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child and development

Jacob Kuint, Basil Porter
Community pediatrics in Israel is based on service by pediatricians who have been trained in hospitals in Israel or elsewhere. At the same time, the field of community pediatrics is changing its nature from the management of common acute diseases, to a field dealing with a variety of chronic problems, behavioral issues, family and social issues, developmental delays, problems relating to nutrition and growth' sleep problems, learning disabilities, and of late, excessive exposure to a host of digital media. In addition, lifestyle issues such as adequate physical activity, addictions, accidents and various types of abuse are increasingly part of the pediatric role...
October 2018: Harefuah
Livio Provenzi, Lorenzo Giusti, Monica Fumagalli, Susanna Frigerio, Francesco Morandi, Renato Borgatti, Fabio Mosca, Rosario Montirosso
The co-regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in mother-infant dyads is thought to be key for infant and child development. Nonetheless, previous literature presents some inconsistencies that might at least partially be due to the presence of risk conditions and the use of different statistical approaches to measure HPA axis co-regulation. Very preterm (VPT) birth represents one of these risk conditions as the early foundation of mother-infant interaction is disrupted. Both VPT infants and their mothers present evidence of altered HPA axis regulation...
October 12, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
D L Sigalet
The treatment paradigm for pediatric patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and intestinal failure (IF) has changed significantly over recent years; the development of dedicated IF teams, refinements in PN and surgical treatments have greatly improved survival. The majority of SBS patients undergo intestinal adaptation such that nutrient absorption from enteral feeds increases and the child can come off of PN. This "adaptation" or upregulation in nutrient absorptive capacity is still poorly understood; the enteric hormone Glucagon like peptide 2 (GLP-2) appears to be a key regulator in this process...
August 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
Celia A Taylor, Richard J Lilford, Emily Wroe, Frances Griffiths, Ruth Ngechu
BACKGROUND: Ensuring that selection processes for Community Health Workers (CHWs) are effective is important due to the scale and scope of modern CHW programmes. However they are relatively understudied. While community involvement in selection should never be eliminated entirely, there are other complementary methods that could be used to help identify those most likely to be high-performing CHWs. This study evaluated the predictive validity of three written tests and two individual sections of a one-to-one interview used for selection into CHW posts in eight areas of Kenya...
October 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Martha Y Kubik, Jayne A Fulkerson, John R Sirard, Ann Garwick, Judy Temple, Olga Gurvich, Jiwoo Lee, Bonnie Dudovitz
Rising levels of severe obesity among children, worsening disparities by race and ethnicity and reluctance of primary care clinicians' to provide obesity management to children are compelling reasons to consider alternatives to primary care management of childhood obesity. The Students Nurses and Parents Seeking Healthy Options Together (SNAPSHOT) trial will test the efficacy of an elementary school-based, school nurse-led, healthy weight management program to reduce excess weight gain among children, 8- to 12-years old with a body mass index (BMI) ≥75th percentile, by increasing healthy dietary practices and physical activity and decreasing sedentary behaviors...
October 17, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Jamie K Capal, Christopher Carosella, Elora Corbin, Paul S Horn, Rebecca Caine, Patricia Manning-Courtney
OBJECTIVES: The association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy is well-known. Abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) results have been reported in patients with ASD without a history of seizures. However, little is known about the relationship between abnormalities on EEG results and the core features of ASD. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between the presence of epilepsy and/or abnormalities on EEG results and disease-associated impairments in young children with ASD...
October 16, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Kyle J Foreman, Neal Marquez, Andrew Dolgert, Kai Fukutaki, Nancy Fullman, Madeline McGaughey, Martin A Pletcher, Amanda E Smith, Kendrick Tang, Chun-Wei Yuan, Jonathan C Brown, Joseph Friedman, Jiawei He, Kyle R Heuton, Mollie Holmberg, Disha J Patel, Patrick Reidy, Austin Carter, Kelly Cercy, Abigail Chapin, Dirk Douwes-Schultz, Tahvi Frank, Falko Goettsch, Patrick Y Liu, Vishnu Nandakumar, Marissa B Reitsma, Vince Reuter, Nafis Sadat, Reed J D Sorensen, Vinay Srinivasan, Rachel L Updike, Hunter York, Alan D Lopez, Rafael Lozano, Stephen S Lim, Ali H Mokdad, Stein Emil Vollset, Christopher J L Murray
BACKGROUND: Understanding potential trajectories in health and drivers of health is crucial to guiding long-term investments and policy implementation. Past work on forecasting has provided an incomplete landscape of future health scenarios, highlighting a need for a more robust modelling platform from which policy options and potential health trajectories can be assessed. This study provides a novel approach to modelling life expectancy, all-cause mortality and cause of death forecasts -and alternative future scenarios-for 250 causes of death from 2016 to 2040 in 195 countries and territories...
October 16, 2018: Lancet
S Tordjman, L Vaivre-Douret, S Chokron, S Kermarrec
We have been sensitized to children with high intellectual potential (HIP) having difficulties given the number of children consulting in our outpatient medico-psychological centres for scholastic problems (possibly leading to school failure), anxiety disorders or behavioral disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and in which a high intellectual potential was discovered during psychological assessments. It is the contrast, and more precisely the paradox, between the high intellectual potential of these children and their scholastic difficulties (including school failure), and the psychic suffering expressed by some of them, which led us to question, challenge and propose therapeutic and educational care adapted to these children...
October 16, 2018: L'Encéphale
Roselyter Monchari Riang'a, Anne Kisaka Nangulu, Jacqueline E W Broerse
BACKGROUND: There have been few studies about the basis on which women in developing regions evaluate and choose traditional rather than western maternal care. This qualitative study explores the socio-cultural perceptions of complications associated with pregnancy and childbirth and how these perceptions influence maternal health and care-seeking behaviours in Kenya. METHODS: Kalenjin women (n = 42) aged 18-45 years, who were pregnant or had given birth within the last 12 months, were interviewed...
October 19, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Kathryn E Flynn, Harald Kliems, Nikita Saoji, Jacob Svenson, Elizabeth D Cox
BACKGROUND: Families play a critical role in supporting the health and well-being of children with chronic illnesses, who face a lifetime of responsibility for self-management of their condition. Our goal was to investigate whether the novel Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) Pediatric Family Relationships measure, developed primarily within the general pediatric population, reflects the experiences of family relationships for chronically ill children and their parents...
October 19, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Francesca Feruglio, Nicholas Nisbett
BACKGROUND: India has been at the forefront of innovations around social accountability mechanisms in improving the delivery of public services, including health and nutrition. Yet little is known about how such initiatives are faring now that they are incorporated formally into government programmes and implemented at scale. This brings greater impetus to understand their effectiveness. This formative qualitative study focuses on how such mechanisms have sought to strengthen community-level nutrition and health services (the Integrated Child Development Services and the National Rural Health Mission) in the state of Odisha...
October 19, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Nikki Milne, Michael J Simmonds, Wayne Hing
With accumulating evidence that exercise capacity decreases all-cause mortality independent of adiposity, benefits may be gained by developing cardiorespiratory fitness measures that are specifically and sensitively designed for use with pediatric populations when cardiorespiratory fitness may be a contributing factor for obesity. This study aimed to examine the criterion validity of the Modified Shuttle Test-Paeds (MSTP) as a measure of cardiorespiratory fitness in children, against the gold-standard reference; VO₂peak, compared to the commonly used field-test; 20-m Multi-Stage-Shuttle-Run-Test (20-m MSRT)...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Anna Smith, Nicoleta Serban, Anne Fitzpatrick
BACKGROUND: Small-area asthma prevalence measures, which are crucial for targeting interventions, are currently sparsely available for children. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide measures of in-contact asthma prevalence for the 2012 Medicaid child population, to highlight areas in need of targeted asthma interventions. METHODS: Using the 2012 Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) claims files, we develop two prevalence metrics differentiated by persistent or diagnosed asthma...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Andrea F Kroll de Senna, Camila Giugliani, Juliana C A Lago, Agnes M B L Bizon, Ana C M Martins, Ceres A V Oliveira, Elsa R J Giugliani
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the construct validity and the internal consistency of the Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale tool, aiming at its application in the Brazilian population. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that applied the tool to 287 Brazilian women 30 days after childbirth. Main component analysis with varimax rotation was used for the factor analysis, verifying the number of subscales and the maintenance or extraction of the components. Four hypotheses were tested using the unpaired Student's t-test for construct validation...
October 16, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
Joana Baptista, Joana R Silva, Sofia Marques, Carla Martins, Isabel Soares
The present study is focused on child socioemotional problems 6 months after institutionalization, by considering the putative predictive role of child maltreatment, of developmental functioning at admission and the following months, and of the quality of institutional relational care. Fifty institutionalized infants and toddlers participated in this study. Child developmental functioning (i.e., cognitive, language, and motor development) was assessed at admission to the institution (Wave 0), and 3 (Wave 1) and 6 months (Wave 2) thereafter...
October 19, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
Judith L M Mccoyd, Shari Munch, Laura Curran
Medically high-risk pregnancy (MHRP) affects 3 to 10% (diagnosis-dependent) of pregnant women in the United States (National Institute of Child Health Development, 2015), threatening maternal and fetal well-being. Although mothers' prenatal distress and mother-infant attachment after birth have been quantitatively researched, little research has examined women's lived experiences of MHRP in the United States. We examined 16 women's experiences of MHRP during hospitalization at an urban, Northeastern U.S. hospital using an interpretive phenomenological approach...
October 19, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
Sarah Halpern-Meekin, Kristin Turney
It is essential to understand how desistance from intimate abuse occurs so it can be facilitated for those experiencing it. Recognizing the category of churning relationships-in which partners separate and reunite-gives us analytic leverage in identifying the relationship dynamics that predict abuse desistance. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal survey of parents in urban areas, we compare desistance among churners (who experience a breakup only) with those who repartner (who experience a breakup and a new partnership) and those who are stably together (who experience neither a breakup nor a new partnership)...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Grace Robinson, Robert McLean, James Densley
This article explores recent developments within the U.K. drug market: that is, the commuting of gang members from major cities to small rural urban areas for the purpose of enhancing their profit from drug distribution. Such practice has come to be known as working "County Lines." We present findings drawn from qualitative research with practitioners working to address serious and organized crime and participants involved in street gangs and illicit drug supply in both Glasgow and Merseyside, United Kingdom...
October 19, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Alice Alberici, Richard Meiser-Stedman, Jade Claxton, Patrick Smith, Anke Ehlers, Clare Dixon, Anna Mckinnon
Safety-seeking behaviors (SSBs) may be employed after exposure to a traumatic event in an effort to prevent a feared outcome. Cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder propose SSBs contribute to maintaining this disorder by preventing disconfirmation of maladaptive beliefs and preserving a sense of current threat. Recent research has found that SSBs impact children's posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and recovery. In this paper, we sought to develop and validate a novel 22-item Child Safety Behavior Scale (CSBS) in a school-based sample of 391 pupils (age 12-15 years) who completed a battery of questionnaires as well as 68 youths (age 8-17 years) who were recently exposed to a trauma...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Julia M Kobulsky, Susan Yoon, Charlotte L Bright, Guijin Lee, Boyoung Nam
Substantial research has linked childhood maltreatment to the development of substance use in adolescence. However, gender differences in the mechanisms that connect child abuse and neglect to substance use remain unclear. In this study, we applied multiple-group structural equation modeling in a sample of 1,161 youths (boys, n = 552; girls, n = 609) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine gender differences in the associations between childhood abuse and neglect exposure from ages 0-12 years and substance use severity at age 18 as mediated by early substance use at age 14 and psychological symptoms (anger, anxiety, and depression) at age 16...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
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