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Leticia Díez-Quijada, Remedios Guzmán-Guillén, Ana I Prieto Ortega, María Llana-Ruíz-Cabello, Alexandre Campos, Vítor Vasconcelos, Ángeles Jos, Ana M Cameán
Cyanotoxins are a large group of noxious metabolites with different chemical structure and mechanisms of action, with a worldwide distribution, producing effects in animals, humans, and crop plants. When cyanotoxin-contaminated waters are used for the irrigation of edible vegetables, humans can be in contact with these toxins through the food chain. In this work, a method for the simultaneous detection of Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), Microcystin-RR (MC-RR), Microcystin-YR (MC-YR), and Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in lettuce has been optimized and validated, using a dual solid phase extraction (SPE) system for toxin extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for analysis...
October 8, 2018: Toxins
Natalia Herrera, Carolina Herrera, Isabel Ortíz, Luz Orozco, Sara Robledo, Diana Agudelo, Fernando Echeverri
The presence of cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxins in water presents a global problem due to the deterioration of ecosystems and the possibility of poisoning in human and animals. Microcystin LR is the most widely distributed cyanotoxin and liver cells are its main target. In the present study, HepG2 cells were used to determine DNA damage of three crude extracts of cyanobacterial blooms containing MC-LR, through comet assay. The results show that all extracts at a concentration of 500 μg mL-1 caused low damage in hepatocytes exposed for 24 h, but produced total mortality even at low concentrations at 48 h...
September 28, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
L L Ndlela, P J Oberholster, J H Van Wyk, P H Cheng
Biological control of cyanobacteria is a well-researched area with a central focus on laboratory-scale studies. Numerous reports have been made on algicidal isolates, with bacteria as a major component of the antagonists. The research in this review draws a brief summary of what is currently known in the area of freshwater cyanobacteria being inhibited by bacterial isolates. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes are among the most commonly reported phyla of bacteria associated with or employed in this research area...
September 28, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Kade A Lenz, Todd R Miller, Hongbo Ma
Cyanobacterial blooms represent a significant risk to environmental and human health due to their production of toxic secondary metabolites, cyanopeptides. Anabaenopeptins and cyanopeptolins are cyanopeptides increasingly detected in surface waters at concentrations exceeding regulatory toxicity levels for other cyanotoxins such as microcystins. Yet their toxicity to aquatic organisms are not well understood. Here we assessed the toxicological effects of three anabaenopeptins (AP-A, AP-B, and AP-F) and three cyanopeptolins (CYP-1007, CYP-1020, and CYP-1041) to a model organism the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans...
September 15, 2018: Chemosphere
Dominic N Facciponte, Matthew W Bough, Darius Seidler, James L Carroll, Alix Ashare, Angeline S Andrew, Gregory J Tsongalis, Louis J Vaickus, Patricia L Henegan, Tanya H Butt, Elijah W Stommel
Cyanobacteria produce harmful toxins that have been associated with several acute conditions and chronic human diseases, like gastroenteritis, non-alcoholic liver disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Aerosol from waterbodies appears to be a likely mechanism for exposure. We conducted a study of human biospecimens focused on the cyanobacterial aerosilization process by evaluating the extent to which cyanobacteria can invade the human respiratory tract. Our study suggests that humans routinely inhale aerosolized cyanobacteria, which can be harbored in the nostrils and the lungs...
December 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Tomofumi Kurobe, Peggy W Lehman, Bruce G Hammock, Melissa B Bolotaolo, Sarah Lesmeister, Swee J Teh
Blooms of Microcystis and other harmful cyanobacteria can degrade water quality by producing cyanotoxins or other toxic compounds. The goals of this study were (1) to facilitate understanding of community structure for various aquatic microorganisms in brackish water and freshwater regions with emphasis on cyanobacteria, and (2) to test a hypothesis that Microcystis genotypes that tolerate higher salinity were blooming in brackish water environments during the severe drought, 2014. Shotgun metagenomic analysis revealed that cyanobacteria dominated the brackish water region while bacteria dominated the freshwater region...
2018: PloS One
Nada Tokodi, Damjana Drobac, Gospava Lazić, Tamaš Petrović, Zoran Marinović, Jelena Lujić, Tamara Palanački Malešević, Jussi Meriluoto, Zorica Svirčev
Eighty cultures from the Novi Sad Cyanobacterial Culture Collection (NSCCC) were screened for toxicity with Artemia salina bioassay and for common cyanobacterial toxins, microcystins/nodularin (MCs/NOD) and saxitoxin (STX), with ELISA assays. The results show that 22.5% (11) of the investigated cyanobacterial cultures in exponential phase exhibited toxicity in the A. salina bioassay and 38.7% (31) produced MCs/NOD and/or STX. However, the findings in the two methods applied were contradictory. Therefore, A...
September 20, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
María Puerto, Ana I Prieto, Sara Maisanaba, Daniel Gutiérrez-Praena, Pilar Mellado-García, Ángeles Jos, Ana M Cameán
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanobacterial toxin with an increasing world-wide occurrence. The main route of human exposure is through the ingestion of contaminated food and water. The European Food Safety Authority has identified the need to further characterize the toxicological profile of cyanotoxins and in this regard the genotoxicity is a key toxicological effect. The data available in the scientific literature show contradictory results. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of pure CYN using a battery of different in vitro assays including: the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test) (0-10 μg/mL), the mammalian cell micronucleus (MN) test (0-1...
September 18, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Marcos Isidoro-Ayza, Lee Jones, Robert J Dusek, Jeffrey M Lorch, Jan H Landsberg, Patrick Wilson, Stephanie Graham
We describe a die-off of little brown bats ( Myotis lucifugus carissima) associated with acute intoxication with microcystin-LR in 2016 at Scofield Reservoir in Utah. High levels of this cyanotoxin in water from the reservoir and gastrointestinal content of bats supported this diagnosis.
September 14, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Sarah R Bickman, Katrina Campbell, Christopher Elliott, Caroline Murphy, Richard O'Kennedy, Philip Papst, Michael J Lochhead
Harmful algal blooms in freshwater systems are increasingly common and present threats to drinking water systems, recreational waters, and ecosystems. A highly innovative simple to use, portable biosensor system (MBio) for the rapid and simultaneous detection of multiple cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater is demonstrated. The system utilizes a novel planar waveguide optical sensor that delivers quantitative fluorescent competitive immunoassay results in a disposable cartridge. Data are presented for the world's first duplex microcystin (MC)/cylindrospermopsin (CYN) assay cartridge using a combination of fluorophore-conjugated monoclonal antibodies as detector molecules...
September 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
M G Antoniou, I Boraei, M Solakidou, Y Deligiannakis, M Abhishek, L A Lawton, C Edwards
This study investigated the coupling of sulfate radical generating oxidants, (persulfate, PS and peroxymonosulfate, PMS) with TiO2 photocatalysis for the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). Treatment efficiency was evaluated by estimating the electrical energy per order (EEO ). Oxidant addition at 4 mg/L reduced the energy requirements of the treatment by 60% and 12% for PMS and PS, respectively compared with conventional photocatalysis. Quenching studies indicated that both sulfate and hydroxyl radicals contributed towards the degradation of MC-LR for both oxidants, while Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) studies confirmed that the oxidants prolonged that lifetime of both radicals (concentration maxima shifted from 10 to 20 min), allowing for bulk diffusion and enhancing cyanotoxin removal...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hae-Kyung Park, Mi-Ae Kwon, Hae-Jin Lee, Jonghee Oh, Su-Heon Lee, In-Soo Kim
Aphanizomenon spp. have formed harmful cyanobacterial blooms in the Nakdong River during spring, autumn, and now in winter, and the expansion of blooming period and area, associated with the global warming is predicted. The genus Aphanizomenon has been described to produce harmful secondary metabolites such as off-flavors and cyanotoxins. Therefore, the production of harmful secondary metabolites from the Aphanizomenon blooms in the Nakdong River needs to be monitored to minimize the risk to both water quality and public health...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jesús Morón-López, Lucía Nieto-Reyes, Jorge Senán-Salinas, Serena Molina, Rehab El-Shehawy
Increased harmful cyanobacterial blooms and drought are some negative impacts of global warming. To deal with cyanotoxin release during water treatment, and to manage the massive quantities of end-of-life membrane waste generated by desalination processes, we propose an innovative biological system developed from recycled reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to remove microcystins (MC). Our system, named the Recycled-Membrane Biofilm Reactor (R-MBfR), effectively removes microcystins, while reducing the pollution impact of RO membrane waste by prolonging their life span at the same time...
January 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Christopher W Via, Evgenia Glukhov, Samuel Costa, Paul V Zimba, Peter D R Moeller, William H Gerwick, Matthew J Bertin
Members of the cyanobacterial genus Trichodesmium are well known for their substantial impact on nitrogen influx in ocean ecosystems and the enormous surface blooms they form in tropical and subtropical locations. However, the secondary metabolite composition of these complex environmental bloom events is not well known, nor the possibility of the production of potent toxins that have been observed in other bloom-forming marine and freshwater cyanobacteria species. In the present work, we aimed to characterize the metabolome of a Trichodesmium bloom utilizing MS/MS-based molecular networking...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Brian Anderson, Jennifer Voorhees, Bryn Phillips, Rich Fadness, Rosalina Stancheva, Jeanette Nichols, Daniel Orr, Susanna A Wood
Toxin-producing cyanobacteria are increasing in rivers and streams globally, leading to growing concerns over their potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. The present study was designed to culture field-collected Phormidium in the laboratory, identify individual species, conduct chemical analyses to identify cyanotoxins, and conduct toxicity tests to investigate the potential for this genera to impact stream health. Freshwater toxicity tests were conducted with standard US Environmental Protection Agency invertebrate test protocols with culture water used to grow 3 Phormidium strains isolated from the Russian River (CA, USA)...
August 1, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sok Kim, Yeoung-Sang Yun, Yoon-E Choi
The purpose of this study was to establish the strategy to remove the cyanotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) from aqueous solution with the use of biosorption strategy. Specifically, we focused on use of industrial waste biomass, Escherichia coli, to make efficient biosorbents for MC-LR through immobilization of the biomass with polysulfone (PS), coating the polysulfone-biomass composite with polyethylenimine (PEI), and decarboxylation of the PEI-coated composite to remove the inhibitory sites. The resulting sorbent is named in this study as decarboxylated PEI-coated polysulfone-biomass composite fiber (DC-PEI-PSBF)...
January 2018: Bioresource Technology
(no author information available yet)
Liver cancer is one of the most common cancers in China. The major risk factors are chronic infections of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), high exposure to aflatoxins. In addition, exposure to cyanotoxins and some preventable health behaviors are also recognized to contribute to liver cancer development. To relieve the disease burden, primary prevention of etiological interventions is an important strategy. Based on the liver cancer epidemiology in China and the effective evidences and results from the etiological interventions conduced in Chinese population domestically, the following strategies are recommended in the "Strategies of primary prevention of liver cancer: Expert Consensus (2018)" to promote the effective prevention of liver cancer in general population...
July 23, 2018: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
Amrita Basu, Aneta Dydowiczová, Lucie Čtveráčková, Libor Jaša, James E Trosko, Luděk Bláha, Pavel Babica
Cyanotoxins microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) represent hazardous waterborne contaminants and potent human hepatotoxins. However, in vitro monolayer cultures of hepatic cell lines were found to recapitulate, poorly, major hepatocyte-specific functions and inadequately predict hepatotoxic effects of MC-LR and CYN. We utilized 3-dimensional (3D), scaffold-free spheroid cultures of human telomerase-immortalized adult liver stem cells HL1-hT1 to evaluate hepatotoxic potential of MC-LR and CYN...
September 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jiangqi Qu, Liping Shen, Meng Zhao, Wentong Li, Chengxia Jia, Hua Zhu, Qingjing Zhang
Microcystis aeruginosa is the most common species responsible for toxic cyanobacterial blooms and is considered a significant contributor to the production of cyanotoxins, particularly the potent liver toxins called microcystins. Numerous studies investigating Microcystis spp. blooms have revealed their deleterious effects in freshwater environments. However, the available knowledge regarding the global phosphoproteomics of M. aeruginosa and their regulatory roles in toxin generation is limited. In this study, we conducted comparative phosphoproteomic profiling of non-toxic and toxin-producing strains of M...
July 23, 2018: Toxins
Isabel Cunha, Rita Biltes, Mgf Sales, Vitor Vasconcelos
Aptasensors have a great potential for environmental monitoring, particularly for real-time on-site detection of aquatic toxins produced by marine and freshwater microorganisms (cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, and diatoms), with several advantages over other biosensors that are worth considering. Freshwater monitoring is of vital importance for public health, in numerous human activities, and animal welfare, since these toxins may cause fatal intoxications. Similarly, in marine waters, very effective monitoring programs have been put in place in many countries to detect when toxins exceed established regulatory levels and accordingly enforce shellfish harvesting closures...
July 20, 2018: Sensors
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