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U C Terin, L P Sabogal-Paz
A household slow sand filter (HSSF) is a widely used water treatment technology recognized as one of the most effective and sustainable in reducing waterborne diseases. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning its behaviour in the presence of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins. In this context, the study aimed to evaluate HSSF ability to remove Microcystis aeruginosa cells (stain BB005) and microcystin-LR from water, among other parameters, when operated under continuous (C-HSSF) and intermittent (I-HSSF) flows...
November 21, 2018: Water Research
Susanna A Wood, Laura Biessy, Jonathan Puddick
Proliferations of potentially toxic, mat-forming Microcoleus are increasing in streams globally. A range of cyanotoxins are produced by Microcoleus, with the neurotoxic anatoxins (anatoxin-a, dihydro-anatoxin-a, homoanatoxin-a and dihydro-homoanatoxin-a) the most commonly reported. The anatoxins produced by Microcoleus are thought to be largely contained within the cells. More knowledge on whether anatoxins are been released into the overlying stream water is required to better assess health risks to human, animals, and aquatic organisms...
December 2018: Harmful Algae
Tereza Vanova, Jan Raska, Pavel Babica, Iva Sovadinova, Michaela Kunova Bosakova, Petr Dvorak, Ludek Blaha, Vladimir Rotrekl
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) has been recognized as a potent waterborne hepatotoxin with an increasing environmental occurrence. However, CYN effects on the specific populations of hepatic cells involved in liver tissue development, renewal and regeneration, have not been characterized yet. We used human embryonic stem cells to analyze the hepatic differentiation stage-specific effect of CYN. Our results strongly suggest that CYN might contribute to the development of chronic adverse outcomes by disrupting liver tissue homeostasis in terms of (i) cellular stress and damage induced in the mature differentiated hepatocytes, which was associated with a necrotic cell death and thus possibly also inflammatory responses; (ii) selective elimination of HNF4α+ cells from populations of progenitor cells and immature hepatocytes during hepatic differentiation, which could possibly lead to an impaired liver renewal and regeneration; (iii) impaired hepatic functions of immature hepatocytes, such as decreased ALB secretion or increased lipid accumulation, which could contribute to the development of liver steatosis; and (iv) survival of the immature and AFP-expressing cells with the limited ability to further differentiate, which could represent a tumor-promoting condition...
November 30, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Marek Šebela, Eva Jahodářová, Martin Raus, René Lenobel, Petr Hašler
Cyanobacteria represent a bacterial phyllum characteristic by the ability to photosynthesize. They are potentially applicable for the production of useful compounds but may also cause poisoning or at least health problems as they can produce cyanotoxins. The introduction of a fast methodology is important not only for fundamental taxonomic purposes, but also for reliable identifications in biological studies. In this work, we have used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of intact cells to study Chroococcidiopsis strains...
2018: PloS One
Soryong Chae, Tahereh Noeiaghaei, Yoontaek Oh, In S Kim, Jin-Soo Park
Harmful algal blooms are occurring more frequently in fresh water throughout the world. Certain cyanobacteria can produce and release potent toxic compounds, known as cyanotoxins, such as microcystins, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and anatoxin-a, and as such they have become a human and environmental health concern. Hybrid photocatalytic composites (HPCs) comprising carbon nanotubes on the surface of TiO2 nanotubes were designed in this study. The HPCs have a selective adsorption capacity to cyanotoxins and provide photocatalytic activity to produce reactive oxygen species for the degradation of cyanotoxins...
November 13, 2018: Water Research
Halina Falfushynska, Oksana Horyn, Agnieszka Brygider, Olga Fedoruk, Bogdan Buyak, Dmytro Poznansky, Barbara Poniedziałek, Mikołaj Kokociński, Piotr Rzymski
As yet European strains of Raphidiopsis raciborskii (previously Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii) have not been found to produce known cyanotoxins although their extracts have caused adverse effects in mammals, as shown using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. The present study investigated whether R. raciborskii isolated from Western Poland and Ukraine can affect fish cells using in vitro exposures of hepatocytes and red blood cells (RBC), and brain homogenates obtained from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to 1...
November 17, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Jingkun An, Nan Li, Shu Wang, Chengmei Liao, Lean Zhou, Tian Li, Xin Wang, Yujie Feng
Harmful cyanobacterial bloom is a serious threat to global aquatic ecology and drinking water safety. Electro-Fenton (EF) has emerged as an efficient process for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins removal, but high consumption of energy and chemicals remain a major bottleneck. This study presents a novel convertible three-electrodes Electro-Coagulation-Fenton process for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins removal with low energy consumption and no chemicals addition. We for the first time demonstrated the freely alternating between Electrocoagulation (EC) and EF by switching electrodes...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Tsvetelina Batsalova, Diyana Basheva, Krum Bardarov, Ventzislav Bardarov, Balik Dzhambazov, Ivanka Teneva
Cyanoprokaryotes (Cyanobacteria/Cyanophyta) are ancient photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms with cosmopolitan distribution. They are producers of a number of biologically active substances with antitumor and antifungal activity, vitamins, antibiotics, algaecides, insecticides, repellents, hormones, immunosuppressants and toxins. So far, the cyanobacterium Fischerella major Gomont has not been studied regarding its impact on the environment and human health. In this study, the cytotoxic, antioxidant and antitumor activities of four extracts prepared from Fischerella major were evaluated in vitro...
November 15, 2018: Chemosphere
Sabrina Loise de Morais Calado, Gustavo Souza Santos, Juliana Wojciechowski, Valéria Freitas de Magalhães, Helena Cristina Silva de Assis
Paralytic shellfish Toxins (PSTs) or saxitoxins are neurotoxins that block the neural transmission by binding to the voltage-gated sodium channels in the nerve cells. There are >50 analogues described, which could be biotransformed into a molecular form of greater or lesser toxicity. The Alagados Reservoir is used for water supply, and persistent cyanobacterial blooms as well as PSTs concentrations have been found in this water body since 2002. The aims of this study were to quantify the concentrations of PSTs in the water and fish samples from the Alagados Reservoir...
February 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Daniel Gutiérrez-Praena, Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, Silvia Pichardo, Francisco Javier Moreno, Vitor Vasconcelos, Ángeles Jos, Ana María Cameán
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) are toxins produced by different cyanobacterial species, which are found mainly in freshwater reservoirs. Both of them can induce, separately, toxic effects in humans and wildlife. However, little is known about the toxic effects of the combined exposure, which could likely happen, taking into account the concomitant occurrence of the producers. As both cyanotoxins are well known to induce hepatic damage, the human hepatocellular HepG2 cell line was selected for the present study...
November 20, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Alexandra A Popova, Tatiana A Semashko, Natalia V Kostina, Ulla Rasmussen, Vadim M Govorun, Olga A Koksharova
Cyanobacteria synthesize neurotoxic β- N -methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA). The roles of this non-protein amino acid in cyanobacterial cells are insufficiently studied. During diazotrophic growth, filamentous cyanobacteria form single differentiated cells, called heterocysts, which are separated by approximately 12⁻15 vegetative cells. When combined nitrogen is available, heterocyst formation is blocked and cyanobacterial filaments contain only vegetative cells. In the present study, we discovered that exogenous BMAA induces the process of heterocyst formation in filamentous cyanobacteria under nitrogen-replete conditions that normally repress cell differentiation...
November 16, 2018: Toxins
Korina Manolidi, Theodoros M Triantis, Triantafyllos Kaloudis, Anastasia Hiskia
Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms distributed globally in aquatic and terrestrial environments. They are also industrially cultivated to be used as dietary supplements, as they have a high nutritional value; however, they are also known to produce a wide range of toxic secondary metabolites, called cyanotoxins. BMAA (β-methylamino-l-alanine) and its most common structural isomers, DAB (2,4-diaminobutyric acid) and AEG (N-2-aminoethylglycine) produced by cyanobacteria, are non-proteinogenic amino acids that have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ekaterina Chernova, Sergey Sidelev, Iana Russkikh, Ekaterina Voyakina, Zoya Zhakovskaya
The aim of this study was to obtain the first data on the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in the Russian Easternmost part of the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea. Studied samples were collected from 2012 to 2017 and three independent approaches - HPLC-HRMS, PCR and light microscopy were applied for cyanotoxins analysis and detection of toxigenic cyanobacteria. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Ralfs ex Born. et Flah., Planktothrix agardhii (Gom.) Anag. et Kom., Microcystis aeruginosa (Kütz...
November 15, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Pin Liu, Jia Wei, Kun Yang, Isaac Yaw Massey, Jian Guo, Chengcheng Zhang, Fei Yang
Global proliferation of cyanobacterial blooms associated with climate change and eutrophication constitutes a serious environmental threat. In Hunan Province a freshwater pond located in Changsha City was found to contain high concentrations of cyanobacteria, however, the characteristics of these cyanobacteria at present are not known. This study thus aimed to isolate, identify the most common bloom-forming cyanobacteria in this region and determine the toxigenic characteristics of the predominant cyanobacteria...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Leticia Díez-Quijada, María Puerto, Daniel Gutiérrez-Praena, María Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, Angeles Jos, Ana M Cameán
Microcystins (MCs) are hepatotoxins, produced by various species of cyanobacteria, whose occurrence is increasing worldwide owing to climate change and anthropogenic activities. More than 100 variants have been reported, and among them MC-LR is the most extensively studied, but there are other MC congeners that deserve to be investigated. The need for data to characterize the toxicological profile of MC variants other than MC-LR has been identified in order to improve risk assessment in humans and wildlife...
July 12, 2018: Environmental Research
Igor Mrdjen, Mark A Morse, Randall J Ruch, Thomas J Knobloch, Shambhunath Choudhary, Christopher M Weghorst, Jiyoung Lee
Microcystin (MC) exposure is an increasing concern because more geographical locations are covered with cyanobacterial blooms as eutrophication and bloom-favoring environmental factors become more prevalent worldwide. Acute MC exposure has been linked to gastrointestinal distress, liver toxicity, and death in extreme circumstances. The goal of this study was to provide an accurate and comprehensive description of MC-LRs impacts on liver pathology, clinical chemistry, and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in CD-1 male and female mice...
October 28, 2018: Toxins
Husein Almuhtaram, Yijing Cui, Arash Zamyadi, Ron Hofmann
Toxic cyanobacteria have been shown to accumulate in drinking water treatment plants that are susceptible to algal blooms. However, the risk for plants that do not experience algal blooms, but that receive a low influx of cells, is not well known. This study determined the extent of cell accumulation and presence of cyanotoxins across the treatment trains of four plants in the Great Lakes region. Samples were collected for microscopic enumeration and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurements for microcystins, anatoxin-a, saxitoxin, cylindrospermopsin, and β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA)...
October 26, 2018: Toxins
Anjali Krishnan, Yu-Qin Zhang, Xiaozhen Mou
Heterotrophic bacteria are suggested as the major agents that degrade microcystins (MCs), a major cyanotoxins, in natural environments. However, little is known of the taxonomic and functional diversity of MC-degrading bacteria in Lake Erie of the Laurentian Great Lakes, the largest freshwater system on earth. This study obtained six bacterial pure isolates from Lake Erie with an ability to use MCs as the sole carbon and energy sources. MC degradation rates of the isolates were impacted by temperature and pH...
November 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Evanthia Mantzouki, James Campbell, Emiel van Loon, Petra Visser, Iosif Konstantinou, Maria Antoniou, Grégory Giuliani, Danielle Machado-Vieira, Alinne Gurjão de Oliveira, Dubravka Špoljarić Maronić, Filip Stević, Tanja Žuna Pfeiffer, Itana Bokan Vucelić, Petar Žutinić, Marija Gligora Udovič, Anđelka Plenković-Moraj, Nikoletta Tsiarta, Luděk Bláha, Rodan Geriš, Markéta Fránková, Kirsten Seestern Christoffersen, Trine Perlt Warming, Tõnu Feldmann, Alo Laas, Kristel Panksep, Lea Tuvikene, Kersti Kangro, Kerstin Häggqvist, Pauliina Salmi, Lauri Arvola, Jutta Fastner, Dietmar Straile, Karl-Otto Rothhaupt, Jeremy Fonvielle, Hans-Peter Grossart, Christos Avagianos, Triantafyllos Kaloudis, Theodoros Triantis, Sevasti-Kiriaki Zervou, Anastasia Hiskia, Spyros Gkelis, Manthos Panou, Valerie McCarthy, Victor C Perello, Ulrike Obertegger, Adriano Boscaini, Giovanna Flaim, Nico Salmaso, Leonardo Cerasino, Judita Koreivienė, Jūratė Karosienė, Jūratė Kasperovičienė, Ksenija Savadova, Irma Vitonytė, Sigrid Haande, Birger Skjelbred, Magdalena Grabowska, Maciej Karpowicz, Damian Chmura, Lidia Nawrocka, Justyna Kobos, Hanna Mazur-Marzec, Pablo Alcaraz-Párraga, Elżbieta Wilk-Woźniak, Wojciech Krztoń, Edward Walusiak, Ilona Gagala, Joana Mankiewicz-Boczek, Magdalena Toporowska, Barbara Pawlik-Skowronska, Michał Niedźwiecki, Wojciech Pęczuła, Agnieszka Napiórkowska-Krzebietke, Julita Dunalska, Justyna Sieńska, Daniel Szymański, Marek Kruk, Agnieszka Budzyńska, Ryszard Goldyn, Anna Kozak, Joanna Rosińska, Elżbieta Szeląg-Wasielewska, Piotr Domek, Natalia Jakubowska-Krepska, Kinga Kwasizur, Beata Messyasz, Aleksandra Pełechata, Mariusz Pełechaty, Mikolaj Kokocinski, Beata Madrecka, Iwona Kostrzewska-Szlakowska, Magdalena Frąk, Agnieszka Bańkowska-Sobczak, Michał Wasilewicz, Agnieszka Ochocka, Agnieszka Pasztaleniec, Iwona Jasser, Ana M Antão-Geraldes, Manel Leira, Armand Hernández, Vitor Vasconcelos, João Morais, Micaela Vale, Pedro M Raposeiro, Vítor Gonçalves, Boris Aleksovski, Svetislav Krstić, Hana Nemova, Iveta Drastichova, Lucia Chomova, Spela Remec-Rekar, Tina Elersek, Jordi Delgado-Martín, David García, Jose Luís Cereijo, Joan Gomà, Mari Carmen Trapote, Teresa Vegas-Vilarrúbia, Biel Obrador, Ana García-Murcia, Monserrat Real, Elvira Romans, Jordi Noguero-Ribes, David Parreño Duque, Elísabeth Fernández-Morán, Bárbara Úbeda, José Ángel Gálvez, Rafael Marcé, Núria Catalán, Carmen Pérez-Martínez, Eloísa Ramos-Rodríguez, Carmen Cillero-Castro, Enrique Moreno-Ostos, José María Blanco, Valeriano Rodríguez, Jorge Juan Montes-Pérez, Roberto L Palomino, Estela Rodríguez-Pérez, Rafael Carballeira, Antonio Camacho, Antonio Picazo, Carlos Rochera, Anna C Santamans, Carmen Ferriol, Susana Romo, Juan Miguel Soria, Lars-Anders Hansson, Pablo Urrutia-Cordero, Arda Özen, Andrea G Bravo, Moritz Buck, William Colom-Montero, Kristiina Mustonen, Don Pierson, Yang Yang, Jolanda M H Verspagen, Lisette N de Senerpont Domis, Laura Seelen, Sven Teurlincx, Yvon Verstijnen, Miquel Lürling, Valentini Maliaka, Elisabeth J Faassen, Delphine Latour, Cayelan C Carey, Hans W Paerl, Andrea Torokne, Tünay Karan, Nilsun Demir, Meryem Beklioğlu, Nur Filiz, Eti E Levi, Uğur Iskin, Gizem Bezirci, Ülkü Nihan Tavşanoğlu, Kemal Çelik, Koray Özhan, Nusret Karakaya, Mehmet Ali Turan Koçer, Mete Yilmaz, Faruk Maraşlıoğlu, Özden Fakioglu, Elif Neyran Soylu, Meral Apaydın Yağcı, Şakir Çınar, Kadir Çapkın, Abdulkadir Yağcı, Mehmet Cesur, Fuat Bilgin, Cafer Bulut, Rahmi Uysal, Latife Köker, Reyhan Akçaalan, Meriç Albay, Mehmet Tahir Alp, Korhan Özkan, Tuğba Ongun Sevindik, Hatice Tunca, Burçin Önem, Jessica Richardson, Christine Edwards, Victoria Bergkemper, Sarah O'Leary, Eilish Beirne, Hannah Cromie, Bastiaan W Ibelings
Under ongoing climate change and increasing anthropogenic activity, which continuously challenge ecosystem resilience, an in-depth understanding of ecological processes is urgently needed. Lakes, as providers of numerous ecosystem services, face multiple stressors that threaten their functioning. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are a persistent problem resulting from nutrient pollution and climate-change induced stressors, like poor transparency, increased water temperature and enhanced stratification. Consistency in data collection and analysis methods is necessary to achieve fully comparable datasets and for statistical validity, avoiding issues linked to disparate data sources...
October 23, 2018: Scientific Data
Leticia Díez-Quijada, Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, Ana I Prieto Ortega, María Llana-Ruíz-Cabello, Alexandre Campos, Vítor Vasconcelos, Ángeles Jos, Ana M Cameán
Cyanotoxins are a large group of noxious metabolites with different chemical structure and mechanisms of action, with a worldwide distribution, producing effects in animals, humans, and crop plants. When cyanotoxin-contaminated waters are used for the irrigation of edible vegetables, humans can be in contact with these toxins through the food chain. In this work, a method for the simultaneous detection of Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), Microcystin-RR (MC-RR), Microcystin-YR (MC-YR), and Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in lettuce has been optimized and validated, using a dual solid phase extraction (SPE) system for toxin extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for analysis...
October 8, 2018: Toxins
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