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Embryonic macrophage

Magdalena Palacz, Kelton Tremellen
Obesity is associated with implantation failure, miscarriage, low-grade inflammation and a reduction in peripheral immune-suppressive T regulatory (Treg) cells. Therefore, we postulated that this reduction may also extend to the endometrium and cause embryonic loss. In a cohort of 40 infertile women, without implantation failure or recurrent miscarriage, we examined the density of Treg cells, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells in mid-luteal endometrial biopsies. Significant positive correlations were observed between BMI and endometrial Treg cells and macrophages, but no relationship with NK cells...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Sandra Edwards, María Graciela Delgado, Guilherme Nader, Matthieu Piel, Yohanns Bellaïche, Ana María Lennon, Álvaro Glavic
Thanks to the power of Drosophila genetics, this animal model has been a precious tool for scientists to uncover key processes associated to innate immunity. The fly immune system relies on a population of macrophage-like cells, also referred to as hemocytes, which are highly migratory and phagocytic, and can easily be followed in vivo. These cells have shown to play important roles in fly development, both at the embryonic and pupal stages. However, there is no robust assay for the study of hemocyte migration in vitro, which limits our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved...
August 7, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
Kenji Kitajima, Mai Kanokoda, Marino Nakajima, Takahiko Hara
The generation of mouse hematopoietic stem cells from hemogenic endothelial cells (HECs) in the aorta/gonad/mesonephros region of developing embryos requires a zinc finger transcription factor Gata2. In the previous study, an enforced expression of Gata2 in vitro promoted the production of HECs from mesodermal cells differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Our research group has previously demonstrated that the enforced expression of Gata2 in ESC-derived HECs enhances erythroid and megakaryocyte differentiation and inhibits macrophage differentiation...
August 8, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Stephen J Bush, Lucy Freem, Amanda J MacCallum, Jenny O'Dell, Chunlei Wu, Cyrus Afrasiabi, Androniki Psifidi, Mark P Stevens, Jacqueline Smith, Kim M Summers, David A Hume
BACKGROUND: The domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) is widely used as a model in developmental biology and is also an important livestock species. We describe a novel approach to data integration to generate an mRNA expression atlas for the chicken spanning major tissue types and developmental stages, using a diverse range of publicly-archived RNA-seq datasets and new data derived from immune cells and tissues. RESULTS: Randomly down-sampling RNA-seq datasets to a common depth and quantifying expression against a reference transcriptome using the mRNA quantitation tool Kallisto ensured that disparate datasets explored comparable transcriptomic space...
August 7, 2018: BMC Genomics
Toshiyuki Yamane
The yolk sac is the first observed site of hematopoiesis during mouse ontogeny. Primitive erythroid cells are the most well-recognized cell lineages produced from this tissue. In addition to primitive erythroid cells, several types of hematopoietic cells are present, including multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. Yolk sac-derived blood cells constitute a transient wave of embryonic and fetal hematopoiesis. However, recent studies have demonstrated that some macrophage and B cell lineages derived from the early yolk sac may persist to adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Momoko Yoshimoto
All blood cells are produced by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the adult bone marrow. However, prior to the emergence of the first HSCs at embryonic day (E) 11, mouse embryos present several hematopoiesis waves, such as primitive hematopoietic cells, definitive erythro-myeloid progenitors, lymphoid potent cells, and multi-potent progenitors. Non-HSC-derived hematopoiesis is called HSC-independent hematopoiesis and has been considered a transient wave that is diminished after birth. Recent reports have shown that tissue-resident macrophages are derived from the yolk sac (YS) and are HSC-independent...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Jessica M Rosin, Siddharth R Vora, Deborah M Kurrasch
Microglia are the resident immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Originally thought to be primarily responsible for disposing of cellular debris and responding to neural insults, emerging research now shows that microglia are highly dynamic cells involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. The hypothalamus is a brain region critical for maintaining homeostatic processes such as energy balance, thirst, food intake, reproduction, and circadian rhythms. Given that microglia colonize the embryonic brain alongside key steps of hypothalamic development, here we tested whether microglia are required for the proper establishment of this brain region...
July 27, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
James Bagnall, Christopher Boddington, Hazel England, Ruth Brignall, Polly Downton, Zainab Alsoufi, James Boyd, William Rowe, Alexander Bennett, Catherine Walker, Antony Adamson, Nisha M X Patel, Ronan O'Cualain, Lorraine Schmidt, David G Spiller, Dean A Jackson, Werner Müller, Mark Muldoon, Michael R H White, Pawel Paszek
Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling regulates macrophage activation and effector cytokine propagation in the constrained environment of a tissue. In macrophage populations, TLR4 stimulates the dose-dependent transcription of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) target genes. However, using single-RNA counting, we found that individual cells exhibited a wide range (three orders of magnitude) of expression of the gene encoding the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The TLR4-induced TNFA transcriptional response correlated with the extent of NF-κB signaling in the cells and their size...
July 24, 2018: Science Signaling
Susanna Valanne, Laura Vesala, Mika Rämet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Andrzej Eljaszewicz, Katarzyna Kleina, Kamil Grubczak, Urszula Radzikowska, Paula Zembko, Paulina Kaczmarczyk, Marlena Tynecka, Karolina Dworzanczyk, Beata Naumnik, Marcin Moniuszko
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is recognized as most frequent form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. IgAN is associated with renal degradation occurring due to irreversible pathological changes leading to glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. It remains poorly understood whether and to what extent these changes are followed by the activation of regenerative mechanisms. Therefore, in this study we aimed to evaluate regenerative potential of IgAN patients by quantitating the frequencies of several stem cell types, namely circulating very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs), hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) as well as different monocyte subsets with varying maturation and angiopoietic potential...
July 19, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Nejla Yosef, Tegy J Vadakkan, June-Hee Park, Ross A Poché, Jean-Leon Thomas, Mary E Dickinson
Macrophages are well characterized as immune cells. However, in recent years, a multitude of non-immune functions have emerged many of which play essential roles in a variety of developmental processes (Wynn et al., 2013; DeFalco et al., 2014). In adult animals, macrophages are derived from circulating monocytes originating in the bone marrow, but much of the tissue-resident population arise from erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) in the extra-embryonic yolk sac, appearing around the same time as primitive erythroblasts (Schulz et al...
July 30, 2018: Developmental Biology
Cherry S Leung, Jiatao Li, Feng Xu, Alan S L Wong, Kathy O Lui
Like conventional transplants, immunosuppression is required to facilitate survival and function of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivatives after implantation into xenogeneic recipients. We have previously reported that T cells alone are sufficient to reject allogeneic murine ESC derivatives; and strategies that inhibit T-cell activation, including coreceptor and costimulation blockade, prevent hESC derivatives from being rejected. This study aimed to investigate, in addition to T cells, whether macrophages contribute to transplant rejection of hESC xenografts with nonobese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mice that lack functional T and B cells but have macrophages...
July 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Andrey V Elchaninov, Timur Kh Fatkhudinov, Natalia Y Usman, Evgeniya Y Kananykhina, Irina V Arutyunyan, Andrey V Makarov, Anastasia V Lokhonina, Irina Z Eremina, Viktor V Surovtsev, Dmitry V Goldshtein, Galina B Bolshakova, Valeria V Glinkina, Gennady T Sukhikh
BACKGROUND: In many clinical cases of extensive liver resection (e.g. due to malignancy), the residual portion is too small to maintain the body homeostasis. The resulting acute liver failure is associated with the compensatory growth inhibition, which is a typical manifestation of the 'small for size' liver syndrome. The study investigates possible causes of the delayed onset of hepatocyte proliferation after subtotal hepatectomy (80% liver resection) in rats. RESULTS: The data indicate that the growth inhibition correlates with delayed upregulation of the Tnf gene expression and low content of the corresponding Tnfα protein within the residual hepatic tissue...
July 9, 2018: BMC Immunology
Elise Bordet, Pauline Maisonnasse, Patricia Renson, Edwige Bouguyon, Elisa Crisci, Mathieu Tiret, Delphyne Descamps, Cindy Bernelin-Cottet, Céline Urien, François Lefèvre, Luc Jouneau, Olivier Bourry, Jean-Jacques Leplat, Isabelle Schwartz-Cornil, Nicolas Bertho
Lung inflammation is frequently involved in respiratory conditions and it is strongly controlled by mononuclear phagocytes (MNP). We previously studied porcine lung MNP and described a new population of cells presenting all the features of alveolar macrophages (AM) except for their parenchymal location, that we named AM-like cells. Herein we showed that AM-like cells are macrophages phagocytosing blood-borne particles, in agreement with a pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIM) identity. PIM have been described microscopically long time ago in species from the Laurasiatheria superorder such as bovine, swine, cats or cetaceans...
July 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Giuliano Ferrero, Christopher B Mahony, Eléonore Dupuis, Laurent Yvernogeau, Elodie Di Ruggiero, Magali Miserocchi, Marianne Caron, Catherine Robin, David Traver, Julien Y Bertrand, Valérie Wittamer
Microglia, the tissue-resident macrophages of the CNS, represent major targets for therapeutic intervention in a wide variety of neurological disorders. Efficient reprogramming protocols to generate microglia-like cells in vitro using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells will, however, require a precise understanding of the cellular and molecular events that instruct microglial cell fates. This remains a challenge since the developmental origin of microglia during embryogenesis is controversial. Here, using genetic tracing in zebrafish, we uncover primitive macrophages as the unique source of embryonic microglia...
July 3, 2018: Cell Reports
Fazeleh Etebar, Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Fatemeh Jalousian, Mohammad Mehdi Ranjbar
Background: C type lectin (CTL) family is a type of calcium-dependent proteins found in vertebrates and invertebrates. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis and phylogenetic inferring for understanding the similarities and differences of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) domain of Toxocara canis CTL and other nematodes, and similar C type lectin involved in the immune system of mouse and human as their host. Methods: The female T...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Valeriu Bortnov, Douglas S Annis, Frances J Fogerty, Karina T Barretto, Keren B Turton, Deane F Mosher
Human myeloid-derived growth factor (MYDGF, also known as C19orf10) is named based on its identification as a secreted monocyte/macrophage-derived mediator of cardiac repair following myocardial infarction in mice. Homologs of MYDGF, however, are present in organisms throughout and outside of the animal kingdom, some of which lack hematopoietic and circulatory systems. Moreover, the UPF0556 protein domain, which defines these homologs, lacks a known structure. As a result, the functions and properties of MYDGF are unclear...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jessica M Rosin, Deborah M Kurrasch
BACKGROUND: Since its inception in 2001, in utero electroporation (IUE) has been widely used by the neuroscience community. IUE is a technique developed to introduce plasmid DNA into embryonic mouse brains without permanently removing the embryos from the uterus. Given that IUE labels cells that line the ventricles, including radial fibers and migrating neuroblasts, this technique is an excellent tool for studying factors that govern neural cell fate determination and migration in the developing mouse brain...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Phyllis A Rees, R Joel Lowy
Cell lines stably transfected with genes responding to Type I interferons (IFN) are potentially a useful alternative to enzyme linked immuo-assays (ELISAs) or assays based on resistance of a test cell line to virus infection using cell death or infection endpoints. Increasingly available are a variety of commercial cell lines developed for reporter gene assays (RGAs) which are responsive to IFN exposure. These cells produce a soluble gene product which can be readily quantified using multiwell plate spectrophotometers or luminometers...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Malcolm Maden, Jason Orr Brant, Andres Rubiano, Aaron Gabriel W Sandoval, Chelsey Simmons, Robert Mitchell, Henry Collin-Hooper, Jason Jacobson, Saleh Omairi, Ketan Patel
The spiny mouse, Acomys cahirinus, is an adult mammal capable of remarkable feats of scar-free tissue regeneration after damage to several organs including the skin and the heart. Here we investigate the regenerative properties of the skeletal muscle of A. cahirinus tibialis anterior in comparison to the lab mouse, Mus musculus. The A. cahirinus TA showed a similar distribution of myosin heavy chain fibre types and a reduced proportion of oxidative fibres compared to M. musculus. There were differences in the matrix components of the TA with regard to collagen VI and the biomechanical properties...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
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