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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118926/mycobacterium-vaccae-immunization-protects-aged-rats-from-surgery-elicited-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-dysfunction
#1
Laura K Fonken, Matthew G Frank, Heather M D'Angelo, Jared D Heinze, Linda R Watkins, Christopher A Lowry, Steven F Maier
Aging is a major risk factor for developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Neuroinflammatory processes, which can play a causal role in the etiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, are potentiated or primed as a function of aging. Here we explored whether exposure to a microorganism with immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, Mycobacterium vaccae NCTC 11659 (M. vaccae), could ameliorate age-associated neuroinflammatory priming. Aged (24 months) and adult (3 months) male F344XBN rats were immunized with heat-killed M...
July 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118368/the-role-of-camkii-in-neuropathic-pain-and-fear-memory-in-chronic-constriction-injury-in-rats
#2
Yue Qian, Tianjiao Xia, Yin Cui, Shuaishuai Chu, Zhengliang Ma, Xiaoping Gu
In this study, we sought to observe the effects of Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) on neuropathic pain and fear memory in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI). Rats were randomly divided into the Sham, Control, CCI and m-AIP groups. In the m-AIP group, an intrathecal injection of m-AIP, the specific antagonist of CaMKII, was given either pretreatment or posttreatment in rats. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia tests were used to test pain behavior, and the passive avoidance test was used to measure fear memory in rats...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117228/anesthesia-and-the-developing-brain-a-way-forward-for-laboratory-and-clinical-research
#3
Nicola Disma, James D O'Leary, Andreas W Loepke, Ansgar M Brambrink, Karin Becke, Nicola G Clausen, Jurgen C De Graaff, Fang Liu, Tom G Hansen, Mary E McCann, Cynthia F Salorio, Sulpicio Soriano, Lena S Sun, Peter Szmuk, David O Warner, Laszlo Vutskits, Andrew J Davidson
All commonly used general anesthetics have been shown to cause neurotoxicity in animal models, including nonhuman primates. Opinion, however, remains divided over how cumulative evidence from preclinical and human studies in this field should be interpreted and its translation to current practices in pediatric anesthesia and surgery. A group of international experts in laboratory and clinical sciences recently convened in Genoa, Italy, to evaluate the current state of both laboratory and clinical research and discuss future directions for basic, translational, and clinical studies in this field...
August 16, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115603/brain-network-alterations-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-cognitive-dysfunction-following-anterior-temporal-lobectomy
#4
Chao Zhang, Hongyu Yang, Chang Liu, Guojun Zhang, Nan Chen, Kuncheng Li
The aims of this study were to investigate the brain network connectivity alterations of intractable unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with cognitive dysfunction before and after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) study and to further observe the correlation between the brain network connectivity with cognitive performance. Fourteen patients with unilateral left MTLE before and after ATL were compared with thirty healthy controls (HCs) on functional connectivity (FC) between resting-state networks (RSNs)...
August 13, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115258/propofol-compared-with-sevoflurane-general-anaesthesia-is-associated-with-decreased-delayed-neurocognitive-recovery-in-older-adults
#5
Y Zhang, G-J Shan, Y-X Zhang, S-J Cao, S-N Zhu, H-J Li, D Ma, D-X Wang
BACKGROUND: The choice of general anaesthetics may affect postoperative cognitive outcomes. This study was designed to compare the potential impact of propofol-based vs sevoflurane-based general anaesthesia on the development of delayed neurocognitive recovery in older adults early after major cancer surgery. METHODS: Older adults (aged ≥65 and <90 yr) who were scheduled to undergo major cancer surgery (≥2 h) were randomised to receive either propofol- or sevoflurane-based general anaesthesia...
September 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114544/a-frontal-tumefactive-demyelinating-lesion-mimicking-glioblastoma-differentiated-by-methionine-positron-emission-tomography
#6
Shoji Yasuda, Hirohito Yano, Akio Kimura, Natsuko Suzui, Noriyuki Nakayama, Jun Shinoda, Toru Iwama
BACKGROUND: Tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL) is often reported as a rare variation of multiple sclerosis (MS). TDL is difficult to diagnose solely by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with no history of MS. This is because the lesion often shows ring enhancement with perifocal brain edema on gadolinium MRI, thus mimicking glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). CASE DESCRIPTION: A 54-year-old healthy woman complained of headache 1 month before admission...
August 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112603/effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-eating-behaviors-affective-symptoms-and-weight-loss-after-bariatric-surgery-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Jøran Hjelmesæth, Jan H Rosenvinge, Hege Gade, Oddgeir Friborg
BACKGROUND: The long-term effects of presurgical psychological interventions on weight loss, eating behaviors, affective symptoms, and health-related quality of life remain uncertain. This study aimed to assess the 4-year effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) before bariatric surgery on these outcomes. METHODS: Single-center randomized controlled parallel-group trial. Patients were assessed after CBT before bariatric surgery (n = 98) and 1 year (n = 80) and 4 years (n = 61) after surgery...
August 15, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107942/dysphagia-in-older-persons-following-severe-burns-burn-location-is-irrelevant-to-risk-of-dysphagia-and-its-complications-in-patients-over-75-years
#8
Nicola A Clayton, Caroline M Nicholls, Karen Blazquez, Cheryl Brownlow, Peter K Maitz, Oliver M Fisher, Andrea C Issler-Fisher
BACKGROUND: Management of burns in older persons is complex with evidence indicating advanced age is associated with elevated risk for morbidity and mortality. Dysphagia and its sequelae may further increase this risk. AIMS: (1) Determine the prevalence, and (2) identify risk factors for dysphagia in patients admitted with severe burn injury over 75 years. METHODS: All patients >75 years admitted to Concord Repatriation General Hospital with severe burn injury over a 4-year period (2013-2017) were assessed for dysphagia on presentation and continually monitored throughout their admission...
August 11, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106254/nest-building-activity-as-a-reproducible-and-long-term-stroke-deficit-test-in-a-mouse-model-of-stroke
#9
Dong Yuan, Chunli Liu, Jiang Wu, Bingren Hu
INTRODUCTION: Neuroprotective therapeutics achieved from animal studies have not been able to translate into clinical stroke therapies. A major reason may be that the functional tests and outcomes between animal stroke studies and clinical trials are significantly different. Ultimately, functional recovery is most important for stroke patients, but it remains challenging to identify animal functional tests that reflect human stroke deficits. This study aimed to explore whether the nest-building activity can be used as a functional test of mouse stroke deficit...
June 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104568/effect-of-dual-task-on-gait-asymmetry-in-patients-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#10
Huijuan Shi, Hongshi Huang, Yuanyuan Yu, Zixuan Liang, Si Zhang, Bing Yu, Hui Liu, Yingfang Ao
Individuals who received anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgeries demonstrated lower extremity movement asymmetries. The purpose of this study was to determine if psychological impairment was a contributor to lower extremity movement asymmetries in walking for individuals who received ACL reconstruction surgeries. Three-dimensional videographic and force plate data were collected for 25 males after unilateral ACL reconstruction performing walking without (single-task condition) and with the concurrent cognitive task (dual-task condition)...
August 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101281/hypoglycemia-after-gastric-bypass-surgery-current-concepts-and-controversies
#11
Marzieh Salehi, Adrian Vella, Tracey McLaughlin, Mary-Elizabeth Patti
Context: Hypoglycemia, occurring after bariatric and other forms of upper gastrointestinal surgery, is increasingly encountered by clinical endocrinologists. The true frequency of this condition remains uncertain, due, in part, to differences in the diagnostic criteria and in the affected populations, as well as relative lack of patient and physician awareness and understanding of this condition. Postbariatric hypoglycemia can be severe and disabling for some patients, with neuroglycopenia (altered cognition, seizures, and loss of consciousness) leading to falls, motor vehicle accidents, and job and income loss...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100532/decreasing-subthalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-frequency-reverses-cognitive-interference-during-gait-initiation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
Pasquale Varriale, Antoine Collomb-Clerc, Angele Van Hamme, Anaik Perrochon, Gilles Kemoun, Giuseppe Sorrentino, Nathalie George, Brian Lau, Carine Karachi, Marie-Laure Welter
OBJECTIVE: Freezing of gait (FOG) represents a major burden for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. High-frequency (130-Hz) subthalamic deep-brain-stimulation (STN-DBS) has been reported to aggravate FOG whereas lowering the frequency to 60-80 Hz improves FOG. To further understand the effects of STN-DBS on FOG, we assessed the effects of 80-Hz and 130-Hz STN-DBS on gait initiation performance, in relation to motor and executive function processing. METHODS: Gait initiation was recorded in 19 PD patients and 20 controls, combined or not with a cognitive interference task with a modified Stroop paradigm...
August 2, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098696/ninety-babies-born-after-round-spermatid-injection-into-oocytes-survey-of-their-development-from-fertilization-to-2-years-of-age
#13
Atsushi Tanaka, Kohta Suzuki, Motoi Nagayoshi, Akihiro Tanaka, Youichi Takemoto, Seiji Watanabe, Satoru Takeda, Minoru Irahara, Naoaki Kuji, Zentaro Yamagata, Ryuzo Yanagimachi
OBJECTIVE: To compare physical and cognitive development of babies born after round spermatid injection (ROSI) with those born after natural conception. DESIGN: Comparison of efficiencies of ROSI and ICSI using testicular spermatozoa, performed in the St. Mother Clinic. Physical and cognitive development of ROSI babies recorded by parents in the government-issued Mother-Child Handbook was checked and verified by attending pediatricians. Data included baby's weight gain and response to parents' voice/gesture...
August 2018: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098526/axillary-artery-and-brachial-plexus-injury-secondary-to-proximal-humeral-fractures-a-report-of-2-cases
#14
Yukiko Karita, Yuka Kimura, Shizuka Sasaki, Taisuke Nitobe, Eiichi Tsuda, Yasuyuki Ishibashi
INTRODUCTION: Axillary artery and brachial plexus injuries have been reported to be associated with proximal humeral fractures. In this report, we present two cases of axillary artery and brachial plexus injury secondary to proximal humeral fracture. PRESENTATION OF CASES: Case 1: An 88-year-old woman with cognitive impairment slipped and fell at home. The diagnosis was left proximal humeral fracture. The second day, paralysis of left upper arm due to left axillary artery occlusion appeared...
July 25, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094180/working-memory-deficit-in-drug-resistant-epilepsy-with-an-amygdala-lesion
#15
Keiko Usui, Kiyohito Terada, Naotaka Usui, Kazumi Matsuda, Akihiko Kondo, Takayasu Tottori, Jun Shinozaki, Takashi Nagamine, Yushi Inoue
This study compared temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with amygdala lesion (AL) without hippocampal sclerosis (HS) (TLE-AL) with patients with TLE and HS without AL (TLE-HS). Both subtypes of TLE arose from the right hemisphere. The TLE-AL group exhibited a lower Working Memory Index (WMI) on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, third edition (WAIS-III), indicating that the amygdala in the right hemisphere is involved in memory-related function. [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission topography (FDG-PET) showed glucose hypometabolism limited to the right uncus for the TLE-AL group...
2018: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092659/cardiac-rehabilitation-and-its-effects-on-cognition-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-and-heart-failure
#16
Kannayiram Alagiakrishnan, Darren Mah, Gabor Gyenes
Cardiac rehabilitation program is an evidence-based intervention and established model of exercise delivery following myocardial infarction and heart failure. Although it forms an important part of recovery and helps to prevent future events and complications, there has been little focus on its potential cognitive benefits. Areas covered: Coronary artery disease and heart failure are common heart problems associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and cognitive decline is commonly seen in affected individuals...
August 9, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090133/quality-of-life-among-children-who-had-undergone-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-surgery
#17
Priyanka Prakash, Manju Dhandapani, Sandhya Ghai, Neena V Singh, Sivashanmugam Dhandapani
Background: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting is the most common neurosurgical treatment for hydrocephalus. In spite of significant developments in the technology and design of shunt systems, shunt surgery is still associated with morbidity. Aim: To identify the problems faced by children on VP shunt and assess their quality of life (QOL). Setting and Design: A cross-sectional exploratory study. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 children on VP shunt were selected through consecutive sampling technique, and hydrocephalus outcome questionnaire was used to collect the data, with the converted metric score ranging from 0 to 1...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084176/validation-of-the-cognitive-recovery-assessments-with-the-postoperative-quality-of-recovery-scale-in-patients-with-low-baseline-cognition
#18
A J Bowyer, J Heiberg, D I Sessler, S Newman, A G Royse, C F Royse
Patients with pre-surgery cognitive impairment cannot currently be assessed for cognitive recovery after surgery using the Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale (PostopQRS), as they would mathematically be scored as recovered. We aimed to validate a novel method to score cognitive recovery in patients with low-baseline cognition, using the number of low-score tests rather than their numerical values. Face validity was demonstrated in 86 participants in whom both the Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale and an 11-item neuropsychological battery were performed...
August 7, 2018: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079514/is-cerebrovascular-autoregulation-associated-with-outcomes-after-major-noncardiac-surgery-a-prospective-observational-pilot-study
#19
Alwin Chuan, Timothy G Short, Alexander Z Y Peng, Shelly Y B Wen, Alice X Sun, Timothy H Ting, Anthony S Wan, Linda Pope, Matthias Jaeger, Anders Aneman
BACKGROUND: Studies have identified multiple risk factors for development of cognitive decline after surgery. Impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation may be a contributor to postoperative cognitive decline. METHODS: One hundred and forty patients admitted for major elective noncardiac surgery were recruited. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to calculate the tissue oxygenation index of dynamic autoregulation (TOx). The primary endpoint was Day 3 cognitive recovery as assessed using the Postoperative Quality of Recovery Scale...
August 5, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077361/asmbs-pediatric-metabolic-and-bariatric-surgery-guidelines-2018
#20
REVIEW
Janey S A Pratt, Allen Browne, Nancy T Browne, Matias Bruzoni, Megan Cohen, Ashish Desai, Thomas Inge, Bradley C Linden, Samer G Mattar, Marc Michalsky, David Podkameni, Kirk W Reichard, Fatima Cody Stanford, Meg H Zeller, Jeffrey Zitsman
The American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Pediatric Committee updated their evidence-based guidelines published in 2012, performing a comprehensive literature search (2009-2017) with 1387 articles and other supporting evidence through February 2018. The significant increase in data supporting the use of metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) in adolescents since 2012 strengthens these guidelines from prior reports. Obesity is recognized as a disease; treatment of severe obesity requires a life-long multidisciplinary approach with combinations of lifestyle changes, nutrition, medications, and MBS...
July 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
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