgrass-dactylis-glomerata-l
#9
Guangyan Feng, Lei Xu, Jianping Wang, Gang Nie, Bradley Shaun Bushman, Wengang Xie, Haidong Yan, Zhongfu Yang, Hao Guan, Linkai Huang, Xinquan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Flowering is a critical reproductive process in higher plants. Timing of optimal flowering depends upon the coordination among seasonal environmental cues. For cool season grasses, such as Dactylis glomerata, vernalization induced by low temperature provides competence to initiate flowering after prolonged cold. We combined analyses of the transcriptome and microRNAs (miRNAs) to generate a comprehensive resource for regulatory miRNAs and their target circuits during vernalization and heading stages...
October 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30280049/modeled-larval-connectivity-of-a-multi-species-reef-fish-and-invertebrate-assemblage-off-the-coast-of-moloka-i-hawai-i
#10
Emily E Conklin, Anna B Neuheimer, Robert J Toonen
We use a novel individual-based model (IBM) to simulate larval dispersal around the island of Moloka'i in the Hawaiian Archipelago. Our model uses ocean current output from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) as well as biological data on four invertebrate and seven fish species of management relevance to produce connectivity maps among sites around the island of Moloka'i. These 11 species span the range of life history characteristics of Hawaiian coral reef species and show different spatial and temporal patterns of connectivity as a result...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30280020/different-environmental-gradients-affect-different-measures-of-snake-%C3%AE-diversity-in-the-amazon-rainforests
#11
Rafael de Fraga, Miquéias Ferrão, Adam J Stow, William E Magnusson, Albertina P Lima
Mechanisms generating and maintaining biodiversity at regional scales may be evaluated by quantifying β-diversity along environmental gradients. Differences in assemblages result in biotic complementarities and redundancies among sites, which may be quantified through multi-dimensional approaches incorporating taxonomic β-diversity (TBD), functional β-diversity (FBD) and phylogenetic β-diversity (PBD). Here we test the hypothesis that snake TBD, FBD and PBD are influenced by environmental gradients, independently of geographic distance...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30278864/the-effect-of-increased-cognitive-demand-on-auditory-processing-assessment
#12
Kathryn Hamlyn, Katie Welldon, Benjamin Clark, Willem van Steenbrugge, Sarosh Kapadia
BACKGROUND: Auditory processing (AP) is commonly regarded as the perceptual processing of auditory information in the central nervous system. However, the degree to which higher level cognitive processes are involved in AP or its disorders is contentious. Furthermore, there is little evidence regarding the effects of nonauditory cognitive processes on the various tests of AP in common clinical usage and thus on clinical diagnoses of auditory processing disorder. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of increased cognitive demand, generated by using a dual-task paradigm, on performance on different AP tests and types of AP tests in common clinical usage...
October 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30275275/technique-development-for-probing-rna-structure-in-vivo-and-genome-wide
#13
REVIEW
Philip C Bevilacqua, Sarah M Assmann
SUMMARYHow organisms perceive and respond to their surroundings is one of the great questions in biology. It is clear that RNA plays key roles in sensing. Cellular and environmental cues that RNA responds to include temperature, ions, metabolites, and biopolymers. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and in vivo chemical probing have provided unprecedented insights into RNA folding in vivo and genome-wide. Patterns of chemical reactivity have implicated control of gene expression by RNA and aided prediction of RNA structure...
October 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30273154/optically-pumped-magnetometers-for-magneto-myography-to-study-the-innervation-of-the-hand
#14
Philip J Broser, Svenja Knappe, Diljit-Singh Kajal, Nima Noury, Orang Alem, Vishal Shah, Christoph Braun
The central nervous system exerts control over the activation of muscles via a dense network of nerve fibres targeting each individual muscle. There are numerous clinical situations were a detailed assessment of the nerve-innervation pattern is required for diagnosis and treatment. Especially deep muscles are hard to examine and are as yet only accessible by uncomfortable and painful needle EMG techniques. Just recently, a new and flexible method and device became available to measure the small magnetic fields generated by the contraction of the muscles: Optically pumped magnetometers (OPM)...
September 24, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269804/exoskeleton-and-end-effector-robots-for-upper-and-lower-limbs-rehabilitation-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Franco Molteni, Giulio Gasperini, Giovanni Cannaviello, Eleonora Guanziroli
Recovery of upper and lower limbs function is essential to reach independence in daily activities in patients with upper motor neuron syndrome (UMNS). Rehabilitation can provide a guide for motor recovery influencing the neurobiology of neuronal plasticity providing controlled, repetitive, and variable patterns. Increasing therapy dosage, intensity, number of repetition, execution of task-oriented exercises, and combining top-down and bottom-up approaches can promote plasticity and functional recovery. Robotic exoskeletons for upper and lower limbs, based on the principle of motor learning, have been introduced in neurorehabilitation...
September 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266503/investigating-the-genetic-diversity-and-affinities-of-historical-populations-of-tibet
#16
Diane J Rowold, Tenzin Gayden, Javier Rodriguez Luis, Miguel A Alfonso-Sanchez, Ralph Garcia-Bertrand, Rene J Herrera
This study elucidates Y chromosome distribution patterns in the three general provincial populations of historical Tibet, Amdo (n = 88), Dotoe (n = 109) and U-Tsang (n = 153) against the backdrop of 37 Asian reference populations. The central aim of this study is to investigate the genetic affinities of the three historical Tibetan populations among themselves and to neighboring populations. Y-SNP and Y-STR profiles were assessed in these historical populations. Correspondence analyses (CA) were generated with Y-SNP haplogroup data...
September 26, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259953/development-of-a-hydrophilic-interaction-liquid-chromatography-hilic-method-for-the-chemical-characterization-of-water-soluble-isoprene-epoxydiol-iepox-derived-secondary-organic-aerosol
#17
Tianqu Cui, Zhexi Zeng, Erickson O Dos Santos, Zhenfa Zhang, Yuzhi Chen, Yue Zhang, Caitlin A Rose, Sri H Budisulistiorini, Leonard B Collins, Wanda M Bodnar, Rodrigo A F de Souza, Scot T Martin, Cristine M D Machado, Barbara J Turpin, Avram Gold, Andrew P Ault, Jason D Surratt
Acid-catalyzed multiphase chemistry of isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) on sulfate aerosol produces substantial amounts of water-soluble secondary organic aerosol (SOA) constituents, including 2-methyltetrols, methyltetrol sulfates, and oligomers thereof in atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5). These constituents have commonly been measured by gas chromatography interfaced to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) with prior derivatization or by reverse-phase liquid chromatography interfaced to electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (RPLC/ESI-HR-MS)...
September 27, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30254174/single-molecule-analysis-of-endogenous-%C3%AE-actin-mrna-trafficking-reveals-a-mechanism-for-compartmentalized-mrna-localization-in-axons
#18
Benita Turner-Bridger, Maximillian Jakobs, Leila Muresan, Hovy Ho-Wai Wong, Kristian Franze, William A Harris, Christine E Holt
During embryonic nervous system assembly, mRNA localization is precisely regulated in growing axons, affording subcellular autonomy by allowing controlled protein expression in space and time. Different sets of mRNAs exhibit different localization patterns across the axon. However, little is known about how mRNAs move in axons or how these patterns are generated. Here, we couple molecular beacon technology with highly inclined and laminated optical sheet microscopy to image single molecules of identified endogenous mRNA in growing axons...
October 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30246154/tumor-evolution-and-chemoresistance-in-ovarian-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Soochi Kim, Youngjin Han, Se Ik Kim, Hee-Seung Kim, Seong Jin Kim, Yong Sang Song
Development of novel strategies to overcome chemoresistance is central goal in ovarian cancer research. Natural history of the cancer development and progression is being reconstructed by genomic datasets to understand the evolutionary pattern and direction. Recent studies suggest that intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH) is the main cause of treatment failure by chemoresistance in many types of cancers including ovarian cancer. ITH increases the fitness of tumor to adapt to incompatible microenvironment. Understanding ITH in relation to the evolutionary pattern may result in the development of the innovative approach based on individual variability in the genetic, environment, and life style...
2018: NPJ Precision Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242156/repeated-inversions-within-a-pannier-intron-drive-diversification-of-intraspecific-colour-patterns-of-ladybird-beetles
#20
Toshiya Ando, Takeshi Matsuda, Kumiko Goto, Kimiko Hara, Akinori Ito, Junya Hirata, Joichiro Yatomi, Rei Kajitani, Miki Okuno, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Masaaki Kobayashi, Tomoyuki Takano, Yohei Minakuchi, Masahide Seki, Yutaka Suzuki, Kentaro Yano, Takehiko Itoh, Shuji Shigenobu, Atsushi Toyoda, Teruyuki Niimi
How genetic information is modified to generate phenotypic variation within a species is one of the central questions in evolutionary biology. Here we focus on the striking intraspecific diversity of >200 aposematic elytral (forewing) colour patterns of the multicoloured Asian ladybird beetle, Harmonia axyridis, which is regulated by a tightly linked genetic locus h. Our loss-of-function analyses, genetic association studies, de novo genome assemblies, and gene expression data reveal that the GATA transcription factor gene pannier is the major regulatory gene located at the h locus, and suggest that repeated inversions and cis-regulatory modifications at pannier led to the expansion of colour pattern variation in H...
September 21, 2018: Nature Communications
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