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child and development

Anja Pinborg
It has been forty years since the first IVF child, Louise Brown, born in 1978 and now more than 7 million children are conceived after assisted reproductive technologies (ART). There has been a tremendous increase in the number of ART cycles and several more advanced treatments have been developed, such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). ICSI revolutionized the treatment of severe male factor infertility after the first ICSI baby born in 1992. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
August 18, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Jessica Hall, Amanda J Owen Van Horne, Karla K McGregor, Thomas A Farmer
Purpose: This study examined whether children and adults with developmental language disorder (DLD) could use distributional information in an artificial language to learn about grammatical category membership similarly to their typically developing (TD) peers and whether developmental differences existed within and between DLD and TD groups. Method: Sixteen children ages 7-9 with DLD, 26 age-matched TD children, 17 college students with DLD, and 17 TD college students participated in this task...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
Verena E Johann, Julia Karbach
Numerous tasks are available to measure executive functions (EFs; working memory, inhibition, and flexibility) in children. However, they differ massively in the way they are presented and framed. Some contain child-friendly stimuli, feedback, or game elements likely to increase motivation and interest to perform the tasks, whereas others do not. Yet, it is unclear whether these apparent differences affect task performance. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop and validate new game-based tasks assessing EFs in children...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Sophie Khadr, Venetia Clarke, Kaye Wellings, Laia Villalta, Andrea Goddard, Jan Welch, Susan Bewley, Tami Kramer, Russell Viner
BACKGROUND: Young people are disproportionately affected by sexual assault, yet longitudinal data are sparse. This paper examines the characteristics of adolescents presenting to sexual assault services and mental and sexual health outcomes after an assault. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study in adolescents aged 13-17 years attending the Sexual Assault Referral Centres serving Greater London, UK, over 2 years. Baseline interviews (T0) were done less than 6 weeks after an assault to collect data on sociodemographic and assault characteristics and psychological symptoms, with follow-up interviews (T1) at 4-5 months after the assault...
September 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Sylvana M Côté, Massimiliano Orri, Mikko Marttila, Tiina Ristikari
BACKGROUND: To ensure their protection and healthy development, children exposed to adverse family circumstances might be placed in foster homes, institutions, or kinship care (out-of-home placement). We aimed to compare the rates of psychiatric diagnoses and criminal convictions in young adulthood (ages 18-25 years) among children who were first placed at ages 2-6 years with those of children who were not placed and who had similar sociodemographic and family characteristics. METHOD: We did a population-wide cohort study using the 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort, which collects longitudinal data linking nationwide child welfare, medical, and criminal registers for all 59 476 livebirths in Finland in 1987...
September 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Matthew Shupler, William Godwin, Joseph Frostad, Paul Gustafson, Raphael E Arku, Michael Brauer
BACKGROUND: Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with dirty fuels is a leading health risk factor within Asia, Africa and Central/South America. The concentration of particulate matter of diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) is an important metric to evaluate HAP risk, however epidemiological studies have demonstrated significant variation in HAP-PM2.5 concentrations at household, community and country levels. To quantify the global risk due to HAP exposure, novel estimation methods are needed, as financial and resource constraints render it difficult to monitor exposures in all relevant areas...
August 14, 2018: Environment International
Mónica Ruiz-Casares, José Ignacio Nazif-Muñoz
Researchers have paid little attention to non-adult child supervision and the prevalence and factors influencing this practice in low-income countries. A better understanding of this phenomenon is needed to inform the development and implementation of policies and interventions to enhance child supervision in those settings. This study explores the prevalence and factors associated with young children being home alone or under the care of another young child in Lao People's Democratic Republic. Using the 2011-2012 Lao Social Indicator Survey (N = 10,740 for the subsample of 'child was home alone' and N = 10,539 for the subsample of 'child cared by another child < 10 years of age'), multi-level Poisson regressions were performed to determine the number of days children under five years of age were home alone or under the care of another child younger than 10 years of age...
August 14, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Robert A Berg, Ron W Reeder, Kathleen L Meert, Andrew R Yates, John T Berger, Christopher J Newth, Joseph A Carcillo, Patrick S McQuillen, Rick E Harrison, Frank W Moler, Murray M Pollack, Todd C Carpenter, Daniel A Notterman, Richard Holubkov, J Michael Dean, Vinay M Nadkarni, Robert M Sutton
BACKGROUND: Based on laboratory cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) investigations and limited adult data, the American Heart Association Consensus Statement on CPR Quality recommends titrating CPR performance to achieve end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) >20 mmHg. AIMS: We prospectively evaluated whether ETCO2 > 20 mmHg during CPR was associated with survival to hospital discharge. METHODS: Children ≥37 weeks gestation in Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network intensive care units with chest compressions for ≥1 minute and ETCO2 monitoring prior to and during CPR between July 1, 2013 and June 31, 2016 were included...
August 14, 2018: Resuscitation
Liran Christine Shan, Claire McCafferty, Mimi Tatlow-Golden, Claire O'Rourke, Robert Mooney, Barbara Livingstone, Kirsty Pourshahidi, Clare Corish, John Kearney, Patrick Wall, Celine Murrin
Consumption of high-energy foods in the absence of hunger has been identified as a key target to address in the area of obesity. For children, such foods are often provided by adults as treats. There is limited understating of adults' treat giving. The present study aimed to understand adults' provision of treats to children on the Island of Ireland. A total of 1039 participants, including parents, grandparents, child minders and education practitioners completed a face-to-face survey in their home. Participants defined their treats for children primarily as 'something nice', 'deserved/earned' and 'something special'...
August 14, 2018: Appetite
Nathan R Blue, Meghan E Beddow, Mariam Savabi, Vivek R Katukuri, Conrad R Chao
BACKGROUND: The fetal growth standard in widest use was published by Hadlock more than 25 years ago and was derived from a small, homogeneous cohort. In 2015, The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Fetal Growth Study published updated standards that are specific to race/ethnicity. These do not allow for precise estimated fetal weight (EFW) percentile calculation, however, and their effectiveness to predict neonatal morbidity and small for gestational age (SGA) has not yet been compared to the longstanding Hadlock standard...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Stacey Crane, Joan E Haase, Susan E Hickman
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: Pediatric oncology phase 1 clinical trials (P1Ts) are essential to developing new anticancer therapies; however, they raise complex ethical concerns about balancing the need for this research with the well-being of participating children. The purpose of this integrative review was to synthesize and appraise the evidence of how P1T participation, which begins with consent and ends with the transition off the P1T, can affect the well-being (either positively or negatively) of children with cancer...
September 1, 2018: Oncology Nursing Forum
Camila Silva de Amorim, Gabriela Caldeira Andrade Americano, Luiz Flávio Martins Moliterno, Mirian de Waele Souchois de Marsillac, Márcia Rejane Thomas Canabarro Andrade, Vera Campos
BACKGROUND/ AIMS: Dental trauma to the predecessor teeth can cause crown and root dilacerations to the successor teeth, which can interfere with the normal development of permanent teeth. The aims of this study were to verify the types of trauma more frequent to the predecessor teeth that cause dilaceration to their successor teeth, to determine the frequency of crown and root dilacerations in permanent incisors, taking into account the child's age at the time of trauma, and to describe the types of treatment performed...
August 17, 2018: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
Yutaro Hiyoshi, Yuta Murai, Yoshiko Yabuki, Kenichi Takahana, Soichiro Morishita, Yinlai Jiang, Shunta Togo, Shinichiro Takayama, Hiroshi Yokoi
In this study, a one-degree-of-freedom myoelectric prosthesis system was proposed using a Parent Wireless Assistive Interface (PWAI) that allowed an external assistant (e. g., the parent of the user) to immediately adjust the parameters of the prosthetic hand controller. In the PWAI, the myoelectric potential of use of the upper limb was plotted on an external terminal in real time. Simultaneously, the assistant adjusted the parameters of the prosthetic hand control device and manually manipulated the prosthetic hand...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Alicia Beltran, Hafza Dadabhoy, Courtney Ryan, Ruchita Dholakia, Wenyan Jia, Janice Baranowski, Mingui Sun, Tom Baranowski
BACKGROUND: The eButton, a multisensor device worn on the chest, uses a camera to passively capture images of everything in front of the child throughout the day. These images can be analyzed to provide a passive method of dietary intake assessment. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the eButton's feasibility and intercoder reliability for dietary intake assessment. DESIGN: Children were recruited in the summer and fall of 2015, in Houston, TX, to wear the eButton to take 2 full days of dietary images, and the child-parent dyad participated in a following-day interview to verify what dietitians recorded from the images...
August 13, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Paul Anand, Jere R Behrman, Hai-Anh H Dang, Sam Jones
The development of human capabilities for many disadvantaged children around the world depends on growth recovery ('catch-up growth'). Here we develop a novel framework that allows different types of catch-up growth to be classified and estimated. We distinguish between catch-up in the mean of a group toward that of a healthy reference population versus catch-up within the group. We show these different growth types can be tested in a unified setting using a latent growth framework. We apply the results to four developing countries, using longitudinal data on 7641 children collected over the period 2002-2013...
July 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Rara Anggraini, Novy Helena Catharina Daulima, Ice Yulia Wardhani
OBJECTIVE: Stress is one of the responses experienced by families with child victims of sexual violence. The purpose of this study was to explore in depth the stress experienced by families dealing with child victims of sexual violence. METHOD: This qualitative study employed the phenomenology approach. A purposive sample of six families participated in the study. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's method. RESULTS: This study discussed the experience of family with children who are victims of sexual violence...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
Vincent O Onywera, Richard Larouche, Adewale L Oyeyemi, Antonio Prista, Kingsley K Akinroye, Sylvester Heyker, George E Owino, Mark S Tremblay
BACKGROUND: There is currently a rapid physical activity transition taking place in developing countries that includes a decrease in active transportation. Building on findings from an earlier systematic review, this paper describes the development and convergent validity of self-administered child and parent questionnaires assessing active transportation of children in three African countries: Kenya, Mozambique and Nigeria. METHODS: A pilot study was conducted to examine the convergent validity of the developed questionnaires by comparing responses between children and their parents (N = 121; n = 43 for Mozambique, n = 24 for Kenya and n = 54 for Nigeria)...
August 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Teklehaymanot Huluf Abraha, Berhe Beyene Gebrezgiabher, Berihu Gidey Aregawi, Desta Siyoum Belay, Lidiya Tsegay Tikue, Getachew Mebrahtu Welay
BACKGROUND: Postpartum family planning services is one of the recommended public health intervention aimed at reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortalities. However, there is a paucity studies in rural Tigray region. Therefore, determining the level and associated factors of contraceptive use among postpartum women has the potential to contribute in achieving the Ethiopian Health Sector Transformation Plan and to the Sustainable Development Goals on maternal and infant survival...
August 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Dawn Adams, Kate Young, Kate Simpson, Deb Keen
The complex interaction between anxiety and autism has led to debate about the presentation of anxiety in individuals on the spectrum and questions about the extent to which traditional checklists assess the entire range of symptomatology. Moreover, studies to date have not explored how the presentation of anxiety may differ between settings. Through a combination of open-ended questions, closed questions and standardised measures, parents of 173 children (aged 6-13) on the autism spectrum provided (1) descriptors of their child's anxiety at home, school and in the community and (2) strategies used to reduce their child's anxiety in each setting...
August 16, 2018: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Lisa Littman
PURPOSE: In on-line forums, parents have been reporting that their children are experiencing what is described here as "rapid-onset gender dysphoria," appearing for the first time during puberty or even after its completion. The onset of gender dysphoria seemed to occur in the context of belonging to a peer group where one, multiple, or even all of the friends have become gender dysphoric and transgender-identified during the same timeframe. Parents also report that their children exhibited an increase in social media/internet use prior to disclosure of a transgender identity...
2018: PloS One
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