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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30546279/requirements-for-transparency-and-communicability-of-regulatory-science
#1
REVIEW
A Alan Moghissi, Richard A Calderone, Camille Estupigan, Rae Koch, Kelsey Manfredi, Vanessa Vanderdys
This article presents the results of a study attempting to provide examples that implement transparency and communicability elements of Ethical Rules Principle of Best Available Regulatory Science (BARS) and Metrics for Evaluation of Regulatory Science Claims (MERSC). It starts with an overview of regulatory science and briefly summarizes principles of BARS and key pillars of MERSC. Subsequently, the BARS/MERSC system is used to evaluate the linear nonthreshold (LNT) process used in cancer assessments and the similar process used for evaluating in particulate matter (PM) exposure...
October 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30469439/long-term-exposure-to-air-pollutants-and-cancer-mortality-a-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#2
Hong-Bae Kim, Jae-Yong Shim, Byoungjin Park, Yong-Jae Lee
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between main air pollutants and all cancer mortality by performing a meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, EMBASE (a biomedical and pharmacological bibliographic database of published literature produced by Elsevier), and the reference lists of other reviews until April 2018. A random-effects model was employed to analyze the meta-estimates of each pollutant. A total of 30 cohort studies were included in the final analysis. Overall risk estimates of cancer mortality for 10 µg/m³ per increase of particulate matter (PM)2...
November 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30453262/the-human-health-risk-estimation-of-inhaled-oil-spill-emissions-with-and-without-adding-dispersant
#3
Nima Afshar-Mohajer, Mary A Fox, Kirsten Koehler
Airborne toxic compounds emitted from polluted seawater polluted after an oil spill raise health concerns when inhaled by humans or other species. Inhalation of these toxic compounds as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or airborne fine particulate matter (PM) may cause serious pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer. Spraying chemical dispersants to enhance distribution of the crude oil into the water was employed extensively during the Deepwater Horizon spill. There is some evidence that dispersion of the crude oil decreased the emission rate of the VOCs but increased the emission rates of fine PM that may carry toxic compounds...
November 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30431139/exosomes-derived-from-pm2-5%C3%A2-treated-lung-cancer-cells-promote-the-growth-of-lung-cancer-via-the-wnt3a-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-catenin-pathway
#4
Hui Xu, Xingai Jiao, Yilei Wu, Shuo Li, Lili Cao, Liang Dong
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with an increased lung cancer risk. However, the effect of PM2.5 exposure on lung cancer cells is still largely unknown. The present study revealed that A549 lung cancer cells secreted exosomes containing high levels of Wnt3a after treatment with PM2.5. These exosomes activated β‑catenin signalling in A549 cells. These exosomes exhibited no effects on migration and invasion, but promoted proliferation of A549 cells via the Wnt3a/β‑catenin pathway in vitro...
November 9, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30419237/air-pollution-and-non-communicable-diseases-a-review-by-the-forum-of-international-respiratory-societies-environmental-committee-part-2-air-pollution-and-organ-systems
#5
REVIEW
Dean E Schraufnagel, John Balmes, Clayton T Cowl, Sara De Matteis, Soon-Hee Jung, Kevin Mortimer, Rogelio Perez-Padilla, Mary B Rice, Horacio Riojas-Rodroguez, Akshay Sood, George D Thurston, Teresa To, Anessa Vanker, Donald J Wuebbles
Although air pollution is well-known to be harmful to the lung and airways, it can also damage most other organ systems of the body. It is estimated that about 500,000 lung cancer deaths and 1.6 million chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) deaths can be attributed to air pollution, but air pollution may also account for 19% of all cardiovascular deaths and 21% of all stroke deaths. Air pollution has been linked to other malignancies, such as bladder cancer and childhood leukemia. Lung development in childhood is stymied with exposure to air pollutants, and poor lung development in children predicts lung impairment in adults...
November 9, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30389379/the-fraction-of-lung-cancer-incidence-attributable-to-fine-particulate-air-pollution-in-france-impact-of-spatial-resolution-of-air-pollution-models
#6
Ivana Kulhánová, Xavier Morelli, Alain Le Tertre, Dana Loomis, Barbara Charbotel, Sylvia Medina, Jean-Nicolas Ormsby, Johanna Lepeule, Rémy Slama, Isabelle Soerjomataram
Outdoor air pollution is a leading environmental cause of death and cancer incidence in humans. We aimed to estimate the fraction of lung cancer incidence attributable to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure in France, and secondarily to illustrate the influence of the input data and the spatial resolution of information on air pollution levels on this estimate. The population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated using a nationwide spatially refined chemistry-transport model with a 2-km spatial resolution, neighbourhood-scale population density data, and a relative risk from a published meta-analysis...
October 30, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30388542/application-of-multiple-path-particle-dosimetry-model-for-quantifying-age-specified-deposition-of-particulate-matter-in-human-airway
#7
N Manojkumar, B Srimuruganandam, S M Shiva Nagendra
Particulate matter (PM) is crucial among six criteria air pollutants, and it is frequently associated with human morbidity and mortality. According to the aerodynamic diameter, PM is classified as coarse (PM10 ) and fine (PM2.5 ). PM with these smaller sizes can easily enter and get deposited in the human airways. This deposited PM fraction commences the development of respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and even cancer. Thus, the quantification of PM deposition and its clearance in the human airway are essential for evaluating health risks...
October 30, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30366659/long-term-effect-of-air-pollution-on-incident-hospital-admissions-results-from-the-italian-longitudinal-study-within-life-med-hiss-project
#8
M Gandini, C Scarinzi, S Bande, G Berti, P Carnà, L Ciancarella, G Costa, M Demaria, S Ghigo, A Piersanti, M Rowinski, T Spadea, M Stroscia, E Cadum
BACKGROUND: The LIFE MED HISS project aims at setting up a surveillance system on the long term effects of air pollution on health, using data from National Health Interview Surveys and other currently available sources of information in most European countries. Few studies assessed the long term effect of air pollution on hospital admissions in European cohorts. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to estimate the long term effect of fine particulate matter (PM2...
October 23, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30351039/characterization-and-risk-assessment-of-atmospheric-pm-2-5-and-pm-10-particulate-bound-pahs-and-npahs-in-rwanda-central-east-africa
#9
Egide Kalisa, Edward G Nagato, Elias Bizuru, Kevin C Lee, Ning Tang, Stephen B Pointing, Kazuichi Hayakawa, Stephen D J Archer, Donnabella C Lacap-Bugler
Exposure to airborne particulates is estimated as the largest cause of premature human mortality worldwide and is of particular concern in sub-Saharan Africa where emissions are high and data are lacking. Particulate matter (PM) contains several toxic organic species including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs (NPAHs). This study provides the first characterization and source identification for PM10 - and PM2.5 -bound PAHs and NPAHs in sub-Saharan Africa during a three-month period that spanned dry and wet seasons at three locations in Rwanda...
October 25, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343145/inhibition-of-atp-citrate-lyase-acly-protects-airway-epithelia-from-pm-2-5-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#10
You Fu, Runze Lu, Jian Cui, Hao Sun, Hongbao Yang, Qingtao Meng, Shenshen Wu, Michael Aschner, Xiaobo Li, Rui Chen
Epidemiological studies have associated ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure with lung cancer, in which epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an initial process. Thus, it is important to identify the key molecule or pathway involved in the PM2.5 induced EMT. Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were exposed to PM2.5 (100 or 500 μg/ml) for 30 passages and analyzed by metabolomics to identify the alteration of metabolites related to PM2.5 exposure. The expression levels of EMT markers were evaluated by qRT-PCR and Western blot assays in HBE cells and murine lung tissues...
October 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340610/genotoxic-and-epigenotoxic-effects-in-mice-exposed-to-concentrated-ambient-fine-particulate-matter-pm-2-5-from-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-city-brazil
#11
Antonio Anax Falcão de Oliveira, Tiago Franco de Oliveira, Michelle Francini Dias, Marisa Helena Gennari Medeiros, Paolo Di Mascio, Mariana Veras, Miriam Lemos, Tania Marcourakis, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Ana Paula Melo Loureiro
BACKGROUND: The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo has a unique composition of atmospheric pollutants, and positive correlations between exposure and the risk of diseases and mortality have been observed. Here we assessed the effects of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) on genotoxic and global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation changes, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, in tissues of AJ mice exposed whole body to ambient air enriched in PM2.5 , which was concentrated in a chamber near an avenue of intense traffic in São Paulo City, Brazil...
October 19, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305224/fine-particulate-matter-pm-2-5-promoted-the-invasion-of-lung-cancer-cells-via-an-arnt2-pp2a-stat3-mmp2-pathway
#12
Zhongqi Chen, Ningfei Ji, Zhengxia Wang, Chaojie Wu, Zhixiao Sun, Yan Li, Fan Hu, Zibin Wang, Mao Huang, Mingshun Zhang
Accumulating evidence indicates that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure is associated with many cardiopulmonary diseases, particularly lung carcinoma. Nevertheless, the underlying biological mechanisms by which PM2.5 exposure initiates and aggravates lung carcinoma remain elusive. In the present study, we collected PM2.5 in Nanjing and explored the mechanisms underlying the oncogenic roles of PM2.5 in the murine lung carcinoma cell line LLC in vitro and in vivo . PM2.5 was closely attached to and internalized by lung cancer cells...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301867/association-between-fine-particulate-matter-and-oral-cancer-among-taiwanese-men
#13
Yu-Hua Chu, Syuan-Wei Kao, Disline Manli Tantoh, Pei-Chieh Ko, Shou-Jen Lan, Yung-Po Liaw
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 ) and oral cancer among Taiwanese men. Four linked data sources including the Taiwan Cancer Registry, Adult Preventive Medical Services Database, National Health Insurance Research Database, and Air Quality Monitoring Database were used. Concentrations of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, NOx (nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide), coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5 ) and PM2.5 in 2009 were assessed in quartiles...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298288/a-systematic-review-on-global-pollution-status-of-particulate-matter-associated-potential-toxic-elements-and-health-perspectives-in-urban-environment
#14
REVIEW
Muhammad Ubaid Ali, Guijian Liu, Balal Yousaf, Habib Ullah, Qumber Abbas, Mehr Ahmad Mujtaba Munir
Airborne particulate matter (PM) that is a heterogeneous mixture of particles with a variety of chemical components and physical features acts as a potential risk to human health. The ability to pose health risk depends upon the size, concentration and chemical composition of the suspended particles. Potential toxic elements (PTEs) associated with PM have multiple sources of origin, and each source has the ability to generate multiple particulate PTEs. In urban areas, automobile, industrial emissions, construction and demolition activities are the major anthropogenic sources of pollution...
October 8, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296769/monetized-health-benefits-attributable-to-mobile-source-emission-reductions-across-the-united-states-in-2025
#15
Philip Wolfe, Kenneth Davidson, Charles Fulcher, Neal Fann, Margaret Zawacki, Kirk R Baker
By-products of mobile source combustion processes, such as those associated with gasoline- and diesel-powered engines, include direct emissions of particulate matter as well as precursors to particulate matter and ground-level ozone. Human exposure to fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) is associated with increased incidence of premature mortality and morbidity outcomes. This study builds upon recent, detailed source-apportionment air quality modeling to project the health-related benefits of reducing PM2...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30291401/atmospheric-pm-2-5-bound-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-guiyang-city-southwest-china-concentration-seasonal-variation-sources-and-health-risk-assessment
#16
Xuelu Fan, Zhuo Chen, Longchao Liang, Guangle Qiu
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) can cause long-term adverse health consequences and are a public concern. A total of 144 PM2.5 -bound PAHs samples collected from Guiyang City, a typical plateau montane area in southwest China, from September 2012 to August 2013 were investigated to clarify their concentration, distribution, and potential sources. The health exposure risk also was evaluated. The samplers equipped with 90-mm glass fibre filters were operated at a flow rate of 100 L min-1 for 24 h...
October 5, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30287511/carcinogens-and-dna-damage
#17
REVIEW
Jessica L Barnes, Maria Zubair, Kaarthik John, Miriam C Poirier, Francis L Martin
Humans are variously and continuously exposed to a wide range of different DNA-damaging agents, some of which are classed as carcinogens. DNA damage can arise from exposure to exogenous agents, but damage from endogenous processes is probably far more prevalent. That said, epidemiological studies of migrant populations from regions of low cancer risk to high cancer risk countries point to a role for environmental and/or lifestyle factors playing a pivotal part in cancer aetiology. One might reasonably surmise from this that carcinogens found in our environment or diet are culpable...
October 19, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286426/indoor-air-pollution-and-exposure-assessment-of-the-gulf-cooperation-council-countries-a-critical-review
#18
REVIEW
Patrick Amoatey, Hamid Omidvarborna, Mahad Said Baawain, Abdullah Al-Mamun
Indoor air pollution is one of the human health threat problems in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. In these countries, due to unfavorable meteorological conditions, such as elevated ambient temperature, high relative humidity, and natural events such as dust storms, people spend a substantial amount of their time in indoor environments. In addition, production of physical and biological aerosols from air conditioners, cooking activities, burning of Arabian incense, and overcrowding due to pilgrimage programs are common causes of low quality indoor air in this region...
December 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276685/differential-transcriptional-changes-in-human-alveolar-epithelial-a549-cells-exposed-to-airborne-pm-2-5-collected-from-shanghai-china
#19
Xiaoning Lei, Joshua E Muscat, Zhongsi Huang, Chao Chen, Guangli Xiu, Jiahui Chen
Fine particulate matters (PM2.5 ) are the core pollutants of haze episode, which pose a serious threat to the human health of developing countries. However, the mechanisms involved in PM2.5 -induced hazard influence are not to fully elucidated. In the present study, human lung epithelial cells (A549) were exposed to various concentrations of PM2.5 samples collected from Shanghai, China. Illumina RNA-Seq method with transcriptome, Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis were further employed to identify the detrimental effects of PM2...
November 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276364/fine-particulate-matter-pm-2-5-the-culprit-for-chronic-lung-diseases-in-china
#20
Tao Li, Rong Hu, Zi Chen, Qiyuan Li, Shouxiong Huang, Zhou Zhu, Lin-Fu Zhou
Air pollution is a world public health problem. Particulate matter (PM), a mix of solid and liquid particles in the air, becomes an increasing concern in the social and economic development of China. For decades, epidemiological studies have confirmed the association between fine particle pollutants and respiratory diseases. It has been reported in different populations that increased Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) concentrations cause elevated susceptibility to respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory distress, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer...
September 2018: Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine
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