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bloom algal

Edward S Hems, Ben A Wagstaff, Gerhard Saalbach, Robert A Field
In the context of discovering and quantifying terminal alkyne-based natural products, here we report the combination of CuAAC click chemistry with LC-MS for the detection of polyether toxins (prymnesins) associated with harmful algal blooms. The added-value of the CuAAC-based approach is evident from our ability to detect novel prymnesin-like compounds in algal species with previously uncharacterised toxins.
October 12, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Song Jin, Yongxue Liu, Chao Sun, Xianglin Wei, Huiting Li, Zhen Han
Macroalgal blooms of U. prolifera in the southern Yellow Sea (SYS) have become an ecological disaster. In this study, we attempt to explore the influence of environmental factors and human activity on the annual development of U. prolifera during 2011-2016, combining geostationary ocean color imager images and monitored environmental factors. Blooms of U. prolifera were mainly distributed in the central SYS, drifting from the southern Yellow Sea Radial Sand Ridges. Three growth phases were defined (initial phase, outbreak phase and dissipation phase) to facilitate analysis of the relationship between the environmental factors and growth conditions of U...
October 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Agata Anna Mystkowska, Craig Robb, Silvia Vidal-Melgosa, Chiara Vanni, Antonio Fernandez-Guerra, Matthias Höhne, Jan-Hendrik Hehemann
Marine bacteria catabolize carbohydrate polymers of algae, which synthesize these structurally diverse molecules in ocean surface waters. Although algal glycans are an abundant carbon and energy source in the ocean, the molecular details that enable specific recognition between algal glycans and bacterial degraders remain largely unknown. Here we characterized a surface protein, GMSusD from the planktonic Bacteroidetes-Gramella sp. MAR_2010_102 that thrives during algal blooms. Our biochemical and structural analyses show that GMSusD binds glucose polysaccharides such as branched laminarin and linear pustulan...
October 9, 2018: FEBS Journal
Mia Terashima, Keisuke Ohashi, Taichi E Takasuka, Hisaya Kojima, Manabu Fukui
Hymenobacter nivis P3T is a heterotrophic bacterium isolated from Antarctic red snow generated by algal blooms. Despite being non-photosynthetic, H. nivis was dominantly found in the red snow environment that is exposed to high light and UV irradiation, suggesting that this species can flourish under such harsh conditions. In order to further understand the adaptive strategies on the snow surface environment of Antarctica, the genome of H. nivis P3T was sequenced and analyzed, which identified genes putatively encoding for light-reactive proteins such as proteorhodopsin, phytochrome, photolyase and several copies of cryptochromes...
October 9, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
Xiaolin Huang, Han Chen, Fang Xia, Zhenfeng Wang, Kun Mei, Xu Shang, Yuanyuan Liu, Randy A Dahlgren, Minghua Zhang, Hong Huang
Source water nutrient management to prevent eutrophication requires critical strategies to reduce watershed phosphorus (P) loadings. Shanxi Drinking-Water Source Area (SDWSA) in eastern China experienced severe water quality deterioration before 2010, but showed considerable improvement following application of several watershed management actions to reduce P. This paper assessed the changes in total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and fluxes at the SDWSA outlet relative to watershed anthropogenic P sources during 2005⁻2016...
October 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
M Azevedo-Linhares, A T C Souza, C A Lenz, N Ferreira Leite, I A Brito, N M T Folle, J E Garcia, F Filipak Neto, C A Oliveira Ribeiro
The recent increase of freshwater eutrophication has favored cyanobacteria blooms and consequently the increase of toxins such as microcystin-LR in aquatic environments, but few is know about the associated effect of toxin and other compounds. Pyriproxyfen is an insecticide indicated by WHO (World Health Organization) to control Aedes aegypti mosquito (vector of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika diseases), however, the effects are not well described to non-target species, such as fish. The early life stages (ELS) of fish are more sensitive to chemical stress due to higher metabolic rate, immature immune system and high superficial area/volume ratio...
September 29, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
John K Brunson, Shaun M K McKinnie, Jonathan R Chekan, John P McCrow, Zachary D Miles, Erin M Bertrand, Vincent A Bielinski, Hanna Luhavaya, Miroslav Oborník, G Jason Smith, David A Hutchins, Andrew E Allen, Bradley S Moore
Oceanic harmful algal blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia diatoms produce the potent mammalian neurotoxin domoic acid (DA). Despite decades of research, the molecular basis for its biosynthesis is not known. By using growth conditions known to induce DA production in Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries , we implemented transcriptome sequencing in order to identify DA biosynthesis genes that colocalize in a genomic four-gene cluster. We biochemically investigated the recombinant DA biosynthetic enzymes and linked their mechanisms to the construction of DA's diagnostic pyrrolidine skeleton, establishing a model for DA biosynthesis...
September 28, 2018: Science
Shane A White, Isaac R Santos, Samantha Hessey
Nitrogen runoff from fertiliser intensive land uses has become an issue worldwide, contributing to algal blooms, hypoxic waters and aquatic biodiversity losses. This study assessed potential nutrient pollution from blueberry farms in subtropical Australia and examines whether nutrient loads were driven by groundwater discharge and/or surface water runoff. Streams downstream of eight blueberry farms were compared to eight nearby control sites without any blueberry activity. In the 90 day sample period, there were three rain events >90 mm day-1 that produced runoff sufficient to create flooding...
September 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Hye-Suk Yi, Sangyoung Park, Kwang-Guk An, Keun-Chang Kwak
In this study, we design an intelligent model to predict chlorophyll-a concentration, which is the primary indicator of algal blooms, using extreme learning machine (ELM) models. Modeling algal blooms is important for environmental management and ecological risk assessment. For this purpose, the performance of the designed models was evaluated for four artificial weirs in the Nakdong River, Korea. The Nakdong River has harmful annual algal blooms that can affect health due to exposure to toxins. In contrast to conventional neural network (NN) that use backpropagation (BP) learning methods, ELMs are fast learning, feedforward neural networks that use least square estimates (LSE) for regression...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ahmed A Al-Taani, Nazem M El-Radaideh, Wesam M Al Khateeb, Abeer Al Bsoul
Jordan relies heavily on reservoirs building and development to cope with water supply challenges, where monitoring and assessment of reservoir water quality are critically important for the sustainable use of these water supplies. Mujib Dam is an important water supply source in central western Jordan. Evaluation of water quality parameters and their spatial distributions (vertical and horizontal) showed near-neutral pH values with nearly similar values from surface to bottom. The vertical profile of DO and TDS in the dammed reservoir showed slight decreasing trends with increasing depth...
September 22, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Martha Sutula, Raphael Kudela, James D Hagy, Lawrence W Harding, David Senn, James E Cloern, Suzanne Bricker, Gry Mine Berg, Marcus Beck
San Francisco Bay (SFB), USA, is highly enriched in nitrogen and phosphorus, but has been resistant to the classic symptoms of eutrophication associated with over-production of phytoplankton. Observations in recent years suggest that this resistance may be weakening, shown by: significant increases of chlorophyll- a ( chl-a ) and decreases of dissolved oxygen (DO), common occurrences of phytoplankton taxa that can form Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB), and algal toxins in water and mussels reaching levels of concern...
October 15, 2017: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science
Soyoun Ahn, Armando Alcazar Magaña, Connie Bozarth, Jonathan Shepardson, Jeffery Morré, Theo Dreher, Claudia S Maier
The occurrence of harmful algal blooms in nutrient-rich freshwater bodies has increased world-wide, including in the Pacific Northwest. Some cyanobacterial genera have the potential to produce secondary metabolites that are highly toxic to humans, livestock and wildlife. Reliable methods for the detection of cyanobacterial toxins with high specificity and low limits of detection are in high demand. Here we test a relatively new hybrid high resolution accurate mass quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry platform (TripleTOF) for the analysis of cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater samples...
2018: Journal of the Mexican Chemical Society
Sarah R Bickman, Katrina Campbell, Christopher Elliott, Caroline Murphy, Richard O'Kennedy, Philip Papst, Michael J Lochhead
Harmful algal blooms in freshwater systems are increasingly common and present threats to drinking water systems, recreational waters, and ecosystems. A highly innovative simple to use, portable biosensor system (MBio) for the rapid and simultaneous detection of multiple cyanobacterial toxins in freshwater is demonstrated. The system utilizes a novel planar waveguide optical sensor that delivers quantitative fluorescent competitive immunoassay results in a disposable cartridge. Data are presented for the world's first duplex microcystin (MC)/cylindrospermopsin (CYN) assay cartridge using a combination of fluorophore-conjugated monoclonal antibodies as detector molecules...
September 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Devin Gill, Mark Rowe, Sonia Joseph Joshi
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose public health risks worldwide, because of the toxins that they can produce. Researchers have explored the impact of HABs on local economies, but know relatively little about the decision-making that informs these behaviors that lead to financial losses. Understanding the factors that inform this decision-making is critical to developing mitigative solutions. This study seeks to understand how HABs in Western Lake Erie affect angler decision-making, before evaluating a possible decision-support tool-a harmful algal bloom forecast known as the Experimental Lake Erie HAB Tracker...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Carolin Peter, Bernd Krock, Allan Cembella
The marine dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedra is a toxigenic species capable of forming high magnitude and occasionally harmful algal blooms (HABs), particularly in temperate coastal waters throughout the world. Three cultured isolates of L. polyedra from a fjord system on the Skagerrak coast of Sweden were analyzed for their growth characteristics and to determine the effects of a strong salinity gradient on toxin cell quotas and composition. The cell quota of yessotoxin (YTX) analogs, as determined by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), ranged widely among strains...
September 2018: Harmful Algae
Qing-Chun Zhang, Ren-Cheng Yu, Zhen-Fan Chen, Li-Mei Qiu, Yun-Feng Wang, Fan-Zhou Kong, Hui-Xia Geng, Yue Zhao, Peng Jiang, Tian Yan, Ming-Jiang Zhou
Recurrent green tides have been recorded in the Yellow Sea for 11 consecutive years. The origin of floating green algae in the Yellow Sea, however, remains a subject of debate. Previous studies suggest that the major bloom-forming green alga Ulva prolifera represent a unique ecotype different from other attached populations of U. prolifera in China. In this study, 97 green algal samples collected during the 2012 green-tide event and from other locations along the coastline of China were analyzed. Based on the sequences of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and 5S rDNA spacer region, the green alga U...
September 2018: Harmful Algae
Hwa Lin Yong, Nurin Izzati Mustapa, Li Keat Lee, Zhen Fei Lim, Toh Hii Tan, Gires Usup, Haifeng Gu, R Wayne Litaker, Patricia A Tester, Po Teen Lim, Chui Pin Leaw
Few studies have investigated the effect of fine-scale habitat differences on the dynamics of benthic harmful dinoflagellate assemblages. To determine how these microhabitat differences affect the distribution and abundance of the major benthic harmful dinoflagellate genera in a tropical coral reef ecosystem, a field study was undertaken between April-September 2015 and January 2016 on the shallow reef flat of the fringing reef of Rawa Island, Terengganu, Malaysia. Sampling of benthic dinoflagellates was carried out using an artificial substrate sampling method (fiberglass screens)...
September 2018: Harmful Algae
Marianna Lanari, Margareth S Copertino, Leonir A Colling, Fábio C Bom
Macroalgal blooms can trigger adverse biogeochemical conditions at the sediment-water interface of shallow coastal areas, hence threatening critical habitats such as seagrasses meadows. The direction and magnitude of macroalgal blooms impacts on the aquatic ecosystem can be context-dependent, varying according to the local hydrodynamic conditions. Thus, studies investigating the impacts of stagnant algal depositions on the benthos may fail to address realistic situations and interactions which are common in well-flushed systems...
September 2018: Harmful Algae
Kathryn L Van Alstyne
Ulva lactuca and Ulvaria obscura are seaweeds that form green tides on Salish Sea shores. They have similar macroscopic morphologies but differ in their biochemistries and physiological responses. To understand how they are affected by changes in environmental conditions, a factorial experiment was conducted in which algae were grown in artificial seawater with either low (10 μM) or high (160 μM) nitrate (NO3 - ) concentrations at high (29 mol photons·m-2. day-1 ) and low (4 mol photons·m-2. day-1 ) light levels...
September 2018: Harmful Algae
Hee Chang Kang, Hae Jin Jeong, Kim So Jin, Ji Hyun You, Jin Hee Ok
The genus Alexandrium often forms harmful algal blooms causing human illness and large-scale mortality of fish and shellfish. Thus, Alexandrium bloom dynamics are primary concerns for scientists, government officials, aquaculture farmers, and the public. To understand bloom dynamics, mortality due to predation needs to be assessed; however, interactions between many Alexandrium species and their potential predators have not previously been reported. Thus, feeding by five common heterotrophic dinoflagellates (Oxyrrhis marina, Gyrodinium dominans, Polykrikos kofoidii, Pfiesteria piscicida, and Oblea rotunda) and a naked ciliate (Strombidinopsis sp...
September 2018: Harmful Algae
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