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Basal metabolic rate in obesity

Edoardo Vitolo, Eleonora Santini, Antonio Salvati, Duccio Volterrani, Valerio Duce, Rosa Maria Bruno, Anna Solini
OBJECTIVE: Renal function is often compromised in severe obesity. A true measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is unusual, and how estimation formulae (EstForm) perform in such individuals is unclear. We characterized renal function and hemodynamics in severely obese individuals, assessing the reliability of EstForm. METHODS: We measured GFR (mGFR) by iohexol plasma clearance, renal plasma flow (RPF) by 123I-ortho-iodo-hippurate, basal and stimulated vascular renal indices, endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) as well as metabolic and hormonal profile in morbid, otherwise healthy, obese subjects...
October 5, 2016: Obesity Facts
Zulaykho Shamansurova, Paul Tan, Basma Ahmed, Emilie Pepin, Ondrej Seda, Julie L Lavoie
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. METHODS: An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
S Lazzer, G Tringali, M Caccavale, R De Micheli, L Abbruzzese, A Sartorio
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a 3-week weight-management program entailing moderate energy restriction, nutritional education, psychological counseling and three different exercise training (a: low intensity, LI: 40 % V'O2max; b: high intensity, HI: 70 % V'O2max; c: high-intensity interval training, HIIT), on body composition, energy expenditure and fat oxidation rate in obese adolescents. METHODS: Thirty obese adolescents (age: 15-17 years, BMI: 37...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Hoi Lun Cheng, Mazen Amatoury, Katharine Steinbeck
BACKGROUND: Puberty is a time of rapid growth and changing energy requirements and is a risk period for obesity. There is little high-quality evidence on the pubertal alterations of energy expenditure and intake, and this has limited our understanding of energy balance during this important life stage. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to summarize existing evidence on pubertal energy expenditure and intake in healthy nonobese adolescents. DESIGN: Studies were identified through CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases up to August 2015...
October 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Gisele Almeida Batista, Aglécio Luiz de Souza, Daniela Miguel Marin, Marina Sider, Vaneska Carvalho Melhado, Arlete Maria Fernandes, Sarah Monte Alegre
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate for 12 months the changes of body weight using Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (DMPA) and if these changes are related to inflammatory markers. Subjects and methods: Twenty women of childbearing age who chose the DMPA, without previous use of this method, BMI < 30 kg/m2, and 17 women using IUD TCu 380A, participated in the study. At the baseline and after one year, changes in weight gain, body composition by the bioimpedance electric method, resting energy expenditure (REE) by the indirect calorimetry method, inflammatory markers and HOMA-IR were assessed...
September 5, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Bettina Mittendorfer, Mihoko Yoshino, Bruce W Patterson, Samuel Klein
CONTEXT: High plasma VLDL-triglyceride (TG) concentration and alterations in VLDL-TG metabolism are associated with cardiometabolic disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the inter-relationships among factors purported to regulate VLDL-TG metabolism in a large cohort of men and women with a wide range in body adiposity and fat distribution but without diabetes. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: We assessed body composition and fat distribution, plasma insulin concentration, free fatty acid (FFA) availability, and basal VLDL-TG and VLDL-apoB-100 (VLDL particle number) kinetics in 233 lean, overweight and obese men and women...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Stefan G Camps, Nan Xin Wang, Wei Shuan Kimberly Tan, C Jeyakumar Henry
BACKGROUND: Measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) is suggested as a tool to estimate energy requirements. Therefore, BMR prediction equations have been developed in multiple populations because indirect calorimetry is not always feasible. However, there is a paucity of data on BMR measured in overweight and obese adults living in Asia and equations developed for this group of interest. The aim of this study was to develop a new BMR prediction equation for Chinese adults applicable for a large BMI range and compare it with commonly used prediction equations...
2016: Nutrition Journal
Mohamed H Al-Thani, Heba S Nasser, Suzan Sayegh, Alexandra Haddad, Eman Sadoun
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major global health problem. The present study examines the relationship between the metabolic, anthropometric and Finnish risk score (FINDRISC) among normal and pre-diabetic adults. Subjects (n = 1319, aged above 18 years) from the Qatari population were classified into two groups based on their hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurements (non-diabetic A1c<5.6% and pre-diabetic 5.6% ≤ A1c ≤ 6.4%) were examined for their anthropometric (height, weight and waist circumference), metabolic [fat, fat free mass (FFM), muscle mass (MM), total body water (TBW), bone mass, degree of obesity, basal metabolic rate (BMR), body mass index (BMI), metabolic age, visceral fat rating, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (Total-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), fasting / random plasma glucose (FPG / RPG), HbA1c and vitamin D (VitD)] and FINDRISC...
2016: Global Journal of Health Science
Radiša Prodanović, Goran Korićanac, Ivan Vujanac, Ana Djordjević, Marija Pantelić, Snježana Romić, Zoran Stanimirović, Danijela Kirovski
We investigated the hypothesis that obesity in dairy cows enhanced expression of proteins involved in hepatic fatty acid uptake and metabolism. Sixteen Holstein-Friesian close-up cows were divided into 2 equal groups based on their body condition score (BCS) as optimal (3.25≤BCS≤3.5) and high (4.0≤BCS≤4.25). Intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT) and liver biopsies were carried out at day 10 before calving. Blood samples were collected before (basal) and after glucose infusion, and glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels were determined at each sample point...
August 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
H-J Goh, P Govindharajulu, S G Camps, S-Y Tan, C J Henry
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is on the rise and participation in exercise has declined. Domestic household activities may help meet the recommended daily physical activity levels. This study aimed to measure the energy costs of household activities among Asian males. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This was a randomised cross-over study conducted in a whole-body calorimeter. The energy costs of 14 domestic household activities, divided into two studies, were measured in 10 healthy Asian males...
July 27, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Claudiu Mărginean, Cristina Oana Mărginean, Claudia Bănescu, Lorena Meliţ, Florin Tripon, Mihaela Iancu
The present study had 2 objectives, first, to investigate possible relationships between increased gestational weight gain and demographic, clinical, paraclinical, genetic, and bioimpedance (BIA) characteristics of Romanian mothers, and second, to identify the influence of predictors (maternal and newborns characteristics) on our outcome birth weight (BW).We performed a cross-sectional study on 309 mothers and 309 newborns from Romania, divided into 2 groups: Group I-141 mothers with high gestational weight gain (GWG) and Group II-168 mothers with normal GWG, that is, control group...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Caroline McG Argo
Leisure animals now comprise the majority of working horses in industrialized nations; a shift that has decreased workloads yet improved veterinary care and lifetime health. Although many horses now progress well into their 20s without any requirement for dietary modification, age-related changes are insidious, and older animals benefit from regular veterinary monitoring to identify, address, and ameliorate the inevitable onset of age-related "disease." Basal metabolic rate decreases with age; older animals expend less energy on controlled exercise, and there can be an increased propensity toward the development of obesity, which needs to be recognized and managed...
August 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Ihsan Cetin, Mahmut Tahir Nalbantcilar, Kezban Tosun, Aydan Nazik
Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI)...
June 17, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Alexandra Pánková
Incretine-based therapies are frequently used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes. Some of these drugs are used to induce weight loss. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, was recently approved for the treatment of obesity. Smoking cessation is associated with weight gain. The mechanism responsible for the increase in body weight post cessation remains unclear. While increased caloric intake may play a role, weight gain may also be linked to nicotine, which has been shown to stimulate smokers basal metabolic rate...
2016: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
Ann Mosegaard Bak, Andreas Buch Møller, Mikkel Holm Vendelbo, Thomas Svava Nielsen, Rikke Viggers, Jørgen Rungby, Steen Bønløkke Pedersen, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen, Niels Jessen, Niels Møller
Increased availability of lipids may conserve muscle protein during catabolic stress. Our study was designed to define 1) intracellular mechanisms leading to increased lipolysis and 2) whether this scenario is associated with decreased amino acid and urea fluxes, and decreased muscle amino acid release in obese subjects under basal and fasting conditions. We therefore studied nine lean and nine obese subjects twice, after 12 and 72 h of fasting, using measurements of mRNA and protein expression and phosphorylation of lipolytic and protein metabolic signaling molecules in fat and muscle together with whole body and forearm tracer techniques...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sudhir Chandra Sarangi, Manjari Tripathi, Ashish Kumar Kakkar, Yogendra Kumar Gupta
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as valproic acid (VPA) are known to affect body weight, and lipid profile. However, evidences regarding effects of AEDs on the body composition are deficient. This cross-sectional study compared the body composition and lipid profile among patients with epilepsy on newer and conventional AEDs. METHODS: The patients with epilepsy (n=109) on treatment with conventional and newer AEDs (levetiracetam, lamotrigine and clobazam) for > 6 months were enrolled...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Scott M Chadderdon, J Todd Belcik, Lindsay Bader, Dawn M Peters, Paul Kievit, Nabil J Alkayed, Sanjiv Kaul, Kevin L Grove, Jonathan R Lindner
The inability of insulin to increase skeletal muscle capillary blood volume (CBV) reduces glucose uptake in insulin resistance (IR). We hypothesized that abnormalities in endothelial-derived vasodilator pathways are temporally associated with the development of IR and an impaired ability to increase skeletal muscle CBV. A comprehensive metabolic and vascular screening assessment was performed on 10 adult rhesus macaques at baseline and every 4-6 months for 2 years after starting a high-fat diet supplemented with fructose...
August 2016: Diabetes
Allyson L Toro, Nicholas S Costantino, Craig D Shriver, Darrell L Ellsworth, Rachel E Ellsworth
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women and is associated with decreased survival and less favorable clinical characteristics such as greater tumor burden, higher grade, and poor prognosis, regardless of menopausal status. Despite the negative impact of obesity on clinical outcome, molecular mechanisms through which excess adiposity influences breast cancer etiology are not well-defined. METHODS: Affymetrix U133 2.0 gene expression data were generated for 405 primary breast tumors using RNA isolated from laser microdissected tissues...
2016: BMC Obesity
Paweł Brzęk, Andrzej K Gębczyński, Aneta Książek, Marek Konarzewski
Spontaneous physical activity (SPA) represents an important component of daily energy expenditures in animals and humans. Intra-specific variation in SPA may be related to the susceptibility to metabolic disease or obesity. In particular, reduced SPA under conditions of limited food availability may conserve energy and prevent loss of body and fat mass ('thrifty genotype hypothesis'). However, both SPA and its changes during food restriction show wide inter-individual variations. We studied the effect of 30% caloric restriction (CR) on SPA in laboratory mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low (L-BMR) basal metabolic rate...
July 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Marius R Robciuc, Riikka Kivelä, Ian M Williams, Jan Freark de Boer, Theo H van Dijk, Harri Elamaa, Feven Tigistu-Sahle, Dmitry Molotkov, Veli-Matti Leppänen, Reijo Käkelä, Lauri Eklund, David H Wasserman, Albert K Groen, Kari Alitalo
Impaired angiogenesis has been implicated in adipose tissue dysfunction and the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Here, we report the unexpected finding that vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB) gene transduction into mice inhibits obesity-associated inflammation and improves metabolic health without changes in body weight or ectopic lipid deposition. Mechanistically, the binding of VEGFB to VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1, also known as Flt1) activated the VEGF/VEGFR2 pathway and increased capillary density, tissue perfusion, and insulin supply, signaling, and function in adipose tissue...
April 12, 2016: Cell Metabolism
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