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Embryonic macrophage

Luca Giordano, Antoine Farnham, Praveen K Dhandapani, Laura Salminen, Jahnavi Bhaskaran, Robert Voswinckel, Peter Rauschkolb, Susan Scheibe, Natascha Sommer, Christoph Beisswenger, Norbert Weissmann, Thomas Braun, Howard T Jacobs, Robert Bals, Christian Herr, Marten Szibor
Cigarette-smoke (CS) exposure is the predominant risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the third leading cause of death worldwide. We aimed to elucidate if mitochondrial respiratory inhibition and oxidative stress are triggers in its etiology. In different models of CS exposure, we investigated the effect on lung remodeling and cell signaling of restoring mitochondrial respiratory electron flow, using the alternative oxidase (AOX), which by-passes the cytochrome segment of the respiratory chain...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Nancy J Reyes, Rose Mathew, Daniel R Saban
With the new understanding that adult microglia in mice have embryonic origins and are maintained in situ throughout life, it has become pertinent to now understand how these unique cells differ from monocyte-derived macrophages. The latter are recruited into the neural retina (and elsewhere in CNS) in certain diseased states, such as in various forms of retinal degeneration. However, phenotypic markers expressed by microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages largely overlap, thereby making it technically challenging to distinguish the two cell types in disease...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yilang Tang, Sonja Reissig, Elke Glasmacher, Tommy Regen, Florian Wanke, Alexei Nikolaev, Katharina Gerlach, Vanessa Popp, Khalad Karram, Massimo C Fantini, Jörn M Schattenberg, Peter R Galle, Markus F Neurath, Benno Weigmann, Florian C Kurschus, Nadine Hövelmeyer, Ari Waisman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The CYLD lysine 63 deubiquitinase gene (CYLD) encodes tumor suppressor protein that is mutated in familial cylindromatosis, and variants have been associated with Crohn's disease (CD). Splice forms of CYLD that lack exons 7 and 8 regulate transcription factors and functions of immune cells. We examined expression of splice forms of CYLD in colon tissues from patients with CD and their effects in mice. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical analyses of colon tissues from untreated patients with CD and patients without inflammatory bowel diseases (controls)...
October 10, 2018: Gastroenterology
Kate Sutton, Taiana Costa, Andreas Alber, Karen Bryson, Dominika Borowska, Adam Balic, Pete Kaiser, Mark Stevens, Lonneke Vervelde
The respiratory tract is a key organ for many avian pathogens as well as a major route for vaccination in the poultry industry. To improve immune responses after vaccination of chickens through increased uptake of vaccines and targeting to antigen presenting cells, a better understanding of the avian respiratory immune system is required. Transgenic MacReporter birds were used expressing a reporter gene (eGFP or mApple) under the control of the CSF1R promoter and enhancer in cells of the mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) lineage to visualize the ontogeny of the lymphoid tissue, macrophages and dendritic cells, in the trachea, lung and air sac of birds from embryonic day 18-63 weeks of age...
October 10, 2018: Veterinary Research
Michael A Flinn, Brooke E Jeffery, Caitlin C O'Meara, Brian A Link
Aims: The Hippo signaling pathway regulates multiple cellular processes during organ development and maintenance by modulating activity of the transcriptional cofactor Yap. Core components of this pathway are required for neonatal mouse heart regeneration, however, investigations to date have typically focused on expression and activity in cardiomyocytes. Due to the regenerative capacity of zebrafish and the fact that global loss of Yap is not fully embryonic lethal in zebrafish, we leveraged a yap null mutant to investigate the impact of constitutive Yap deletion during zebrafish heart regeneration...
October 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
R Shanmugasundaram, M Wick, M S Lilburn
During the course of multi-stage incubation, small locational differences in incubation temperature within a machine are not uncommon and so the goal of this study was to study the immune response of ducklings exposed to thermal manipulation during incubation. Commercial Pekin duck eggs (n = 200) were distributed among four treatment: SS-Control (37.5°C from embryonic day [ED] 1 to 25); SS-LPS (37.5°C from ED1 to 25 + LPS at D0 [hatch]); HH-LPS (38°C from ED1 to 25+ LPS at D0); SH-LPS (37.5°C from ED1 to 10 and 38°C from ED 11 to 25 + LPS at D0)...
October 4, 2018: Poultry Science
Prajna Paramita Naik, Alexander Birbrair, Sujit Kumar Bhutia
"Cellular reprogramming" facilitates the generation of desired cellular phenotype through the cell fate transition by affecting the mitochondrial dynamics and metabolic reshuffle in the embryonic and somatic stem cells. Interestingly, both the processes of differentiation and dedifferentiation witness a drastic and dynamic alteration in the morphology, number, distribution, and respiratory capacity of mitochondria, which are tightly regulated by the fission/fusion cycle, and mitochondrial clearance through autophagy following mitochondrial fission...
September 28, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Alice Plein, Alessandro Fantin, Laura Denti, Jeffrey W Pollard, Christiana Ruhrberg
The earliest blood vessels in mammalian embryos are formed when endothelial cells differentiate from angioblasts and coalesce into tubular networks. Thereafter, the endothelium is thought to expand solely by proliferation of pre-existing endothelial cells. Here we show that a complementary source of endothelial cells is recruited into pre-existing vasculature after differentiation from the earliest precursors of erythrocytes, megakaryocytes and macrophages, the erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) that are born in the yolk sac...
October 2018: Nature
Anna L Boss, Lawrence W Chamley, Joanna L James
BACKGROUND: Correct development of the placenta is critical to establishing pregnancy and inadequate placentation leads to implantation failure and miscarriage, as well as later gestation pregnancy disorders. Much attention has been focused on the placental trophoblasts and it is clear that the trophoblast lineages arise from the trophectoderm of the blastocyst. In contrast, the cells of the placental mesenchyme are thought to arise from the inner cell mass, but the details of this process are limited...
September 19, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Monara Kaélle Sérvulo Cruz Angelim, Luciana Maria Silva de Seixas Maia, Christine Mouffle, Florent Ginhoux, Donovan Low, Angela Amancio-Dos-Santos, Jennifer Makhoul, Hervé Le Corronc, Jean-Marie Mangin, Pascal Legendre
Microglia are known to regulate several aspects of the development of the central nervous system. When microglia colonize the spinal cord, from E11.5 in the mouse embryo, they interact with growing central axons of dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons (SNs), which suggests that they may have some functions in SN development. To address this issue, we analyzed the effects of embryonic macrophage ablation on the early development of SNs using mouse embryo lacking embryonic macrophages (PU.1 knock-out mice) and immune cell ablation...
September 25, 2018: Glia
Clare Pridans, Anna Raper, Gemma M Davis, Joana Alves, Kristin A Sauter, Lucas Lefevre, Tim Regan, Stephen Meek, Linda Sutherland, Alison J Thomson, Sara Clohisey, Stephen J Bush, Rocío Rojo, Zofia M Lisowski, Robert Wallace, Kathleen Grabert, Kyle R Upton, Yi Ting Tsai, Deborah Brown, Lee B Smith, Kim M Summers, Neil A Mabbott, Pedro Piccardo, Michael T Cheeseman, Tom Burdon, David A Hume
We have produced Csf1r -deficient rats by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Consistent with the role of Csf1r in macrophage differentiation, there was a loss of peripheral blood monocytes, microglia in the brain, epidermal Langerhans cells, splenic marginal zone macrophages, bone-associated macrophages and osteoclasts, and peritoneal macrophages. Macrophages of splenic red pulp, liver, lung, and gut were less affected. The pleiotropic impacts of the loss of macrophages on development of multiple organ systems in rats were distinct from those reported in mice...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Aalia Batool, Yu-Qian Wang, Xiao-Xia Hao, Su-Ren Chen, Yi-Xun Liu
Tumor growth is modulated by crosstalk between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. Recent advances have shown that miRNA dysfunction in tumor cells can modulate the tumor microenvironment to indirectly determine their progression. However, this process is poorly understood in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). We reported here that miR-125b was repressed in TGCT samples by epigenetic modifications rather than genetic alternations. Furthermore, miR-125b overexpression significantly alleviated the tumor growth in two NCCIT human embryonic carcinoma xenograft models in vivo, whereas miR-125b did not stimulate autonomous tumor cell growth in vitro...
September 20, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Hyun Jong Kim, Ji Hyun Choi, Jung-Hwan Hwang, Kyong-Shim Kim, Jung-Ran Noh, Dong-Hee Choi, Sung Je Moon, Hyun-Yong Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Sangho Choi, Sang Mi Eum, Tran The Bach, Jaerang Rho, Ju Yong Lee, Jung Geun Park, Sei-Ryang Oh, Chul-Ho Lee, Won Keun Oh, Yong-Hoon Kim
Melicope ptelefolia has been traditionally used to treat rheumatism and fever. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of 3,5‑di‑C‑β‑D‑glucopyranosyl phloroacetophenone (βGP), a main component of M. ptelefolia, on rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A model of collagen‑induced arthritis (CIA) was established in mice using the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The clinical scores of arthritis, swelling, histopathological findings, and micro‑computed tomography in CIA mouse paws were assessed...
November 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Ruijun Wu, Cong Li, Xiaozhi Sun, Sufang Zhang, Chunsu Liang, Yong Jiang, Xin Hu, Youqi Yan, Xiaomei Ling
In this research a method called immobilized cell capillary electrophoresis (ICCE) was established under approximately physiological conditions for rapid screening of anti-tumor metastasis drugs targeting integrin macrophage antigen-1 (MAC-1). In this method, separation and purification of the target receptors on cell membranes was unnecessary, thus, maintaining their natural conformation and bioactivity. MAC-1-, CD11b-, or CD18-overexpressing HEK293 cells (human embryonic kidney) were cultured and immobilized on the inner wall of capillaries as stationary phase, and their interactions with lactosyl derivative Gu-4 (positive control)/dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; negative control) were studied using ICCE...
September 18, 2018: Analyst
Harvey A Schenkein, Ravindar R Thomas
Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) have been reported to be present in 15-20% of sera from subjects with periodontitis at concentrations exceeding those found in 95% of the healthy adult population. These antibodies, albeit at concentrations exceeding those generally found in periodontitis subjects, are typically present in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), an autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis and recurrent pregnancy loss. aCL from APS patients are proinflammatory and can activate trophoblasts, macrophages, and platelets via cell-surface interactions with their target antigen beta-2-glycoprotein-I (β2GPI)...
2018: PloS One
Julia K Götzl, Alessio-Vittorio Colombo, Katrin Fellerer, Anika Reifschneider, Georg Werner, Sabina Tahirovic, Christian Haass, Anja Capell
BACKGROUND: Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) lead to frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) while the complete loss of progranulin (PGRN) function results in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a lysosomal storage disease. Thus the growth factor-like protein PGRN may play an important role in lysosomal degradation. In line with a potential lysosomal function, PGRN is partially localized and processed in lysosomes. In the central nervous system (CNS), PGRN is like other lysosomal proteins highly expressed in microglia, further supporting an important role in protein degradation...
September 4, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Khaleel I Al-Obaidy, Muhammad T Idrees
Endometriosis in men is extremely rare with only a few cases reported in the English literature. Different theories have been proposed as to its origin. In this article, we describe the clinicopathologic features of 2 cases of endometriosis occurring in male patients. The patients' ages were 50 and 43 years, and sizes were 2 and 5.2 cm, respectively. No significant chemical or hormonal exposure was identified. Both patients presented with a testicular mass. Grossly, both lesions were cystic and contained hemorrhagic fluid...
September 4, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Sebastiaan De Schepper, Simon Verheijden, Javier Aguilera-Lizarraga, Maria Francesca Viola, Werend Boesmans, Nathalie Stakenborg, Iryna Voytyuk, Inga Smidt, Bram Boeckx, Isabelle Dierckx de Casterlé, Veerle Baekelandt, Erika Gonzalez Dominguez, Matthias Mack, Inge Depoortere, Bart De Strooper, Ben Sprangers, Uwe Himmelreich, Stefaan Soenen, Martin Guilliams, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Elizabeth Jones, Diether Lambrechts, Guy Boeckxstaens
Macrophages are highly heterogeneous tissue-resident immune cells that perform a variety of tissue-supportive functions. The current paradigm dictates that intestinal macrophages are continuously replaced by incoming monocytes that acquire a pro-inflammatory or tissue-protective signature. Here, we identify a self-maintaining population of macrophages that arise from both embryonic precursors and adult bone marrow-derived monocytes and persists throughout adulthood. Gene expression and imaging studies of self-maintaining macrophages revealed distinct transcriptional profiles that reflect their unique localization (i...
October 4, 2018: Cell
Emanuele Azzoni, Vincent Frontera, Kathleen E McGrath, Joe Harman, Joana Carrelha, Claus Nerlov, James Palis, Sten Eirik W Jacobsen, Marella Ftr de Bruijn
Few studies report on the in vivo requirement for hematopoietic niche factors in the mammalian embryo. Here, we comprehensively analyze the requirement for Kit ligand (Kitl) in the yolk sac and aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) niche. In-depth analysis of loss-of-function and transgenic reporter mouse models show that Kitl-deficient embryos harbor decreased numbers of yolk sac erythro-myeloid progenitor (EMP) cells, resulting from a proliferation defect following their initial emergence. This EMP defect causes a dramatic decrease in fetal liver erythroid cells prior to the onset of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-derived erythropoiesis, and a reduction in tissue-resident macrophages...
October 2018: EMBO Reports
Martin C Langenmayer, Anna-Theresa Lülf-Averhoff, Silvia Adam-Neumair, Gerd Sutter, Asisa Volz
The Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a highly attenuated vaccinia virus serving as a promising vector vaccine platform to develop vaccines against infectious diseases. In contrast to the well-established replication deficiency and safety of MVA in mammals, much less is known about MVA infection in avian hosts. Here, we used a recombinant MVA expressing fluorescent reporter proteins under transcriptional control of specific viral early and late promoters to study in vivo tropism, distribution, and pathogenesis of MVA infections in embryonated chicken eggs...
August 24, 2018: Viruses
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