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Hae-Kyung Park, Mi-Ae Kwon, Hae-Jin Lee, Jonghee Oh, Su-Heon Lee, In-Soo Kim
Aphanizomenon spp. have formed harmful cyanobacterial blooms in the Nakdong River during spring, autumn, and now in winter, and the expansion of blooming period and area, associated with the global warming is predicted. The genus Aphanizomenon has been described to produce harmful secondary metabolites such as off-flavors and cyanotoxins. Therefore, the production of harmful secondary metabolites from the Aphanizomenon blooms in the Nakdong River needs to be monitored to minimize the risk to both water quality and public health...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jesús Morón-López, Lucía Nieto-Reyes, Jorge Senán-Salinas, Serena Molina, Rehab El-Shehawy
Increased harmful cyanobacterial blooms and drought are some negative impacts of global warming. To deal with cyanotoxin release during water treatment, and to manage the massive quantities of end-of-life membrane waste generated by desalination processes, we propose an innovative biological system developed from recycled reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to remove microcystins (MC). Our system, named the Recycled-Membrane Biofilm Reactor (R-MBfR), effectively removes microcystins, while reducing the pollution impact of RO membrane waste by prolonging their life span at the same time...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Christopher W Via, Evgenia Glukhov, Samuel Costa, Paul V Zimba, Peter D R Moeller, William H Gerwick, Matthew J Bertin
Members of the cyanobacterial genus Trichodesmium are well known for their substantial impact on nitrogen influx in ocean ecosystems and the enormous surface blooms they form in tropical and subtropical locations. However, the secondary metabolite composition of these complex environmental bloom events is not well known, nor the possibility of the production of potent toxins that have been observed in other bloom-forming marine and freshwater cyanobacteria species. In the present work, we aimed to characterize the metabolome of a Trichodesmium bloom utilizing MS/MS-based molecular networking...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Brian Anderson, Jennifer Voorhees, Bryn Phillips, Rich Fadness, Rosalina Stancheva, Jeanette Nichols, Daniel Orr, Susanna A Wood
Toxin producing cyanobacteria are increasing in rivers and streams globally leading to growing concerns over their potential impacts on aquatic ecosystem. The current study was designed to culture field collected Phormidium in the laboratory, identify individual species, conduct chemical analyses to identify cyanotoxins, and conduct toxicity tests to investigate the potential for this genera to impact stream health. Freshwater toxicity tests were conducted with standard US EPA invertebrate test protocols with culture water used to grow three Phormidium strains isolated from the Russian River (CA, USA)...
August 1, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sok Kim, Yeoung-Sang Yun, Yoon-E Choi
The purpose of this study was to establish the strategy to remove the cyanotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) from aqueous solution with the use of biosorption strategy. Specifically, we focused on use of industrial waste biomass, Escherichia coli, to make efficient biosorbents for MC-LR through immobilization of the biomass with polysulfone (PS), coating the polysulfone-biomass composite with polyethylenimine (PEI), and decarboxylation of the PEI-coated composite to remove the inhibitory sites. The resulting sorbent is named in this study as decarboxylated PEI-coated polysulfone-biomass composite fiber (DC-PEI-PSBF)...
January 2018: Bioresource Technology
(no author information available yet)
Liver cancer is one of the most common cancers in China. The major risk factors are chronic infections of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), high exposure to aflatoxins. In addition, exposure to cyanotoxins and some preventable health behaviors are also recognized to contribute to liver cancer development. To relieve the disease burden, primary prevention of etiological interventions is an important strategy. Based on the liver cancer epidemiology in China and the effective evidences and results from the etiological interventions conduced in Chinese population domestically, the following strategies are recommended in the "Strategies of primary prevention of liver cancer: Expert Consensus (2018)" to promote the effective prevention of liver cancer in general population...
July 23, 2018: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
Amrita Basu, Aneta Dydowiczova, Lucie Ctverackova, Libor Jasa, James Edward Trosko, Ludek Blaha, Pavel Babica
Cyanotoxins microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) represent hazardous waterborne contaminants and potent human hepatotoxins. However, in vitro monolayer cultures of hepatic cell lines were found to recapitulate, poorly, major hepatocyte-specific functions and inadequately predict hepatotoxic effects of MC-LR and CYN. We utilized 3-dimensional (3D), scaffold-free spheroid cultures of human telomerase-immortalized adult liver stem cells HL1-hT1 to evaluate hepatotoxic potential of MC-LR and CYN...
July 30, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jiangqi Qu, Liping Shen, Meng Zhao, Wentong Li, Chengxia Jia, Hua Zhu, Qingjing Zhang
Microcystis aeruginosa is the most common species responsible for toxic cyanobacterial blooms and is considered a significant contributor to the production of cyanotoxins, particularly the potent liver toxins called microcystins. Numerous studies investigating Microcystis spp. blooms have revealed their deleterious effects in freshwater environments. However, the available knowledge regarding the global phosphoproteomics of M. aeruginosa and their regulatory roles in toxin generation is limited. In this study, we conducted comparative phosphoproteomic profiling of non-toxic and toxin-producing strains of M...
July 23, 2018: Toxins
Isabel Cunha, Rita Biltes, Mgf Sales, Vitor Vasconcelos
Aptasensors have a great potential for environmental monitoring, particularly for real-time on-site detection of aquatic toxins produced by marine and freshwater microorganisms (cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, and diatoms), with several advantages over other biosensors that are worth considering. Freshwater monitoring is of vital importance for public health, in numerous human activities, and animal welfare, since these toxins may cause fatal intoxications. Similarly, in marine waters, very effective monitoring programs have been put in place in many countries to detect when toxins exceed established regulatory levels and accordingly enforce shellfish harvesting closures...
July 20, 2018: Sensors
Andreas Ballot, Pia I Scherer, Susanna A Wood
Anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a are neurotoxic cyanotoxins produced by benthic and planktonic cyanobacteria worldwide. These toxins are produced by the cyanobacterial genera Dolichospermum, Cuspidothrix, Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Tychonema and Cylindrospermum. In the present study the ana gene clusters (anaA-anaG; c. 21.1 kilobases) of two anatoxin producing Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi strains from Germany: (NIVA-CYA 711) and New Zealand (CAWBG02) were sequenced and compared with the ana gene clusters of two C...
2018: PloS One
Yan Jin, Hangzhou Xu, Chunxia Ma, Jiongming Sun, Hongmin Li, Shasha Zhang, Haiyan Pei
Removing harmful cyanobacteria intact by coagulation can prevent cell lysis and toxin release, which provides many benefits for drinking water production, including reduction of the burden on subsequent processes and guaranteeing the water quality. But the electronegativity and buoyancy of cyanobacterial cells make them settle slowly and their accumulation and concentration in flocs would still have severe adverse effects. In this study, we introduced a photocatalyst powder to act as a ballasting agent in the coagulation process and to degrade the cells and cyanotoxins during sludge storage...
July 7, 2018: Water Research
Connor B Driscoll, Kevin A Meyer, Sigitas Šulčius, Nathan M Brown, Gregory J Dick, Huansheng Cao, Giedrius Gasiūnas, Albertas Timinskas, Yanbin Yin, Zachary C Landry, Timothy G Otten, Timothy W Davis, Susan B Watson, Theo W Dreher
In order to better understand the relationships among current Nostocales cyanobacterial blooms, eight genomes were sequenced from cultured isolates or from environmental metagenomes of recent planktonic Nostocales blooms. Phylogenomic analysis of publicly available sequences placed the new genomes among a group of 15 genomes from four continents in a distinct ADA clade (Anabaena/Dolichospermum/Aphanizomenon) within the Nostocales. This clade contains four species-level groups, two of which include members with both Anabaena-like and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae-like morphology...
July 2018: Harmful Algae
Yeshiemebet Major, Demeke Kifle, Lisa Spoof, Jussi Meriluoto
The composition and abundance of cyanobacteria and their toxins, microcystins (MCs), and cylindrospermopsins (CYN) were investigated using samples collected at monthly intervals from the Amudde side of Koka Reservoir from May 2013 to April 2014. Cyanobacteria were the most abundant and persistent phytoplankton taxa with Microcystis and Cylindrospermopsis species alternately dominating the phytoplankton community of the reservoir and accounting for up to 84.3 and 11.9% of total cyanobacterial abundance, respectively...
July 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jie Wei, Weidan Chang, Aori Qileng, Weipeng Liu, Yue Zhang, Shiya Rong, Hongtao Lei, Yingju Liu
Microcystins, the lethal cyanotoxins from Microcystis aeruginosa, can inhibit the activity of protein phosphatase and promote liver tumors. Herein, a dual-modal split-type immunosensor was constructed to detect microcystin-LR (MC-LR), based on the photocurrent change of CdS/ZnO hollow nanorod arrays (HNRs) and the blue shift of the surface plasmon resonance peak from Au nanobipyramids@Ag. By using mesoporous silica nanospheres as the carrier to immobilize secondary antibody and DNA primer, a hybridization chain reaction was adopted to capture alkaline phosphatase, while its catalytic reaction product, ascorbic acid, exhibited dual functions...
July 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Rui Wang, Yiping Tai, Xiang Wan, Weifeng Ruan, Ying Man, Jiaxi Wang, Yufen Yang, Yang Yang
The prevalence of cyanobacterial bloom (Cyano-bloom) and hepatotoxic microcystin (MC) pollution caused by eutrophication poses serious problems to aquatic ecosystems and public health. However, conventional water treatment technologies are inefficient for removing cyanotoxins. In this study, the performance of microcosm constructed wetlands (CWs) in the removal of Cyano-bloom, microcystin-LR (MC-LR), and nutrients was investigated following repeated loading of pollutants. The effects of plant and bioaugmentation of selected MC-LR degrading bacteria on removal efficiency, degrading gene mlrA abundance, and bacterial community structure were examined...
June 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Murendeni Magonono, Paul Johan Oberholster, Shonhai Addmore, Makumire Stanley, Jabulani Ray Gumbo
The presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and cyanotoxins in drinking water sources poses a great threat to human health. The current study employed molecular techniques to determine the occurrence of non-toxic and toxic cyanobacteria species in the Limpopo River basin based on the phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Bottom sediment samples were collected from selected rivers: Limpopo, Crocodile, Mokolo, Mogalakwena, Nzhelele, Lephalale, Sand Rivers (South Africa); Notwane (Botswana); and Shashe River and Mzingwane River (Zimbabwe)...
July 3, 2018: Toxins
Tatenda Dalu, Ryan J Wasserman
Anthropogenic disturbances within or near aquatic ecosystems often contribute to eutrophication events. Cyanobacteria are a key group responsible for environmental problems associated with eutrophication processes. Interest is growing in estimating the threat of cyanobacteria in tropical Africa, however, there is still a lack of understanding regarding temporal drivers of cyanobacteria dynamics in natural aquatic ecosystems given the paucity of relevant fundamental research in this area. To better understand cyanobacteria dynamics, potential drivers of cyanobacteria dynamics were investigated in a model tropical reservoir system, whereby phytoplankton communities and water quality parameters were sampled during the tropical hot-wet, cool-dry and hot-dry seasons...
June 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Niam M Abeysiriwardena, Samuel J L Gascoigne, Angela Anandappa
As advances in global transportation infrastructure make it possible for out of season foods to be available year-round, the need for assessing the risks associated with the food production and expanded distribution are even more important. Risks for foodborne illness are associated with contamination by bacteria, viruses, mold, parasites, natural and synthetic toxins, chemical residues, and conditions that lead to contamination. An increase in the popularity of natural alternatives to pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies and the desire for consuming "super foods" is leading to a change in the dietary patterns of consumers...
June 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Igor Mrdjen, Siobhan Fennessy, Alex Schaal, Richard Dennis, Joan L Slonczewski, Seungjun Lee, Jiyoung Lee
Freshwater harmful algal blooms (HABs), driven by nutrient inputs from anthropogenic sources, pose unique risks to human and ecological health worldwide. A major nutrient contributor is agricultural land use, specifically tile drainage discharge. Small lakes and ponds are at elevated risk for HAB appearance, as they are uniquely sensitive to nutrient input. HABs introduce exposure risk to microcystin (MC), hepatotoxic and potentially carcinogenic cyanotoxins. To investigate the impact of anthropogenic land use on small lakes and ponds, 24 sites in central Ohio were sampled over a 3-month period in late summer of 2015...
July 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Lamei Lei, Liang Peng, Yang Yang, Bo-Ping Han
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanotoxin that is of particular concern for its potential toxicity to human and animal health and ecological consequences due to contamination of drinking water. The increasing emergence of CYN around the world has led to urgent development of rapid and high-throughput methods for its detection in water. In this study, a highly sensitive monoclonal antibody N8 was produced and characterized for CYN detection through the development of a direct competitive time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA)...
June 21, 2018: Toxins
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