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Basal metabolic rate in obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774778/frontiers-in-endocrine-disruption-impacts-of-organotin-on-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis
#1
REVIEW
Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Marcelle Novaes Andrade, Paula Pereira-Rodrigues, Francisca Diana Paiva-Melo, Paula Soares, Jones Bernardes Graceli, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock Dias, Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Leandro Miranda-Alves
Endocrine disruptors (EDs), chemical substances widely used in industry and ubiquitously distributed in the environment, are able to interfere with the synthesis, release, transport, metabolism, receptor binding, action, or elimination of endogenous hormones. EDs affect homeostasis mainly by acting on nuclear and nonnuclear steroid receptors but also on serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and orphan receptors in addition to thyroid hormone receptors. Tributyltin (TBT), an ED widely used as a pesticide and biocide in antifouling paints, has well-documented actions that include inhibiting aromatase and affecting the nuclear receptors PPARγ and RXR...
July 31, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760427/anthropometric-and-lipid-profile-of-individuals-with-severe-obesity-carrying-the-fatty-acid-binding-protein-2-thr54-allele
#2
Natalia Luiza Kops, Jaqueline D Correia Horvath, Mariana L Dias de Castro, Rogério Friedman
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric and lipid profiles of individuals being considered for bariatric surgery, taking into account the presence of the Thr54 allele of the fatty acid-binding protein-2 (FABP-2) gene (rs1799883), and dietary intake. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 120 participants being evaluated for bariatric surgery were asked to keep 24-h dietary records (R24 h) for 3 d, and to collect a 24-h urine sample for measurement of urea (as an assessment of the adequacy of food records) during day 3 of the diet record; a fasting blood sample for laboratory and genetic evaluations was collected...
September 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745334/evaluation-of-the-wrist-worn-actigraph-wgt3x-bt-for-estimating-activity-energy-expenditure-in-preschool-children
#3
C Delisle Nyström, J Pomeroy, P Henriksson, E Forsum, F B Ortega, R Maddison, J H Migueles, M Löf
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess free-living activity energy expenditure (AEE) in preschool children are required. The aims of this study in healthy preschool children were to (a) evaluate the ability of the wrist-worn ActiGraph wGT3x-BT to predict free-living AEE and (b) assess wear compliance using a 7-day, 24-h protocol. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Participants were 40 Swedish children (5.5±0.2 years) in the Mobile-based intervention intended to stop obesity in preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial...
July 26, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722271/beyond-glycemic-control-a-cross-over-double-blind-24-week-intervention-with-liraglutide-in-type-1-diabetes
#4
M-C Dubé, M D'Amours, S J Weisnagel
AIMS: To investigate the effects of 24 weeks of treatment with liraglutide added to basal/bolus insulin on anthropometric and metabolic parameters in overweight participants with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a double-blind cross-over fashion, 15 participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive placebo (saline solution) or liraglutide for 24 weeks including a one-month titration period from 0.6 mg to 1.2 mg to 1.8 mg, in addition to their insulin. The treatment was followed by a 1 month wash-out period...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711354/the-roles-of-metabolic-thermogenesis-in-body-fat-regulation-in-striped-hamsters-fed-high-fat-diet-at-different-temperatures
#5
Lu-Lu Shi, Wei-Jia Fan, Ji-Ying Zhang, Xiao-Ya Zhao, Song Tan, Jing Wen, Jing Cao, Xue-Ying Zhang, Qing-Sheng Chi, De-Hua Wang, Zhi-Jun Zhao
The metabolic thermogenesis plays important roles in thermoregulation, and it may be also involved in body fat regulation. The thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is largely affected by ambient temperature, but it is unclear if the roles in body fat regulation are dependent on the temperature. In the present study, uncoupling protein 1 (ucp1)-based BAT thermogenesis, energy budget and body fat content were examined in the striped hamsters fed high fat diet (HF) at cold (5°C) and warm (30°C) temperatures...
July 12, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625550/maternal-exposure-to-western-diet-affects-adult-body-composition-and-voluntary-wheel-running-in-a-genotype-specific-manner-in-mice
#6
Layla Hiramatsu, Jarren C Kay, Zoe Thompson, Jennifer M Singleton, Gerald C Claghorn, Ralph L Albuquerque, Brittany Ho, Brett Ho, Gabriela Sanchez, Theodore Garland
Some human diseases, including obesity, Type II diabetes, and numerous cancers, are thought to be influenced by environments experienced in early life, including in utero. Maternal diet during the perinatal period may be especially important for adult offspring energy balance, potentially affecting both body composition and physical activity. This effect may be mediated by the genetic background of individuals, including, for example, potential "protective" mechanisms for individuals with inherently high levels of physical activity or high basal metabolic rates...
June 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571926/urinary-sodium-excretion-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#7
Neil G Docherty, Lars Fändriks, Carel W le Roux, Peter Hallersund, Malin Werling
BACKGROUND: Gut-kidney signaling is implicated in sodium homeostasis and thus blood pressure regulation. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery for morbid obesity confers a pronounced and long-lasting blood pressure lowering effect in addition to significant weight loss. OBJECTIVES: We set out to establish whether RYGB is associated with an intrinsic change in urinary sodium excretion that may contribute to the reported blood pressure lowering effects of the procedure...
April 8, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547916/non-shivering-thermogenesis-as-a-mechanism-to-facilitate-sustainable-weight-loss
#8
REVIEW
B F Palmer, D J Clegg
Currently, there is a significant percentage of the population who are or will be classified as obese, necessitating novel strategies to facilitate sustainable weight loss. Reductions in basal metabolic rate occur in the face of weight loss and pose formidable barriers to individuals attempting to sustain meaningful weight reductions. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which non-shivering thermogenesis may provide insight into metabolic pathways that can become druggable targets to facilitate sustainable weight loss...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541527/sleep-dependent-modulation-of-metabolic-rate-in-drosophila
#9
Bethany A Stahl, Melissa E Slocumb, Hersh Chaitin, Justin R DiAngelo, Alex C Keene
Study Objectives: Dysregulation of sleep is associated with metabolic diseases, and metabolic rate (MR) is acutely regulated by sleep-wake behavior. In humans and rodent models, sleep loss is associated with obesity, reduced metabolic rate, and negative energy balance, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms governing interactions between sleep and metabolism. Methods: We have developed a system to simultaneously measure sleep and MR in individual Drosophila, allowing for interrogation of neural systems governing interactions between sleep and metabolic rate...
August 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500825/which-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-should-be-screened-for-subclinical-cushing-s-syndrome
#10
Güven Barış Cansu, Sevgi Atılgan, Mustafa Kemal Balcı, Ramazan Sarı, Sebahat Özdem, Hasan Ali Altunbaş
OBJECTIVE: Diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance are common in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS). In this study we investigated the incidence of subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) in type 2 diabetic patients with poor and good metabolic control and the relationship between blood glucose and cortisol levels. DESIGN: A total of 400 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (Group A, HbA1c ≥8%, n=250; Group B, HbA1c ≤6.5%, n=150) were included in the study...
January 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479016/the-impact-of-rate-of-weight-loss-on-body-composition-and-compensatory-mechanisms-during-weight-reduction-a-randomized-control-trial
#11
Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Emilie With, Jens F Rehfeld, Bård Kulseng, Helen Truby, Cátia Martins
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Rapid weight loss (WL) has been associated with a larger loss of fat free mass and a disproportional reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR), but the evidence is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the impact of WL rate on body composition and compensatory mechanisms activated with WL (reduced RMR, increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite), both during negative and neutral energy balance (EB). METHODS: Thirty-five participants with obesity were randomized to lose a similar weight rapidly (4 weeks) or gradually (8 weeks), and afterwards to maintain it (4 weeks)...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465607/methods-for-quantifying-adipose-tissue-insulin-resistance-in-overweight-obese-humans
#12
K W Ter Horst, K A van Galen, P W Gilijamse, A V Hartstra, P F de Groot, F M van der Valk, M T Ackermans, M Nieuwdorp, J A Romijn, M J Serlie
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance of adipose tissue is an important feature of obesity-related metabolic disease. However, assessment of lipolysis in humans requires labor-intensive and expensive methods, and there is limited validation of simplified measurement methods. We aimed to validate simplified methods for the quantification of adipose tissue insulin resistance against the assessment of insulin sensitivity of lipolysis suppression during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies...
August 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446382/compensatory-mechanisms-activated-with-intermittent-energy-restriction-a-randomized-control-trial
#13
Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Eline Holli Halset, Sigrid Gåsbakk, Jens F Rehfeld, Bård Kulseng, Helen Truby, Cátia Martins
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy restriction (IER), where short spells of energy restriction are interspaced by periods of habitual energy intake, may offer some protection in minimizing those responses. We aimed to compare the effect of IER versus CER on body composition and the compensatory responses induced by WL...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387898/relationship-of-serum-novel-adipokine-chemerin-levels-with-body-composition-insulin-resistance-dyslipidemia-and-diabesity-in-saudi-women
#14
S S Habib, A Eshki, B AlTassan, D Fatani, H Helmi, S AlSaif
OBJECTIVE: Chemerin is believed to be a mediator for the adipose tissue inflammation that occurs in obesity. The present study compared chemerin levels between healthy and type 2 diabetic women matched for age and body composition. We also aimed to assess the relationship of serum chemerin levels with body composition, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and diabesity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational case-control study was conducted at the Departments of Physiology and Medicine, Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from September 2013 to April 2014...
March 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292879/%C3%AE-gpa-treatment-leads-to-elevated-basal-metabolic-rate-and-enhanced-hypoxic-exercise-tolerance-in-mice
#15
Trenton T Ross, Jeffrey D Overton, Katelyn F Houmard, Stephen T Kinsey
Treatments that increase basal metabolic rate (BMR) and enhance exercise capacity may be useful therapeutic approaches for treating conditions such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and associated circulatory problems. β-guanidinopropionic acid (β-GPA) supplementation decreases high-energy phosphate concentrations, such as ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) resulting in an energetic challenge that is similar to both exercise programs and hypoxic conditions. In this study, we administered β-GPA to mice for 2 or 6 weeks, and investigated the effect on muscle energetic status, body and muscle mass, muscle capillarity, BMR, and normoxic and hypoxic exercise tolerance (NET and HET, respectively)...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287332/association-of-energy-intake-and-expenditure-with-obesity-a-cross-sectional-study-of-150-pediatric-patients-following-treatment-for-leukemia
#16
Richa Srivastava, Atul Batra, Deepa Dhawan, Sameer Bakhshi
Increased obesity in leukemia survivors has been attributed to chemotherapy and radiation. Data on total energy intake (TEI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) are lacking in obese childhood leukemia patients after completion of therapy from India. We conducted a cross-sectional study in pediatric acute leukemia patients after completion of therapy wherein energy intake was assessed by 24-hour recall method. TEE was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation, by assessing the physical activity level using Physical Activity Questionnaire for children and basal metabolic rate by World Health Organization equation...
February 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271456/niclosamide-as-an-anti-obesity-drug-an-experimental-study
#17
Ali I Al-Gareeb, Khalid D Aljubory, Hayder M Alkuraishy
BACKGROUND: Niclosamide is a well-known anthelminthic drug that exert its effects at least in part through induction of mitochondrial uncoupling. The cycling of mitochondrial proton plays an essential role in regulation of basal metabolic rate, so modulation of mitochondrial uncoupling may be helpful approach to fight obesity. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anti-obesity effects of niclosamide on mice with induced obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty male Albino mice, 8-10 weeks old, were divided randomly and equally in to three groups; Group 1 fed with standard diet, whereas both Groups 2 and 3 were fed with high fat diet (HFD)...
March 7, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078757/lamellar-events-related-to-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-signalling-in-two-models-relevant-to-endocrinopathic-laminitis
#18
H E Lane, T A Burns, O C Hegedus, M R Watts, P S Weber, K A Woltman, R J Geor, L J McCutcheon, S C Eades, L E Mathes, J K Belknap
BACKGROUND: Insulin dysregulation, obesity, and exposure to high-nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) forage are risk factors for equine metabolic syndrome-associated laminitis (EMSAL); high systemic insulin concentrations in EMSAL are proposed to induce cellular dysregulation in the digital lamellae through activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. OBJECTIVES: To use a dietary challenge model (DCM) and a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp (EHC) model to assess lamellar growth factor-related signalling...
January 11, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042411/clomiphene-citrate-treatment-cycle-outcomes-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-patients-based-on-basal-high-sensitive-c-reactive-protein-levels-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Serkan Kahyaoglu, Omer Hamid Yumuşak, Sebnem Ozyer, Meryem Kuru Pekcan, Merve Erel, Mahmut Nedim Cicek, Salim Erkaya, Yasemin Tasci
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is highly associated with an ovulatory infertility, features of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Serum concentrations of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were significantly higher in obese than in non-obese PCOS patients at baseline, suggesting a relationship between elevated hs-CRP levels and obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether cycle day 3 hs-CRP levels before clomiphene citrate (CC) treatment would predict cycle outcomes in women with PCOS...
January 2017: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994266/secretory-activity-of-subcutaneous-abdominal-adipose-tissue-in-male-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-osteoarthritis-association-with-clinical-and-laboratory-data
#20
Ewa Kontny, Agnieszka Zielińska, Krystyna Księżopolska-Orłowska, Piotr Głuszko
INTRODUCTION: Adipose tissue exerts widespread effects on the metabolism and immune system, but its activity differs between the genders. In the general population low-grade adipose tissue inflammation contributes to development of diseases of affluence. Little is known about the systemic impact of peripheral fat tissue in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), characterized by chronic, low- and high-grade systemic inflammation, respectively. To clarify this we evaluated the secretory activity of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) obtained from male patients affected with RA (n = 21) and OA (n = 13), and assessed its association with body mass and composition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data...
2016: Reumatologia
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