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Basal metabolic rate in obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762376/microbial-fermentation-of-starch-its-impact-on-the-range-of-acceptable-carbohydrate-intake
#1
Satish C Kalhan
Starch, a major source of carbohydrates in human nutrition, is extensively hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract of children and adults. A small fraction of the ingested starch reaches the cecum and colon where it is fermented by the gut microbiome into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and other products. Recent data in humans and in animal models have demonstrated the extensive effects of short-chain fatty acids on whole body energy metabolism, appetite, insulin resistance, fatty acid oxidation, fat accretion, obesity, and diabetes...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755224/no-differences-in-energy-cost-of-a-predetermined-exercise-among-young-overweight-obese-and-undernourished-individuals
#2
D V Muralidhara, Mohd Nasir Mat Nor, Ahmad L Zubaidi
Background: Physical activity is an integral part of one's daily life. Obese (Ob) and undernourished (UN) persons are known to underperform physically as compared to normal weight (N) individuals. In this study, we have measured the energy spent to perform a prefixed exercise on treadmill walking and basal heart rate and blood pressure. Body mass index (BMI) and body fat of participating individuals were assessed. Fasting blood sugar and lipid profile were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: Eighty-three young individuals (male: 41; female: 42) of medical faculty, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, who volunteered for the study, were recruited...
May 2018: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617475/ultrasonographic-markers-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-obese-children
#3
Karla Cristina Malta Costa, Luiz Antonio Del Ciampo, Patrícia Silveira Silva, Jailson Costa Lima, Wellington de Paula Martins, Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the obesity alters ultrasonographical markers of metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk in children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study evaluated 80 children aged between 6 and 10 years, comparing 40 obese with 40 normal children. The following parameters were assessed: weight; height; body mass index; arterial blood pressure; body fat; basal metabolic rate; HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; fasting insulin and glucose; quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI); homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR); basal diameter of the brachial artery; brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD) and of pulsatility index change (PI-C)...
March 29, 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472870/high-intensity-interval-training-in-normobaric-hypoxia-leads-to-greater-body-fat-loss-in-overweight-obese-women-than-high-intensity-interval-training-in-normoxia
#4
Alba Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta Camacho-Cardenosa, Martin Burtscher, Ismael Martínez-Guardado, Rafael Timon, Javier Brazo-Sayavera, Guillermo Olcina
A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1) aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO2 = 17...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467800/resting-metabolic-rate-of-obese-patients-under-very-low-calorie-ketogenic-diet
#5
Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Ana B Crujeiras, Ana I Castro, Miguel A Martinez-Olmos, Ana Canton, Lucia Ordoñez-Mayan, Ignacio Sajoux, Cristobal Galban, Diego Bellido, Felipe F Casanueva
Background: The resting metabolic rate (RMR) decrease, observed after an obesity reduction therapy is a determinant of a short-time weight regain. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in RMR, and the associated hormonal alterations in obese patients with a very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK)-diet induced severe body weight (BW) loss. Method: From 20 obese patients who lost 20.2 kg of BW after a 4-months VLCK-diet, blood samples and body composition analysis, determined by DXA and MF-Bioimpedance, and RMR by indirect calorimetry, were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1, basal, initial fat mass (FM) and free fat mass (FFM); visit C-2, - 7...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429380/cardiovascular-and-metabolic-consequences-of-the-association-between-chronic-stress-and-high-fat-diet-in-rats
#6
Bruna B Simas, Everson A Nunes, Carlos C Crestani, Guilherme F Speretta
Obesity and chronic stress are considered independent risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and changes in autonomic system activity. However, the cardiovascular consequences induced by the association between high-fat diet (HFD) and chronic stress are not fully understood. We hypothesized that the association between HFD and exposure to a chronic variable stress (CVS) protocol for four weeks might exacerbate the cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances in rats when compared to these factors singly...
May 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396841/metabolic-phenotype-of-male-obesity-related-secondary-hypogonadism-pre-replacement-and-post-replacement-therapy-with-intra-muscular-testosterone-undecanoate-therapy
#7
Georgios K Dimitriadis, Harpal S Randeva, Saboor Aftab, Asad Ali, John G Hattersley, Sarojini Pandey, Dimitris K Grammatopoulos, Georgios Valsamakis, Georgios Mastorakos, T Hugh Jones, Thomas M Barber
AIM: To explore the metabolic phenotype of obesity-related secondary hypogonadism (SH) in men pre-replacement and post-replacement therapy with long-acting intramuscular (IM) testosterone undecanoate (TU). METHODS: A prospective observational pilot study on metabolic effects of TU IM in male obesity-related SH (hypogonadal [HG] group, n = 13), including baseline comparisons with controls (eugonadal [EG] group, n = 15). Half the subjects (n = 7 in each group) had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D)...
April 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384334/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-misreporting-of-energy-intake-in-japanese-adults-the-2012-national-health-and-nutrition-survey
#8
Kentaro Murakami, M Barbara E Livingstone, Hitomi Okubo, Satoshi Sasaki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Information on a whole array of characteristics associated with dietary misreporting in a representative sample in each country is still limited. Using data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, we investigated the prevalence and characteristics of under- and over-reporting of energy intake among 19,986 Japanese adults aged >=20 years. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Each individual's energy intake was calculated based on a 1-day semi-weighed dietary record...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361967/the-effect-of-a-ketogenic-diet-versus-a-high-carbohydrate-low-fat-diet-on-sleep-cognition-thyroid-function-and-cardiovascular-health-independent-of-weight-loss-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Stella Iacovides, Rebecca M Meiring
BACKGROUND: Many physiological health benefits observed after following a ketogenic diet (KD) can be attributed to the associated weight loss. The KD has become more prominent as a popular health choice, not only in obese/overweight individuals, but also in healthy adults. The study aims to determine the effects of a KD, independent of weight loss, on various aspects of physiological health including: sleep, thyroid function, cognition, and cardio-metabolic health. The study will also aim to determine whether a change in basal metabolic rate may be associated with any changes observed...
January 23, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361938/long-term-effects-of-garcinia-cambogia-glucomannan-on-weight-loss-in-people-with-obesity-plin4-fto-and-trp64arg-polymorphisms
#10
Andrea Maia-Landim, Juan M Ramírez, Carolina Lancho, María S Poblador, José L Lancho
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are considered major health problems that contribute to increase mortality and quality of life. Both conditions have a high prevalence across the world reaching epidemic numbers. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of the administration of Garcinia cambogia (GC) and Glucomannan (GNN) on long-term weight loss in people with overweight or obesity. METHODS: Prospective, not-randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted. We treated 214 subjects with overweight or obesity with GC and GNN (500 mg twice a day, each) for 6 months evaluating weight, fat mass, visceral fat, basal metabolic rate, and lipid and glucose blood profiles comparing them with basal values...
January 24, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205089/altered-bioenergetic-profile-in-umbilical-cord-and-amniotic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-newborns-of-obese-women
#11
Laura Iaffaldano, Carmela Nardelli, Francesca D'Alessio, Valeria D'Argenio, Marcella Nunziato, Lucia Mauriello, Claudio Procaccini, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Pasquale Martinelli, Giuseppe Matarese, Lucio Pastore, Luigi Del Vecchio, Giuseppe Labruna, Lucia Sacchetti
Nutritional imbalance and metabolic alterations associated with maternal obesity during pregnancy predispose offspring to obesity and/or to type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are still obscure. In this context, we evaluated whether the two main energy-producing pathways (glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation) are impaired in obesity during pregnancy thus contributing to metabolic intrauterine alterations. Specifically, we studied metabolic abnormalities in the intrauterine life of newborns using stem cells isolated from amnion and umbilical cord (hA- and hUC-MSCs)...
February 1, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142243/genetic-risk-scores-for-body-fat-distribution-attenuate-weight-loss-in-women-during-dietary-intervention
#12
M Svendstrup, K H Allin, T I A Sørensen, T H Hansen, N Grarup, T Hansen, H Vestergaard
OBJECTIVE: The well-established link between body fat distribution and metabolic health has been suggested to act through an impact on the remodeling capacity of the adipose tissue. Remodeling of the adipose tissue has been shown to affect body fat distribution and might affect the ability to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI)...
March 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063066/stroke-screening-and-health-related-physical-fitness-testing-in-medical-staff-members-in-urumqi-china
#13
Yu-Shan Wang, Bo Liu, Yan Jiang, Zhong-Hua Liu, Hua Yao
OBJECTIVE: Stroke is the leading cause of death and disability, and is closely related to a lack of exercise. Currently, most Chinese medical staff members lack exercise and may be at risk for stroke. We sought to determine the risk factors for stroke and study the significance of health-related physical fitness testing in stroke prevention among Chinese medical staff members. METHODS: A total of 627 subjects from Urumqi, Xinjiang, China, were included in the study and a survey was conducted from 1st January 2016 to 1st February 2016...
June 25, 2017: Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965207/phoenixin-14-detection-and-novel-physiological-implications-in-cardiac-modulation-and-cardioprotection
#14
C Rocca, F Scavello, M C Granieri, T Pasqua, N Amodio, S Imbrogno, A Gattuso, R Mazza, Maria Carmela Cerra, Tommaso Angelone
Phoenixin-14 (PNX) is a newly identified peptide co-expressed in the hypothalamus with the anorexic and cardioactive Nesfatin-1. Like Nesfatin-1, PNX is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and this suggests a role in peripheral modulation. Preliminary mass spectrography data indicate that, in addition to the hypothalamus, PNX is present in the mammalian heart. This study aimed to quantify PNX expression in the rat heart, and to evaluate whether the peptide influences the myocardial function under basal condition and in the presence of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)...
February 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941386/trp64arg-polymorphism-of-the-adrb3-gene-associated-with-maximal-fat-oxidation-and-ldl-c-levels-in-non-obese-adolescents
#15
Íncare Correa de Jesus, Lupe Furtado Alle, Eva Cantalejo Munhoz, Larissa Rosa da Silva, Wendell Arthur Lopes, Luciane Viater Tureck, Katia Sheylla Malta Purim, Ana Claudia Kapp Titski, Neiva Leite
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the ADRB3 gene, maximal fat oxidation rates and the lipid profile levels in non-obese adolescents. METHODS: 72 schoolchildren, of both genders, aged between 11 and 17 years, participated in the study. The anthropometric and body composition variables, in addition to total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides, insulin, and basal glycemia, were evaluated. The sample was divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of the polymorphism: non-carriers of the Arg64 allele, i...
September 21, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926107/fenofibrate-reverses-changes-induced-by-high-fat-diet-on-metabolism-in-mice-muscle-and-visceral-adipocytes
#16
Flávia de T Frias, Karina C E Rocha, Mariana de Mendonça, Gilson M Murata, Hygor N Araujo, Luís G O de Sousa, Érica de Sousa, Sandro M Hirabara, Nayara de C Leite, Everardo M Carneiro, Rui Curi, Leonardo R Silveira, Alice C Rodrigues
The effect of fenofibrate on the metabolism of skeletal muscle and visceral white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice was investigated. C57BL/6J male mice were fed either a control or high-fat diet for 8 weeks. Fenofibrate (50 mg/Kg BW, daily) was administered by oral gavage during the last two weeks of the experimental period. Insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in soleus muscles, glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, indirect calorimetry, lipolysis of visceral white adipose tissue, expression of miR-103-3p in adipose tissue, and miR-1a, miR-133a/b, miR-206, let7b-5p, miR-23b-3p, miR-29-3p, miR-143-3p in soleus muscle, genes related to glucose and fatty acid metabolism in adipose tissue and soleus muscle, and proteins (phospho-AMPKα2, Pgc1α, Cpt1b), intramuscular lipid staining, and activities of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in skeletal muscle were investigated...
April 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911136/protein-rich-food-ingestion-stimulates-mitochondrial-protein-synthesis-in-sedentary-young-adults-of-different-bmis
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Joseph W Beals, Richard W A Mackenzie, Stephan van Vliet, Sarah K Skinner, Brandon A Pagni, Grace M Niemiro, Alexander V Ulanov, Zhong Li, Anna C Dilger, Scott A Paluska, Michael De Lisio, Nicholas A Burd
Context: Excess fat mass may diminish the anabolic potency of protein-rich food ingestion to stimulate muscle protein subfractional synthetic responses. However, the impact of adiposity on mitochondrial protein synthesis (MPS) rates after protein-rich food ingestion has not been thoroughly examined in vivo in humans. Objective: We compared basal and postprandial MPS and markers of muscle inflammation [toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) protein content] in young adults with different body mass indices (BMIs)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864949/skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-mass-is-linked-to-lipid-and-metabolic-profile-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Laura C O'Brien, Qun Chen, Jeannie Savas, Edward J Lesnefsky, Ashraf S Gorgey
PURPOSE: Changes in metabolism and body composition after spinal cord injury (SCI) predispose individuals to obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. A link between lean mass and skeletal muscle mitochondrial mass has been reported but it is unknown how skeletal muscle mitochondrial mass and activity impact metabolic health. This study examined the relationship between skeletal muscle mitochondrial mass, activity and metabolic profile in individuals with chronic SCI. METHODS: Twenty-two men with motor complete SCI participated in the study...
November 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774778/frontiers-in-endocrine-disruption-impacts-of-organotin-on-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis
#19
REVIEW
Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Marcelle Novaes Andrade, Paula Pereira-Rodrigues, Francisca Diana Paiva-Melo, Paula Soares, Jones Bernardes Graceli, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock Dias, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Leandro Miranda-Alves
Endocrine disruptors (EDs), chemical substances widely used in industry and ubiquitously distributed in the environment, are able to interfere with the synthesis, release, transport, metabolism, receptor binding, action, or elimination of endogenous hormones. EDs affect homeostasis mainly by acting on nuclear and nonnuclear steroid receptors but also on serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and orphan receptors in addition to thyroid hormone receptors. Tributyltin (TBT), an ED widely used as a pesticide and biocide in antifouling paints, has well-documented actions that include inhibiting aromatase and affecting the nuclear receptors PPARγ and RXR...
January 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760427/anthropometric-and-lipid-profile-of-individuals-with-severe-obesity-carrying-the-fatty-acid-binding-protein-2-thr54-allele
#20
Natalia Luiza Kops, Jaqueline D Correia Horvath, Mariana L Dias de Castro, Rogério Friedman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric and lipid profiles of individuals being considered for bariatric surgery, taking into account the presence of the Thr54 allele of the fatty acid-binding protein-2 (FABP-2) gene (rs1799883), and dietary intake. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 120 participants being evaluated for bariatric surgery were asked to keep 24-h dietary records (R24 h) for 3 d, and to collect a 24-h urine sample for measurement of urea (as an assessment of the adequacy of food records) during day 3 of the diet record; a fasting blood sample for laboratory and genetic evaluations was collected...
September 2017: Nutrition
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