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harmful algal blooms

Anna Toldrà, Míriam Jauset-Rubio, Karl B Andree, Margarita Fernández-Tejedor, Jorge Diogène, Ioanis Katakis, Ciara K O'Sullivan, Mònica Campàs
Karlodinium is a dinoflagellate responsible for fish-killing events worldwide. In Alfacs Bay (NW Mediterranean Sea), the presence of two Karlodinium species (K. veneficum and K. armiger) with different toxicities has been reported. This work presents a method that combines recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) with an enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA) to identify, discriminate and quantify these two species. The system was characterised using synthetic DNA and genomic DNA, and the specificity was confirmed by cross-reactivity experiments...
December 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Edward S Hems, Ben A Wagstaff, Gerhard Saalbach, Robert A Field
In the context of discovering and quantifying terminal alkyne-based natural products, here we report the combination of CuAAC click chemistry with LC-MS for the detection of polyether toxins (prymnesins) associated with harmful algal blooms. The added-value of the CuAAC-based approach is evident from our ability to detect novel prymnesin-like compounds in algal species with previously uncharacterised toxins.
October 12, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Xiaolin Huang, Han Chen, Fang Xia, Zhenfeng Wang, Kun Mei, Xu Shang, Yuanyuan Liu, Randy A Dahlgren, Minghua Zhang, Hong Huang
Source water nutrient management to prevent eutrophication requires critical strategies to reduce watershed phosphorus (P) loadings. Shanxi Drinking-Water Source Area (SDWSA) in eastern China experienced severe water quality deterioration before 2010, but showed considerable improvement following application of several watershed management actions to reduce P. This paper assessed the changes in total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and fluxes at the SDWSA outlet relative to watershed anthropogenic P sources during 2005⁻2016...
October 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
John K Brunson, Shaun M K McKinnie, Jonathan R Chekan, John P McCrow, Zachary D Miles, Erin M Bertrand, Vincent A Bielinski, Hanna Luhavaya, Miroslav Oborník, G Jason Smith, David A Hutchins, Andrew E Allen, Bradley S Moore
Oceanic harmful algal blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia diatoms produce the potent mammalian neurotoxin domoic acid (DA). Despite decades of research, the molecular basis for its biosynthesis is not known. By using growth conditions known to induce DA production in Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries , we implemented transcriptome sequencing in order to identify DA biosynthesis genes that colocalize in a genomic four-gene cluster. We biochemically investigated the recombinant DA biosynthetic enzymes and linked their mechanisms to the construction of DA's diagnostic pyrrolidine skeleton, establishing a model for DA biosynthesis...
September 28, 2018: Science
Hye-Suk Yi, Sangyoung Park, Kwang-Guk An, Keun-Chang Kwak
In this study, we design an intelligent model to predict chlorophyll-a concentration, which is the primary indicator of algal blooms, using extreme learning machine (ELM) models. Modeling algal blooms is important for environmental management and ecological risk assessment. For this purpose, the performance of the designed models was evaluated for four artificial weirs in the Nakdong River, Korea. The Nakdong River has harmful annual algal blooms that can affect health due to exposure to toxins. In contrast to conventional neural network (NN) that use backpropagation (BP) learning methods, ELMs are fast learning, feedforward neural networks that use least square estimates (LSE) for regression...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Martha Sutula, Raphael Kudela, James D Hagy, Lawrence W Harding, David Senn, James E Cloern, Suzanne Bricker, Gry Mine Berg, Marcus Beck
San Francisco Bay (SFB), USA, is highly enriched in nitrogen and phosphorus, but has been resistant to the classic symptoms of eutrophication associated with over-production of phytoplankton. Observations in recent years suggest that this resistance may be weakening, shown by: significant increases of chlorophyll- a ( chl-a ) and decreases of dissolved oxygen (DO), common occurrences of phytoplankton taxa that can form Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB), and algal toxins in water and mussels reaching levels of concern...
October 15, 2017: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science
Soyoun Ahn, Armando Alcazar Magaña, Connie Bozarth, Jonathan Shepardson, Jeffery Morré, Theo Dreher, Claudia S Maier
The occurrence of harmful algal blooms in nutrient-rich freshwater bodies has increased world-wide, including in the Pacific Northwest. Some cyanobacterial genera have the potential to produce secondary metabolites that are highly toxic to humans, livestock and wildlife. Reliable methods for the detection of cyanobacterial toxins with high specificity and low limits of detection are in high demand. Here we test a relatively new hybrid high resolution accurate mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry platform (TripleTOF) for the analysis of cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater samples...
2018: Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society
Sarah R Bickman, Katrina Campbell, Christopher Elliott, Caroline Murphy, Richard O'Kennedy, Philip Papst, Michael J Lochhead
Harmful algal blooms in freshwater systems are increasingly common and present threats to drinking water systems, recreational waters, and ecosystems. A highly innovative simple to use, portable biosensor system (MBio) for the rapid and simultaneous detection of multiple cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater is demonstrated. The system utilizes a novel planar waveguide optical sensor that delivers quantitative fluorescent competitive immunoassay results in a disposable cartridge. Data are presented for the world's first duplex microcystin (MC)/cylindrospermopsin (CYN) assay cartridge using a combination of fluorophore-conjugated monoclonal antibodies as detector molecules...
September 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Devin Gill, Mark Rowe, Sonia Joseph Joshi
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose public health risks worldwide, because of the toxins that they can produce. Researchers have explored the impact of HABs on local economies, but know relatively little about the decision-making that informs these behaviors that lead to financial losses. Understanding the factors that inform this decision-making is critical to developing mitigative solutions. This study seeks to understand how HABs in Western Lake Erie affect angler decision-making, before evaluating a possible decision-support tool-a harmful algal bloom forecast known as the Experimental Lake Erie HAB Tracker...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Carolin Peter, Bernd Krock, Allan Cembella
The marine dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra is a toxigenic species capable of forming high magnitude and occasionally harmful algal blooms (HABs), particularly in temperate coastal waters throughout the world. Three cultured isolates of L. polyedra from a fjord system on the Skagerrak coast of Sweden were analyzed for their growth characteristics and to determine the effects of a strong salinity gradient on toxin cell quotas and composition. The cell quota of yessotoxin (YTX) analogs, as determined by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), ranged widely among strains...
September 2018: Harmful Algae
Hwa Lin Yong, Nurin Izzati Mustapa, Li Keat Lee, Zhen Fei Lim, Toh Hii Tan, Gires Usup, Haifeng Gu, R Wayne Litaker, Patricia A Tester, Po Teen Lim, Chui Pin Leaw
Few studies have investigated the effect of fine-scale habitat differences on the dynamics of benthic harmful dinoflagellate assemblages. To determine how these microhabitat differences affect the distribution and abundance of the major benthic harmful dinoflagellate genera in a tropical coral reef ecosystem, a field study was undertaken between April-September 2015 and January 2016 on the shallow reef flat of the fringing reef of Rawa Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Sampling of benthic dinoflagellates was carried out using an artificial substrate sampling method (fiberglass screens)...
September 2018: Harmful Algae
Marianna Lanari, Margareth S Copertino, Leonir A Colling, Fábio C Bom
Macroalgal blooms can trigger adverse biogeochemical conditions at the sediment-water interface of shallow coastal areas, hence threatening critical habitats such as seagrasses meadows. The direction and magnitude of macroalgal blooms impacts on the aquatic ecosystem can be context-dependent, varying according to the local hydrodynamic conditions. Thus, studies investigating the impacts of stagnant algal depositions on the benthos may fail to address realistic situations and interactions which are common in well-flushed systems...
September 2018: Harmful Algae
Hee Chang Kang, Hae Jin Jeong, Kim So Jin, Ji Hyun You, Jin Hee Ok
The genus Alexandrium often forms harmful algal blooms causing human illness and large-scale mortality of fish and shellfish. Thus, Alexandrium bloom dynamics are primary concerns for scientists, government officials, aquaculture farmers, and the public. To understand bloom dynamics, mortality due to predation needs to be assessed; however, interactions between many Alexandrium species and their potential predators have not previously been reported. Thus, feeding by five common heterotrophic dinoflagellates (Oxyrrhis marina, Gyrodinium dominans, Polykrikos kofoidii, Pfiesteria piscicida, and Oblea rotunda) and a naked ciliate (Strombidinopsis sp...
September 2018: Harmful Algae
S F Colborne, T J Maguire, B Mayer, M Nightingale, G E Enns, A T Fisk, K G Drouillard, M N Mohamed, C G Weisener, C Wellen, S O C Mundle
Eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems and harmful algal blooms (HABs) are an ongoing concern affecting water quality in the Great Lakes watershed of North America. Despite binational management efforts, Lake Erie has been at the center of dissolved reactive phosphate driven eutrophication research due to its repeated cycles of algae blooms. We investigated the Detroit River, the largest source of water entering Lake Erie, with the objectives to (1) characterize Detroit River phosphate levels within water and sediment, and (2) use multiple chemical and isotopic tracers to identify nutrient sources in the Detroit River...
January 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Lixiao Ni, Shiyi Rong, Guoxiu Gu, Lingling Hu, Peifang Wang, Danye Li, Feifei Yue, Na Wang, Hanqi Wu, Shiyin Li
Environment-friendly algaecides based on allelopathy have been extensively studied to control harmful algal blooms (HABs). The inhibitory effects of linoleic acid (LA) sustained-release microspheres on different cell densities of Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) at different growth phases were studied. The results showed that the growth of M. aeruginosa could be inhibited within 4 days and the constant inhibitory rate with initial algal density of 8 × 105  cells∙mL-1 (exponential phase) was up to 96% compared with control...
December 2018: Chemosphere
Jaejung Kim, Xiao Mei Lyu, Jaslyn Jie Lin Lee, Guili Zhao, Seow Fong Chin, Liang Yang, Wei Ning Chen
Utilization of algicidal bacteria as a biological agent have been receiving significant interest for controlling harmful algal blooms. While various algicidal bacterial strains have been identified, limited studies have explored the influence of bacterial culture conditions on its algicidal activity. Here, the effect of oxygen on the algicidal activity of a novel bacterium JK12, against a model diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum (P. tricornutum) was studied. Strain JK12 showed high algicidal activity against P...
August 20, 2018: AMB Express
Zuomin Wang, Yuji Sakuno, Kazuhiko Koike, Shizuka Ohara
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) occur frequently in the Seto Inland Sea, bringing significant economic and environmental losses for the area, which is well known as one of the world's most productive fisheries. Our objective was to develop a quantitative model using in situ hyperspectral measurements in the Seto Inland Sea to estimate chlorophyll a (Chl- a ) concentration, which is a significant parameter for detecting HABs. We obtained spectra and Chl- a data at six stations from 12 ship-based surveys between December 2015 and September 2017...
August 13, 2018: Sensors
J Naouli, R Abouabdellah, A Bennouna, A Laissaoui, P W Swarzenski, H Ait Bouh, A Mesfioui, M-S Benbrahim, M-Y Dechraoui Bottein
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) events occur regularly along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coast of Morocco, and have been responsible for several severe cases of human intoxication. Along the southern Atlantic coast of Morocco, aquaculture and intensive artisanal fishing practices have recently been particularly heavily impacted, and toxic species have been observed in increasing intensity and frequency. In the 1990's a regulatory monitoring program was established for the coastal waters off Morocco by the National Institute of Fisheries Research (INRH), to reduce the risk of intoxication with biotoxins...
December 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Alexis D Fischer, Michael L Brosnahan, Donald M Anderson
Many dinoflagellate cysts experience dormancy, a reversible state that prevents germination during unfavorable periods. Several of these species also cause harmful algal blooms (HABs), so a quantitative understanding of dormancy cycling is desired for better prediction and mitigation of bloom impacts. This study examines the effect of cold exposure on the duration of dormancy in Alexandrium catenella, a HAB dinoflagellate that causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Mature, dormant cysts from Nauset Marsh (Cape Cod, MA USA) were stored at low but above freezing temperatures for up to six months...
November 2018: Protist
Ke Chen, Joel Allen, Jingrang Lu
The community structures of phytoplankton are important factors and indicators of lake water quality. Harmful algal blooms severely impact water supply, recreational activities and wildlife habitat. This study aimed to examine the phytoplankton composition and variations using microscopy, and identify harmful Cyanobacteria in weekly samples taken from four sites at Harsha Lake in southwest Ohio. Over the course of the summer in 2015, the phytoplankton of Harsha Lake consisted mainly of 13 taxa belonging to Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta, Cryptophyta, Cyanobacteria, Dinophyta and Euglenophyta...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Water Resource and Protection
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