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child and development

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Objective: To obtain baseline data of pediatricians' clinical use of antibacterial agents in children in China, and provide evidence for the follow-up of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of children's clinical medications and the development of rational drug management measures and norms. Methods: A multi-center cross-sectional study was designed to conduct a network electronic questionnaire survey of doctors with child prescription rights in hospitals of all provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions across the country through cluster sampling to understand the current status of antibacterial drugs use in 2016...
December 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Nusrat Homaira, Nancy Briggs, Ju-Lee Oei, Lisa Hilder, Barbara Bajuk, Adam Jaffe, Saad B Omer
Objective: In a population-based cohort study we determined the association between age at first severe respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) disease and subsequent asthma. Methods: Incidence rates and rate ratios of first asthma hospitalisation beyond 2 years of age in children with RSV hospitalisation at <3 months, 3 - <6 months, 6 - <12 months, and 12 - 24 months were calculated. Results: The incidence/1000 child - years (95% CI) of asthma hospitalisation in children who had RSV hospitalisation at <3 months was 0...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alessandra N Bazzano, Kaitlin Storck Potts, Afework Mulugeta
Maternal and child feeding behaviors are often rooted in family and sociocultural context, making these an important point of inquiry for improving nutrition and health over the life course. The present study explored the practice of fasting during religious periods in relation to eating patterns of pregnant and lactating women and young children in four regions of Ethiopia, a nation which has experienced rapid economic growth and marked improvement in health and nutrition outcomes over the last two decades...
2018: PloS One
Malena Correa, Mirko Zimic, Franklin Barrientos, Ronald Barrientos, Avid Román-Gonzalez, Mónica J Pajuelo, Cynthia Anticona, Holger Mayta, Alicia Alva, Leonardo Solis-Vasquez, Dante Anibal Figueroa, Miguel A Chavez, Roberto Lavarello, Benjamín Castañeda, Valerie A Paz-Soldán, William Checkley, Robert H Gilman, Richard Oberhelman
Pneumonia is one of the major causes of child mortality, yet with a timely diagnosis, it is usually curable with antibiotic therapy. In many developing regions, diagnosing pneumonia remains a challenge, due to shortages of medical resources. Lung ultrasound has proved to be a useful tool to detect lung consolidation as evidence of pneumonia. However, diagnosis of pneumonia by ultrasound has limitations: it is operator-dependent, and it needs to be carried out and interpreted by trained personnel. Pattern recognition and image analysis is a potential tool to enable automatic diagnosis of pneumonia consolidation without requiring an expert analyst...
2018: PloS One
Chantel L Martin, Catherine J Vladutiu, Tarek M Zikry, Matthew R Grace, Anna Maria Siega-Riz
BACKGROUND: The intrauterine environment is critical in the development of child obesity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal lipid levels during pregnancy and child weight status. METHODS: Maternal lipid levels (total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides) collected from fasting blood samples collected at less than 20 and 24-29 weeks' gestation and child weight status at age 3 were examined prospectively among 183 mother-child dyads enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition...
December 4, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
C K Indumathi, Aruna Sethuraman, Saurav Jain, Savita Krishnamurthy
OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence of anti tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH) with those on old vs. revised WHO doses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative children. The secondary objective was to determine the overall incidence of hepatitis in children on Anti tubercular treatment (ATT) and isoniazid prophylactic therapy (IPT). METHODS: Children attending pediatric outpatient / admitted in wards, on ATT/ IPT between January 2007 and December 2017 (11 y) were included...
December 4, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Peter T Richtsmeier, Amanda K Good
Purpose: Frequent sounds and frequent words are both acquired at an earlier age and are produced by children more accurately. Recent research suggests that frequency is not always a facilitative concept, however. Interactions between input frequency in perception and practice frequency in production may limit or inhibit growth. In this study, we consider how a range of input frequencies affect production accuracy and referent identification. Method: Thirty-three typically developing 3- and 4-year-olds participated in a novel word-learning task...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Eun Byul Choi, Ji Eun Lee, Ji-Yun Hwang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although a lot of effort has been put into increasing fruit and vegetable intakes in preschool children, vegetable intake in this group is still low. This study investigated whether nutrition education focusing on fruit and vegetable intakes can affect preschoolers' fruit and vegetable intakes as well as their behavioral outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty-five preschoolers (54.3% boys, n = 19) aged 4-6 years residing in Seoul underwent weekly nutrition education intervention (8 sessions) between May and July 2016...
December 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Aripin Ahmad, Siti Madanijah, Cesilia Meti Dwiriani, Risatianti Kolopaking
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The 6-23 months for infants is the longest period in the "first 1,000 days" of life. This period is very important for child development, so complementary feeding (CF) practices should be optimized to maximize children's potential for growth and development. The aim of this study was to analyze the CF practices and nutritional status of children aged 6-23 months. SUBJECTS/METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, 392 children aged 6-23 months were selected using stratified random sampling...
December 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Endalew Getnet Tsega
During human growth and development from infancy to adulthood, dramatic changes occur in the respiratory system. It is important to understand respiratory airflow in different age groups in age-specific treatment of respiratory disorders. This study numerically investigated the age-related effects on inspiratory and expiratory airflow dynamics in four-generation lung airway models under normal breathing conditions. Tracheobronchial airway models of infant (6 month old), child (5 years old), and adult (25 years old) from sixth to ninth generations were constructed for the study...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Marie Furuta, Antje Horsch, Edmond S W Ng, Debra Bick, Debbie Spain, Jacqueline Sin
Background: Approximately 3% of women in community samples develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. Higher prevalence rates are reported for high risk samples. Postpartum PTSD can adversely affect women's wellbeing, mother-infant relationships and child development. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of trauma-focused psychological interventions (TFPT), for postnatal women. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis including all clinical trials which reported post-traumatic stress symptoms for both the intervention and control groups or at least two time-points, pre- and post-intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
D K Kudayarov, E K Turdubaeva
Objective: This paper presents the results of a risk factors-analysis and the analysis of physical development of pre-school children born with a low birth weight to teenage mothers. Materials and Methods: The study has also identifed unfavorable factors affecting the birth of low weight children and the lag in physical development of preschool children born with low birth weight to adolescent mothers. Results: According to our research, children born out of wedlock are mostly born with low birth weight (66...
October 2018: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Meliha Halilbasic, Vahid Jusufovic, Zlatko Musanovic, Arnes Cabric
Introduction: Anophthalmia is congenital absence of the eyes; it may be unilateral or bilateral. Though rare, it occurs worldwide. It usually occurs in association with other systemic malformations. Case report: Therefore, the case of a female child delivered in University Clinic Center Tuzla is presented here with bilateral anophthalmia. The diagnosis was confirmed with an ocular computer tomography (CT) scan that showed under development of both globes within the orbit with a conclusion of bilateral anophthalmia...
October 2018: Medical Archives
Fiona Gilchrist, Helen D Rodd, Chris Deery, Zoe Marshman
BACKGROUND: Existing paediatric oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measures are generic instruments designed to evaluate a range of oral conditions. It has been found that disease-specific measures may be more adept at detecting subtle changes which occur following treatment of the condition in question. Furthermore, existing self-report OHRQoL measures have not involved children at all stages of development of the measure. The aim of this study was to develop a caries-specific measure of quality of life for children...
December 4, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Leanne Cusack, Hind Sbihi, Andrew Larkin, Angela Chow, Jeffrey R Brook, Theo Moraes, Piush J Mandhane, Allan B Becker, Meghan B Azad, Padmaja Subbarao, Anita Kozyrskyj, Tim K Takaro, Malcolm R Sears, Stuart E Turvey, Perry Hystad
BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies observe associations between the amount of green space around a mother's home and positive birth outcomes; however, the robustness of this association and potential pathways of action remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between mother's residential green space and term birth weight within the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study and examine specific hypothesized pathways. METHODS: We examined 2510 births located in Vancouver, Edmonton, Winnipeg, and Toronto Canada...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Aja Louise Murray, Daniela Kaiser, Sara Valdebenito, Claire Hughes, Adriana Baban, Asvini D Fernando, Bernadette Madrid, Catherine L Ward, Joseph Osafo, Michael Dunne, Siham Sikander, Susan Walker, Vo Van Thang, Mark Tomlinson, Manuel Eisner
Prenatal intimate partner violence (P-IPV) can have significant adverse impacts on both mother and fetus. Existing P-IPV interventions focus on the safety of the mother and on reducing revictimization; yet expanding these to address the adverse impact on the fetus has considerable potential for preventing long-term negative developmental outcomes. In this review, we draw together evidence on major pathways linking exposure to P-IPV and child outcomes, arguing that these pathways represent potential targets to improve P-IPV intervention efforts...
December 4, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Matylda Czosnykowska-Łukacka, Barbara Królak-Olejnik, Magdalena Orczyk-Pawiłowicz
Human milk (HM) is the first dietary exposure in infancy and the best nutritional option for growth and healthy development of the newborn and infant. The concentrations of macronutrients, namely proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, change during lactation stages. HM has been studied extensively in the first 6 months of lactation, but there are limited data regarding milk composition beyond 1 or 2 years postpartum. The aim of our study was to describe longitudinal changes in HM macronutrient concentrations during the prolonged lactation of healthy mothers from the 1st to the 48th month...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Andrea Romanos-Nanclares, Itziar Zazpe, Susana Santiago, Lucía Marín, Anaïs Rico-Campà, Nerea Martín-Calvo
Parental nutrition knowledge and attitudes play a fundamental role in their children's food knowledge. However, little is known about their influence on their children's diet quality and micronutrient intake. Thus, we aimed to assess the association of parental nutrition knowledge and healthy-eating attitudes with their children's adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and micronutrient adequacy. Parental healthy-eating attitudes and knowledge of the quality of their child's diet as well as anthropometric, lifestyle, and nutrient intake characteristics were recorded with a basal questionnaire that included a 140-item-food frequency-questionnaire...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Christina Y N Niermann, Sanne M P L Gerards, Stef P J Kremers
Healthy or unhealthy behavioral patterns develop and are maintained in a family context. The importance of the family environment for children's and adolescents' energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) has been shown previously. However, the way different family environmental factors are interrelated and interact with personal factors (e.g., motivation) are not well understood. Furthermore, the majority of studies have focused on the parent-child subsystem. However, there are family-level socialization dynamics that affect the development of a healthy lifestyle beyond the impact of parenting behaviors...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Isabelle Catherine Pitzen, Lucia Anna Otten, Till Dresbach, Christoph Boesecke, Jan-Christian Wasmuth, Andreas Mueller, Ulrich Gembruch, Waltraut M Merz, Christian P Strassburg, Annette Haberl, Juergen K Rockstroh, Silvia Poralla, Carolynne Schwarze-Zander
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, 37 million people are infected with HIV; more than 50% are women. Currently, MTCT (mother-to-child transmission) can be reduced to<1%. The intention of the present study was to analyze the development of (1) the course of pregnancy of HIV-infected women, (2) the mode of delivery and (3) the post-exposure prophylaxis of the newborn over the last decade. METHODOLOGY: In this retrospective study, data from HIV-infected women who between 2005 and 2016 received care at the HIV outpatient department and gave birth at the Department of Obstetrics at University Hospital Bonn was analyzed...
December 4, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
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