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Basal metabolic rate in obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142243/genetic-risk-scores-for-body-fat-distribution-attenuate-weight-loss-in-women-during-dietary-intervention
#1
M Svendstrup, K H Allin, T I A Sørensen, T H Hansen, N Grarup, T Hansen, H Vestergaard
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The well-established link between body fat distribution and metabolic health has been suggested to act through an impact on the remodeling capacity of the adipose tissue. Remodeling of the adipose tissue has been shown to affect body fat distribution and might affect the ability to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI)...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063066/stroke-screening-and-health-related-physical-fitness-testing-in-medical-staff-members-in-urumqi-china
#2
Yu-Shan Wang, Bo Liu, Yan Jiang, Zhong-Hua Liu, Hua Yao
OBJECTIVE: Stroke is the leading cause of death and disability, and is closely related to a lack of exercise. Currently, most Chinese medical staff members lack exercise and may be at risk for stroke. We sought to determine the risk factors for stroke and study the significance of health-related physical fitness testing in stroke prevention among Chinese medical staff members. METHODS: A total of 627 subjects from Urumqi, Xinjiang, China, were included in the study and a survey was conducted from 1st January 2016 to 1st February 2016...
June 25, 2017: Chronic Dis Transl Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965207/phoenixin-14-detection-and-novel-physiological-implications-in-cardiac-modulation-and-cardioprotection
#3
C Rocca, F Scavello, M C Granieri, T Pasqua, N Amodio, S Imbrogno, A Gattuso, R Mazza, Maria Carmela Cerra, Tommaso Angelone
Phoenixin-14 (PNX) is a newly identified peptide co-expressed in the hypothalamus with the anorexic and cardioactive Nesfatin-1. Like Nesfatin-1, PNX is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and this suggests a role in peripheral modulation. Preliminary mass spectrography data indicate that, in addition to the hypothalamus, PNX is present in the mammalian heart. This study aimed to quantify PNX expression in the rat heart, and to evaluate whether the peptide influences the myocardial function under basal condition and in the presence of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)...
September 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941386/trp64arg-polymorphism-of-the-adrb3-gene-associated-with-maximal-fat-oxidation-and-ldl-c-levels-in-non-obese-adolescents
#4
Íncare Correa de Jesus, Lupe Furtado Alle, Eva Cantalejo Munhoz, Larissa Rosa da Silva, Wendell Arthur Lopes, Luciane Viater Tureck, Katia Sheylla Malta Purim, Ana Claudia Kapp Titski, Neiva Leite
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 gene, maximal fat oxidation rates and the lipid profile levels in non-obese adolescents. METHODS: 72 schoolchildren, of both genders, aged between 11 and 17 years, participated in the study. The anthropometric and body composition variables, in addition to total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides, insulin, and basal glycemia, were evaluated. The sample was divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of the polymorphism: non-carriers of the Arg64 allele, i...
September 21, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926107/fenofibrate-reverses-changes-induced-by-high-fat-diet-on-metabolism-in-mice-muscle-and-visceral-adipocytes
#5
Flávia de Toledo Frias, Karina Cunha E Rocha, Mariana de Mendonça, Gilson Massahiro Murata, Hygor Nunes Araujo, Luís Gustavo Oliveira de Sousa, Érica de Souza, Sandro Massao Hirabara, Nayara de Carvalho Leite, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, Rui Curi, Leonardo Reis Silveira, Alice Cristina Rodrigues
The effect of fenofibrate on the metabolism of skeletal muscle and visceral white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice was investigated. C57BL/6J male mice were fed either a control or high-fat diet for eight weeks. Fenofibrate (50 mg/Kg b.w., daily) was administered by oral gavage during the last two weeks of the experimental period. Insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in soleus muscles, glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, indirect calorimetry, lipolysis of visceral white adipose tissue, expression of miR-103-3p in adipose tissue and miR-1a, miR-133a/b, miR-206, let7b-5p, miR-23b-3p, miR-29-3p, miR-143-3p in soleus muscle, genes related to glucose and fatty acid metabolism in adipose tissue and soleus muscle, and proteins (phospho-AMPKα2, Pgc1α, Cpt1b), intramuscular lipid staining, and activities of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in skeletal muscle were investigated...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911136/protein-rich-food-ingestion-stimulates-mitochondrial-protein-synthesis-in-sedentary-young-adults-of-different-bmis
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Joseph W Beals, Richard W A Mackenzie, Stephan van Vliet, Sarah K Skinner, Brandon A Pagni, Grace M Niemiro, Alexander V Ulanov, Zhong Li, Anna C Dilger, Scott A Paluska, Michael De Lisio, Nicholas A Burd
Context: Excess fat mass may diminish the anabolic potency of protein-rich food ingestion to stimulate muscle protein subfractional synthetic responses. However, the impact of adiposity on mitochondrial protein synthesis (MPS) rates after protein-rich food ingestion has not been thoroughly examined in vivo in humans. Objective: We compared basal and postprandial MPS and markers of muscle inflammation [toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) protein content] in young adults with different body mass indices (BMIs)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864949/skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-mass-is-linked-to-lipid-and-metabolic-profile-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Laura C O'Brien, Qun Chen, Jeannie Savas, Edward J Lesnefsky, Ashraf S Gorgey
PURPOSE: Changes in metabolism and body composition after spinal cord injury (SCI) predispose individuals to obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. A link between lean mass and skeletal muscle mitochondrial mass has been reported but it is unknown how skeletal muscle mitochondrial mass and activity impact metabolic health. This study examined the relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial mass, activity and metabolic profile in individuals with chronic SCI. METHODS: Twenty-two men with motor complete SCI participated in the study...
November 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774778/frontiers-in-endocrine-disruption-impacts-of-organotin-on-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis
#8
REVIEW
Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Marcelle Novaes Andrade, Paula Pereira-Rodrigues, Francisca Diana Paiva-Melo, Paula Soares, Jones Bernardes Graceli, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock Dias, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Leandro Miranda-Alves
Endocrine disruptors (EDs), chemical substances widely used in industry and ubiquitously distributed in the environment, are able to interfere with the synthesis, release, transport, metabolism, receptor binding, action, or elimination of endogenous hormones. EDs affect homeostasis mainly by acting on nuclear and nonnuclear steroid receptors but also on serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and orphan receptors in addition to thyroid hormone receptors. Tributyltin (TBT), an ED widely used as a pesticide and biocide in antifouling paints, has well-documented actions that include inhibiting aromatase and affecting the nuclear receptors PPARγ and RXR...
July 31, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760427/anthropometric-and-lipid-profile-of-individuals-with-severe-obesity-carrying-the-fatty-acid-binding-protein-2-thr54-allele
#9
Natalia Luiza Kops, Jaqueline D Correia Horvath, Mariana L Dias de Castro, Rogério Friedman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric and lipid profiles of individuals being considered for bariatric surgery, taking into account the presence of the Thr54 allele of the fatty acid-binding protein-2 (FABP-2) gene (rs1799883), and dietary intake. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 120 participants being evaluated for bariatric surgery were asked to keep 24-h dietary records (R24 h) for 3 d, and to collect a 24-h urine sample for measurement of urea (as an assessment of the adequacy of food records) during day 3 of the diet record; a fasting blood sample for laboratory and genetic evaluations was collected...
September 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745334/evaluation-of-the-wrist-worn-actigraph-wgt3x-bt-for-estimating-activity-energy-expenditure-in-preschool-children
#10
C Delisle Nyström, J Pomeroy, P Henriksson, E Forsum, F B Ortega, R Maddison, J H Migueles, M Löf
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess free-living activity energy expenditure (AEE) in preschool children are required. The aims of this study in healthy preschool children were to (a) evaluate the ability of the wrist-worn ActiGraph wGT3x-BT to predict free-living AEE and (b) assess wear compliance using a 7-day, 24-h protocol. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were 40 Swedish children (5.5±0.2 years) in the Mobile-based intervention intended to stop obesity in preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial...
October 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722271/beyond-glycemic-control-a-cross-over-double-blind-24-week-intervention-with-liraglutide-in-type-1-diabetes
#11
M-C Dubé, M D'Amours, S J Weisnagel
AIMS: To investigate the effects of 24 weeks of treatment with liraglutide added to basal/bolus insulin on anthropometric and metabolic parameters in overweight participants with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a double-blind cross-over fashion, 15 participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive placebo (saline solution) or liraglutide for 24 weeks including a one-month titration period from 0.6 mg to 1.2 mg to 1.8 mg, in addition to their insulin. The treatment was followed by a 1 month wash-out period...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711354/the-roles-of-metabolic-thermogenesis-in-body-fat-regulation-in-striped-hamsters-fed-high-fat-diet-at-different-temperatures
#12
Lu-Lu Shi, Wei-Jia Fan, Ji-Ying Zhang, Xiao-Ya Zhao, Song Tan, Jing Wen, Jing Cao, Xue-Ying Zhang, Qing-Sheng Chi, De-Hua Wang, Zhi-Jun Zhao
The metabolic thermogenesis plays important roles in thermoregulation, and it may be also involved in body fat regulation. The thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is largely affected by ambient temperature, but it is unclear if the roles in body fat regulation are dependent on the temperature. In the present study, uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1)-based BAT thermogenesis, energy budget and body fat content were examined in the striped hamsters fed high fat diet (HF) at cold (5°C) and warm (30°C) temperatures...
July 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625550/maternal-exposure-to-western-diet-affects-adult-body-composition-and-voluntary-wheel-running-in-a-genotype-specific-manner-in-mice
#13
Layla Hiramatsu, Jarren C Kay, Zoe Thompson, Jennifer M Singleton, Gerald C Claghorn, Ralph L Albuquerque, Brittany Ho, Brett Ho, Gabriela Sanchez, Theodore Garland
Some human diseases, including obesity, Type II diabetes, and numerous cancers, are thought to be influenced by environments experienced in early life, including in utero. Maternal diet during the perinatal period may be especially important for adult offspring energy balance, potentially affecting both body composition and physical activity. This effect may be mediated by the genetic background of individuals, including, for example, potential "protective" mechanisms for individuals with inherently high levels of physical activity or high basal metabolic rates...
October 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571926/urinary-sodium-excretion-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#14
Neil G Docherty, Lars Fändriks, Carel W le Roux, Peter Hallersund, Malin Werling
BACKGROUND: Gut-kidney signaling is implicated in sodium homeostasis and thus blood pressure regulation. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery for morbid obesity confers a pronounced and long-lasting blood pressure lowering effect in addition to significant weight loss. OBJECTIVES: We set out to establish whether RYGB is associated with an intrinsic change in urinary sodium excretion that may contribute to the reported blood pressure lowering effects of the procedure...
September 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547916/non-shivering-thermogenesis-as-a-mechanism-to-facilitate-sustainable-weight-loss
#15
REVIEW
B F Palmer, D J Clegg
Currently, there is a significant percentage of the population who are or will be classified as obese, necessitating novel strategies to facilitate sustainable weight loss. Reductions in basal metabolic rate occur in the face of weight loss and pose formidable barriers to individuals attempting to sustain meaningful weight reductions. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which non-shivering thermogenesis may provide insight into metabolic pathways that can become druggable targets to facilitate sustainable weight loss...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541527/sleep-dependent-modulation-of-metabolic-rate-in-drosophila
#16
Bethany A Stahl, Melissa E Slocumb, Hersh Chaitin, Justin R DiAngelo, Alex C Keene
Study Objectives: Dysregulation of sleep is associated with metabolic diseases, and metabolic rate (MR) is acutely regulated by sleep-wake behavior. In humans and rodent models, sleep loss is associated with obesity, reduced metabolic rate, and negative energy balance, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms governing interactions between sleep and metabolism. Methods: We have developed a system to simultaneously measure sleep and MR in individual Drosophila, allowing for interrogation of neural systems governing interactions between sleep and metabolic rate...
August 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500825/which-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-should-be-screened-for-subclinical-cushing-s-syndrome
#17
Güven Barış Cansu, Sevgi Atılgan, Mustafa Kemal Balcı, Ramazan Sarı, Sebahat Özdem, Hasan Ali Altunbaş
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance are common in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS). In this study we investigated the incidence of subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) in type 2 diabetic patients with poor and good metabolic control and the relationship between blood glucose and cortisol levels. DESIGN: A total of 400 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (Group A, HbA1c ≥8%, n=250; Group B, HbA1c ≤6.5%, n=150) were included in the study...
January 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479016/the-impact-of-rate-of-weight-loss-on-body-composition-and-compensatory-mechanisms-during-weight-reduction-a-randomized-control-trial
#18
Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Emilie With, Jens F Rehfeld, Bård Kulseng, Helen Truby, Cátia Martins
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Rapid weight loss (WL) has been associated with a larger loss of fat free mass and a disproportional reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR), but the evidence is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the impact of WL rate on body composition and compensatory mechanisms activated with WL (reduced RMR, increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite), both during negative and neutral energy balance (EB). METHODS: Thirty-five participants with obesity were randomized to lose a similar weight rapidly (4 weeks) or gradually (8 weeks), and afterwards to maintain it (4 weeks)...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465607/methods-for-quantifying-adipose-tissue-insulin-resistance-in-overweight-obese-humans
#19
K W Ter Horst, K A van Galen, P W Gilijamse, A V Hartstra, P F de Groot, F M van der Valk, M T Ackermans, M Nieuwdorp, J A Romijn, M J Serlie
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance of adipose tissue is an important feature of obesity-related metabolic disease. However, assessment of lipolysis in humans requires labor-intensive and expensive methods, and there is limited validation of simplified measurement methods. We aimed to validate simplified methods for the quantification of adipose tissue insulin resistance against the assessment of insulin sensitivity of lipolysis suppression during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies...
August 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446382/compensatory-mechanisms-activated-with-intermittent-energy-restriction-a-randomized-control-trial
#20
Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Eline Holli Halset, Sigrid Gåsbakk, Jens F Rehfeld, Bård Kulseng, Helen Truby, Cátia Martins
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy restriction (IER), where short spells of energy restriction are interspaced by periods of habitual energy intake, may offer some protection in minimizing those responses. We aimed to compare the effect of IER versus CER on body composition and the compensatory responses induced by WL...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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