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Giulia Acconcia, Alessandro Cominelli, Massimo Ghioni, Ivan Rech
Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) is an essential tool in many scientific applications, where the recording of optical pulses with picosecond precision is required. Unfortunately, a key issue has to be faced: distortion phenomena can affect TCSPC experiments at high count rates. In order to avoid this problem, TCSPC experiments have been commonly carried out by limiting the maximum operating frequency of a measurement channel below 5% of the excitation frequency, leading to a long acquisition time...
June 11, 2018: Optics Express
Elham Abdollahi, Gisela Taucher-Scholz, Burkhard Jakob
In recent years several approaches have been developed to address the chromatin status and its changes in eukaryotic cells under different conditions-but only few are applicable in living cells. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a functional tool that can be used for the inspection of the molecular environment of fluorophores in living cells. Here, we present the use of single organic minor groove DNA binder dyes in FLIM for measuring chromatin changes following modulation of chromatin structure in living cells...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mohammad-Javad Esmaeilzadeh, Abbas Rashidi
In recent years, about 10% of the total wastes generated around the world were fabric wastes and, due to the large volume of these wastes, should be well managed. Among the various types of fabrics, some have greater biodegradability and can be decomposed at the acceptable rates under controlled conditions. In this study, the disintegration of linen fabric was investigated under composting conditions. During the composting process, temperature, moisture, and aeration were controlled. According to FTIR spectra of linen fabrics during the composting process, the disintegration of linen fibers was identified as the breakdown of carbonyl groups and hydrogen bonds of cellulosic chains...
August 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Pubudu Jayawardana, R Achuhan, G H M J Subashi De Silva, D P Thambiratnam
Vibration generated by pile driving can cause discomfort to occupants of nearby buildings and disturb the activities carried out in the buildings. The transmitted vibration will depend on both the source and the transmitting medium (soil), while the acceptable levels of vibration will depend on the receiver characteristics. Existing structures in which some sensitive processes are ongoing such as hospitals and laboratories can easily be affected due to the received vibration. Introducing a trench into the path of wave propagation has become one of the solutions...
August 2018: Heliyon
Julio Cesar Wasserman, Letícia de Oliveira Silva, Gabriela Cugler de Pontes, Evaldo de Paiva Lima
Although sludge piles from drinking water treatment plants can contain harmful substances, in many countries, their disposal methods are still unregulated. Besides aluminum, which is a major constituent in these residues, many other contaminants-like trace metals-can be present and may result from the quality of the raw materials used for water treatment. The application of these chemicals for the treatment of drinking water can generate toxic sludge and contaminate the produced water. In the present work, mercury contamination in the sludge piles of two drinking water treatment plants located along the margins of the Juturnaíba Reservoir, Southeast Brazil, was evaluated to verify whether contaminants are incorporated during water treatment...
August 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
S M Pérez-Moreno, M J Gázquez, R Pérez-López, I Vioque, J P Bolívar
The phosphogypsum (PG) stacks located at Huelva (SW Spain) store about 100 Mt of PG, and covers a surface of 1000 ha. It has been very well established in many studies that this waste contains significant U-series radionuclides concentrations, with average activity concentrations rounding the 650, 600, 400 and 100 Bq kg-1 for 226 Ra, 210 Po, 230 Th and 238 U, respectively. However, the radionuclide transfer from this repository into the environment by the aquatic pathway will depend on the mobility of each radionuclide...
August 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Murugan Ramasamy, Christopher Power, Martin Mkandawire
Remediation at former mining sites containing waste rock piles (WRPs) commonly involves the installation of a cover system over the waste rock to limit water and oxygen ingress and attenuate the impacts of acid mine drainage (AMD) to the environment. Cover systems containing high-density polyethylene (HDPE) liners have the attributes to be highly effective; however, their performance over the long-term is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effectiveness of an 'in-service' HDPE-lined cover system for reducing AMD contamination at WRP sites...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Lydia A Rush, Mackenzie C Endres, Martin Liezers, Jesse D Ward, Gregory C Eiden, Andrew M Duffin
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a powerful method for detection and quantification of nanoparticles. Unfortunately, the linear dynamic range of single particle analysis is hindered by "unruly" transient signals, momentary pulse pile-ups at the electron multiplier detector. This study seeks to extend the dynamic range of ICP-MS nanoparticle quantification via addition of a collision gas in the collision cell of the ICP-MS. The collision gas temporally broadens the nanoparticle signal resulting in decreased pulse pile-up and increased integrated intensity, up to a point where scattering losses begin to dominate...
November 1, 2018: Talanta
L Adamczyk, J R Adams, J K Adkins, G Agakishiev, M M Aggarwal, Z Ahammed, N N Ajitanand, I Alekseev, D M Anderson, R Aoyama, A Aparin, D Arkhipkin, E C Aschenauer, M U Ashraf, A Attri, G S Averichev, X Bai, V Bairathi, K Barish, A Behera, R Bellwied, A Bhasin, A K Bhati, P Bhattarai, J Bielcik, J Bielcikova, L C Bland, I G Bordyuzhin, J Bouchet, J D Brandenburg, A V Brandin, D Brown, I Bunzarov, J Butterworth, H Caines, M Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, J M Campbell, D Cebra, I Chakaberia, P Chaloupka, Z Chang, N Chankova-Bunzarova, A Chatterjee, S Chattopadhyay, J H Chen, X Chen, X Chen, J Cheng, M Cherney, W Christie, G Contin, H J Crawford, S Das, L C De Silva, R R Debbe, T G Dedovich, J Deng, A A Derevschikov, L Didenko, C Dilks, X Dong, J L Drachenberg, J E Draper, L E Dunkelberger, J C Dunlop, L G Efimov, N Elsey, J Engelage, G Eppley, R Esha, S Esumi, O Evdokimov, J Ewigleben, O Eyser, R Fatemi, S Fazio, P Federic, P Federicova, J Fedorisin, Z Feng, P Filip, E Finch, Y Fisyak, C E Flores, J Fujita, L Fulek, C A Gagliardi, D Garand, F Geurts, A Gibson, M Girard, D Grosnick, D S Gunarathne, Y Guo, S Gupta, A Gupta, W Guryn, A I Hamad, A Hamed, A Harlenderova, J W Harris, L He, S Heppelmann, S Heppelmann, A Hirsch, G W Hoffmann, S Horvat, X Huang, H Z Huang, T Huang, B Huang, T J Humanic, P Huo, G Igo, W W Jacobs, A Jentsch, J Jia, K Jiang, S Jowzaee, E G Judd, S Kabana, D Kalinkin, K Kang, D Kapukchyan, K Kauder, H W Ke, D Keane, A Kechechyan, Z Khan, D P Kikoła, C Kim, I Kisel, A Kisiel, L Kochenda, M Kocmanek, T Kollegger, L K Kosarzewski, A F Kraishan, L Krauth, P Kravtsov, K Krueger, N Kulathunga, L Kumar, J Kvapil, J H Kwasizur, R Lacey, J M Landgraf, K D Landry, J Lauret, A Lebedev, R Lednicky, J H Lee, C Li, W Li, Y Li, X Li, J Lidrych, T Lin, M A Lisa, P Liu, F Liu, H Liu, Y Liu, T Ljubicic, W J Llope, M Lomnitz, R S Longacre, X Luo, S Luo, G L Ma, L Ma, Y G Ma, R Ma, N Magdy, R Majka, D Mallick, S Margetis, C Markert, H S Matis, K Meehan, J C Mei, Z W Miller, N G Minaev, S Mioduszewski, D Mishra, S Mizuno, B Mohanty, M M Mondal, D A Morozov, M K Mustafa, Md Nasim, T K Nayak, J M Nelson, M Nie, G Nigmatkulov, T Niida, L V Nogach, T Nonaka, S B Nurushev, G Odyniec, A Ogawa, K Oh, V A Okorokov, D Olvitt, B S Page, R Pak, Y Pandit, Y Panebratsev, B Pawlik, H Pei, C Perkins, P Pile, J Pluta, K Poniatowska, J Porter, M Posik, N K Pruthi, M Przybycien, J Putschke, H Qiu, A Quintero, S Ramachandran, R L Ray, R Reed, M J Rehbein, H G Ritter, J B Roberts, O V Rogachevskiy, J L Romero, J D Roth, L Ruan, J Rusnak, O Rusnakova, N R Sahoo, P K Sahu, S Salur, J Sandweiss, E Sangaline, M Saur, J Schambach, A M Schmah, W B Schmidke, N Schmitz, B R Schweid, J Seger, M Sergeeva, R Seto, P Seyboth, N Shah, E Shahaliev, P V Shanmuganathan, M Shao, M K Sharma, A Sharma, W Q Shen, Z Shi, S S Shi, Q Y Shou, E P Sichtermann, R Sikora, M Simko, S Singha, M J Skoby, D Smirnov, N Smirnov, W Solyst, L Song, P Sorensen, H M Spinka, B Srivastava, T D S Stanislaus, M Strikhanov, B Stringfellow, T Sugiura, M Sumbera, B Summa, X M Sun, Y Sun, X Sun, B Surrow, D N Svirida, A H Tang, Z Tang, A Taranenko, T Tarnowsky, A Tawfik, J Thäder, J H Thomas, A R Timmins, D Tlusty, T Todoroki, M Tokarev, S Trentalange, R E Tribble, P Tribedy, S K Tripathy, B A Trzeciak, O D Tsai, T Ullrich, D G Underwood, I Upsal, G Van Buren, G van Nieuwenhuizen, A N Vasiliev, F Videbæk, S Vokal, S A Voloshin, A Vossen, F Wang, Y Wang, G Wang, Y Wang, J C Webb, G Webb, L Wen, G D Westfall, H Wieman, S W Wissink, R Witt, Y Wu, Z G Xiao, G Xie, W Xie, Z Xu, N Xu, Y F Xu, Q H Xu, J Xu, Q Yang, C Yang, S Yang, Y Yang, Z Ye, Z Ye, L Yi, K Yip, I-K Yoo, N Yu, H Zbroszczyk, W Zha, X P Zhang, S Zhang, J B Zhang, J Zhang, Z Zhang, S Zhang, J Zhang, Y Zhang, J Zhao, C Zhong, L Zhou, C Zhou, Z Zhu, X Zhu, M Zyzak
We report measurements of the nuclear modification factor R_{CP} for charged hadrons as well as identified π^{+(-)}, K^{+(-)}, and p(p[over ¯]) for Au+Au collision energies of sqrt[s_{NN}]=7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, and 62.4 GeV. We observe a clear high-p_{T} net suppression in central collisions at 62.4 GeV for charged hadrons which evolves smoothly to a large net enhancement at lower energies. This trend is driven by the evolution of the pion spectra but is also very similar for the kaon spectra. While the magnitude of the proton R_{CP} at high p_{T} does depend on the collision energy, neither the proton nor the antiproton R_{CP} at high p_{T} exhibit net suppression at any energy...
July 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
María A Rendón, Beatriz Lona, Mancheong Ma, Magdalene So
Over 20 genes are involved in the biogenesis and function of the Neisseria Type IV pilus (Tfp). In the pathogenic species, RpoD and the integration host factor (IHF) protein regulate expression of pilE, encoding the Tfp structural subunit. We previously reported that in commensal species, pilE transcription is regulated by RpoN, IHF, and activator Npa. Npa has many hallmarks of response regulators in two-component regulatory systems, leading us to search for its response regulator partner. We report that Npa partners with sensor kinase Nps to control pilE transcription...
August 5, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Suzanne M Grieb, Molly Reddy, Brittany Griffin, Arik V Marcell, Sophie Meade, Becky Slogeris, Kathleen R Page, Jacky M Jennings
Sexually transmitted infection (STI) services, including screening, treatment, and counseling among youth, remain suboptimal. In the midst of increasing incidence of bacterial STIs, alarming STI disparities, and persistently low testing rates among youth, solution-focused and action-oriented research with youth is needed. To identify solutions to STI testing barriers, we conducted three participatory ideation workshops with 18 youth, 10 key stakeholders who work with youth, and 8 social design graduate students...
August 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Ann M Cheney, Christopher J Koenig, Christopher J Miller, Kara Zamora, Patricia Wright, Regina Stanley, John Fortney, James F Burgess, Jeffrey M Pyne
BACKGROUND: Some veterans face multiple barriers to VA mental healthcare service use. However, there is limited understanding of how veterans' experiences and meaning systems shape their perceptions of barriers to VA mental health service use. In 2015, a participatory, mixed-methods project was initiated to elicit veteran-centered barriers to using mental healthcare services among a diverse sample of US rural and urban veterans. We sought to identify veteran-centric barriers to mental healthcare to increase initial engagement and continuation with VA mental healthcare services...
July 31, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Muhammad Zubair Yousaf, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Khalid Mahmood Anjum, Shaista Fatima
Pakistan is being hit by communicable and noncommunicable diseases over time. Among these, tickborne viral disease, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the most fatal infections. Rapid climate change aroused by industrial, occupational, and agricultural activities to support ever-growing human population has been considered the single most causative basis for emergence or re-emergence of CCHF in Pakistan, where it has biannual peaks between the months of March-May and August-October. Many factors, including poor sanitation at farms, villages, and cities, unhygienic transportation and slaughter of animals at numerous sites within a city, inefficient tick-control programs, post-slaughter piles of animal remains other than meat, nomadic lifestyle, and lack of trained animal and human healthcare staff, are contributing to the spread of CCHF...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Qin Li, Shuo Chai, Yongdi Li, Jianan Huang, Yu Luo, Lizheng Xiao, Zhonghua Liu
Primary dark tea is used as raw material for compressed dark tea, such as Fu brick tea, Hei brick tea, Hua brick tea, and Qianliang tea. Pile-fermentation is the key process for the formation of the characteristic properties of primary dark tea, during which the microorganism plays an important role. In this study, the changes of major chemical compounds, enzyme activities, microbial diversity, and their correlations were explored during the pile-fermentation process. Our chemical and enzymatic analysis showed that the contents of the major compounds were decreased, while the activities of polyphenol oxidase, cellulase, and pectinase were increased during this process, except peroxidase activity that could not be generated from microbial communities in primary dark tea...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Wai Kit Chan, Dirk Wildeboer, Hemda Garelick, Diane Purchase
An arsenic-resistant fungal strain, designated WKC-1, was isolated from a waste roaster pile in a historical tin mine in Cornwall, UK and successfully identified to be Acidomyces acidophilus using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) proteomic-based biotyping approach. WKC-1 showed considerable resistance to As5+ and Sb5+ where the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) were 22500 and 100 mg L-1 , respectively, on Czapex-Dox Agar (CDA) medium; it was substantially more resistant to As5+ than the reference strains CBS 335...
July 23, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Kang Ik K Cho, Yoo Bin Kwak, Wu Jeong Hwang, Junhee Lee, Minah Kim, Tae Young Lee, Jun Soo Kwon
Based on the piling reports of disruptions in the thalamus of patients with schizophrenia, the alteration in the thalamo-cortical system has been regarded as the core pathophysiology. As the thalamus is composed of distinctive nuclei with different cytoarchitecture and cortical connections, nuclei specific investigations have been actively conducted in post-mortem studies. In addition, the importance of early changes has been highlighted, which in turn has led to investigations of the thalamo-cortical system using non-invasive neuroimaging methods...
July 24, 2018: BMB Reports
Yingwei Fan, Xiaorong Zhou
The interface reaction zone (RZ) in a unidirectional continuous carbon-coated SiC fibre reinforced Ti-17 titanium alloy composite is investigated. Micro-computed tomography (CT), scanning and transmission electron microscopy are employed to characterize the fibre/matrix interface. It is revealed that the interface RZ is a 400 nm thick titanium carbide (TiC) layer which is composed of two sublayers, a 60 nm thick fine-grained sublayer and an approximate 340 nm thick coarse-grained sublayer. The RZ is formed through chemical reaction between carbon coating on the SiC fibre surface and Ti, Zr and Sn in the alloy matrix...
July 9, 2018: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
M I Arran, N M Vriend
We experimentally investigate discrete avalanches of grains, driven by a low inflow rate, on an erodible pile in a channel. We observe intermittency between one regime, in which avalanches are quasiperiodic and system spanning, and another, in which they pass at irregular intervals and have a power-law size distribution. Observations are robust to changes of inflow rate and grain type and require no tuning of external parameters. We demonstrate that the state of the pile's surface determines whether avalanche fronts propagate to the end of the channel or stop partway down, and we introduce a toy model for the latter case that reproduces the observed power-law size distribution...
June 2018: Physical Review. E
Leticia Guerra Aldrigui, Sergio L G Nogueira-Filho, Vanessa Souza Altino, Alcester Mendes, Marcus Clauss, Selene S D C Nogueira
The colonic separation mechanism in lagomorphs and some rodents, associated with caecotrophy, serves to retain microbial protein. As tropical fruits have low protein concentrations, caecotrophy could be an important microbial protein source in frugivorous rodents such as the paca (Cuniculus paca). Due to conflicting reports on the occurrence of caecotrophy in this species, we obtained digestive tracts of three adult animals and observed the behaviour of four specimens maintained on a diet of a pelleted feed (P) and a supplemental mix of fruits and sweet potato (S, a source of structural fibre)...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Thomas Lind, Roberta Lugano, Ann-Marie Gustafson, Maria Norgård, Arie van Haeringen, Anna Dimberg, Håkan Melhus, Stephen P Robertson, Göran Andersson
Angulated femurs are present prenatally both in CYP26B1 deficient humans with a reduced capacity to degrade retinoic acid (RA, the active metabolite of vitamin A), and mice overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor a (Vegfa). Since excessive ingestion of vitamin A is known to induce spontaneous fractures and as the Vegfa-induced femur angulation in mice appears to be caused by intrauterine fractures, we analyzed bones from a CYP26B1 deficient human and rats with hypervitaminosis A to further explore Vegfa as a mechanistic link for the effect of vitamin A on bone...
December 2018: Bone Reports
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