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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458913/the-phylogenetics-of-the-global-population-of-potato-virus-y-and-its-necrogenic-recombinants
#1
Adrian J Gibbs, Kazusato Ohshima, Ryosuke Yasaka, Musa Mohammadi, Mark J Gibbs, Roger A C Jones
Potato virus Y (PVY) is a major pathogen of potatoes and other solanaceous crops worldwide. It is most closely related to potyviruses first or only found in the Americas, and it almost certainly originated in the Andes, where its hosts were domesticated. We have inferred the phylogeny of the published genomic sequences of 240 PVY isolates collected since 1938 worldwide, but not the Andes. All fall into five groupings, which mostly, but not exclusively, correspond with groupings already devised using biological and taxonomic data...
January 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217131/incomplete-infection-of-secondarily-infected-potato-plants-an-environment-dependent-underestimated-mechanism-in-plant-virology
#2
Lukas Bertschinger, Lukas Bühler, Brice Dupuis, Brion Duffy, Cesare Gessler, Gregory A Forbes, Ernst R Keller, Urs C Scheidegger, Paul C Struik
The common assumption in potato virus epidemiology is that all daughter tubers produced by plants coming from infected mother tubers (secondary infection) will become infected via systemic translocation of the virus during growth. We hypothesize that depending on the prevalent environmental conditions, only a portion of the daughter tubers of a plant that is secondarily infected by viruses may become infected. To test this hypothesis experimental data from standardized field experiments were produced in three contrasting environments at 112, 3280, and 4000 m a...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161740/serious-fungal-infections-in-ecuador
#3
J Zurita, D W Denning, A Paz-Y-Miño, M B Solís, L M Arias
There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed...
February 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106253/massive-plasmablast-response-elicited-in-the-acute-phase-of-hantavirus-pulmonary-syndrome
#4
Marina García, Ayelén Iglesias, Verónica I Landoni, Carla Bellomo, Agostina Bruno, María Teresa Córdoba, Luciana Balboa, Gabriela C Fernández, María Del Carmen Sasiain, Valeria P Martínez, Pablo Schierloh
Beside its key diagnostic value, the humoral immune response is thought to play a protective role in hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. However, little is known about the cell source of these antibodies during ongoing human infection. Herein we characterized B-cell subsets circulating in Andes-virus-infected patients. A notable potent plasmablast (PB) response that increased 100-fold over the baseline levels was observed around 1 week after the onset of symptoms. These PB present a CD3(neg) CD19(low) CD20(neg) CD38(hi) CD27(hi) CD138(+/-) IgA(+/-) surface phenotype together with the presence of cytoplasmic functional immunoglobulins...
May 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105849/antiviral-therapy-and-prevention-against-hantavirus-infections
#5
R Szabó
Hantaviruses are emerging zoonoses hosted by small mammals. In humans, they cause two diseases. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is mainly caused by Dobrava-Belgrade virus, Puumala virus, Seoul virus and Hantaan virus in Asia and Europe. On the other hand, the most important causes of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome are Sin Nombre virus and Andes virus in Americas. Ribavirin yet remains the only licensed drug against the hantavirus infections, but its sufficient antiviral activity remains an issue under discussion...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908796/detection-of-novel-gii-17-norovirus-in-argentina-2015
#6
Juan I Degiuseppe, Karina A Gomes, María F Hadad, Gabriel I Parra, Juan A Stupka
During the winter of 2014-2015 a novel GII.17 norovirus strain emerged as a cause of large gastroenteritis outbreaks in Asia; displacing the long-term predominant strain, GII.4. Although sporadically detected, the emerging GII.17 virus was described in North America and Europe. In this study, we describe the presence of this novel strain in Argentina (South America), and provide new information on the genetic diversity of GII.17 noroviruses. Ten stool samples from individuals (1-88years old; median: 5years old) experiencing gastroenteritis symptoms from San Martín de los Andes, Argentina were tested for Norovirus using RT-PCR...
January 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879458/the-changing-epidemiology-of-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-infection-in-peruvian-female-sex-workers-1993-2010
#7
Jenell Stewart, Kristen Heitzinger, Simon Pollett, Martha Calderón, Jorge Alarcón, Thanh G N Ton, Joseph R Zunt
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first human retrovirus to be reported and is associated with neoplastic, neurological, autoimmune, and infectious complications. HTLV-1 is endemic in Peru, with the highest prevalence reported among commercial sex workers. Seroprevalence data collected from Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs) working in Callao over three study periods between 1993 and 2010 were used to examine the secular trend in HTLV-1 prevalence. Between 1993 and 2010, the prevalence of HTLV-1 decreased significantly from 14...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795403/the-andes-virus-nucleocapsid-protein-directs-basal-endothelial-cell-permeability-by-activating-rhoa
#8
Elena E Gorbunova, Matthew J Simons, Irina N Gavrilovskaya, Erich R Mackow
Andes virus (ANDV) predominantly infects microvascular endothelial cells (MECs) and nonlytically causes an acute pulmonary edema termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). In HPS patients, virtually every pulmonary MEC is infected, MECs are enlarged, and infection results in vascular leakage and highly lethal pulmonary edema. We observed that MECs infected with the ANDV hantavirus or expressing the ANDV nucleocapsid (N) protein showed increased size and permeability by activating the Rheb and RhoA GTPases...
October 25, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783711/mechanistic-insight-into-bunyavirus-induced-membrane-fusion-from-structure-function-analyses-of-the-hantavirus-envelope-glycoprotein-gc
#9
Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Eduardo A Bignon, Eva Stettner, Scott Allen Jeffers, Jimena Pérez-Vargas, Gerard Pehau-Arnaudet, M Alejandra Tortorici, Jean-Luc Jestin, Patrick England, Nicole D Tischler, Félix A Rey
Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses transmitted to humans by persistently infected rodents, giving rise to serious outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), depending on the virus, which are associated with high case fatality rates. There is only limited knowledge about the organization of the viral particles and in particular, about the hantavirus membrane fusion glycoprotein Gc, the function of which is essential for virus entry. We describe here the X-ray structures of Gc from Hantaan virus, the type species hantavirus and responsible for HFRS, both in its neutral pH, monomeric pre-fusion conformation, and in its acidic pH, trimeric post-fusion form...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780263/endocytic-pathways-used-by-andes-virus-to-enter-primary-human-lung-endothelial-cells
#10
Cheng-Feng Chiang, Mike Flint, Jin-Mann S Lin, Christina F Spiropoulou
Andes virus (ANDV) is the major cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in South America. Despite a high fatality rate (up to 40%), no vaccines or antiviral therapies are approved to treat ANDV infection. To understand the role of endocytic pathways in ANDV infection, we used 3 complementary approaches to identify cellular factors required for ANDV entry into human lung microvascular endothelial cells. We screened an siRNA library targeting 140 genes involved in membrane trafficking, and identified 55 genes required for ANDV infection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621441/host-pathogen-evolutionary-signatures-reveal-dynamics-and-future-invasions-of-vampire-bat-rabies
#11
Daniel G Streicker, Jamie C Winternitz, Dara A Satterfield, Rene Edgar Condori-Condori, Alice Broos, Carlos Tello, Sergio Recuenco, Andrés Velasco-Villa, Sonia Altizer, William Valderrama
Anticipating how epidemics will spread across landscapes requires understanding host dispersal events that are notoriously difficult to measure. Here, we contrast host and virus genetic signatures to resolve the spatiotemporal dynamics underlying geographic expansions of vampire bat rabies virus (VBRV) in Peru. Phylogenetic analysis revealed recent viral spread between populations that, according to extreme geographic structure in maternally inherited host mitochondrial DNA, appeared completely isolated. In contrast, greater population connectivity in biparentally inherited nuclear microsatellites explained the historical limits of invasions, suggesting that dispersing male bats spread VBRV between genetically isolated female populations...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486439/hantavirus-infection-suppresses-thrombospondin-1-expression-in-cultured-endothelial-cells-in-a-strain-specific-manner
#12
Svetlana F Khaiboullina, Sergey P Morzunov, Stephen C St Jeor, Albert A Rizvanov, Vincent C Lombardi
Hantavirus infection is associated with two frequently fatal diseases in humans: Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The pathogenesis of hantavirus infection is complex and not fully understood; however, it is believed to involve virus-induced hyperinflammatory immune responses. Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) is a large homotrimeric protein that plays a putative role in regulating blood homeostasis. Hyperresponsiveness to inflammatory stimuli has also been associated with defects in the THBS1 gene...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414047/inhibition-of-the-hantavirus-fusion-process-by-predicted-domain-iii-and-stem-peptides-from-glycoprotein-gc
#13
Gonzalo P Barriga, Fernando Villalón-Letelier, Chantal L Márquez, Eduardo A Bignon, Rodrigo Acuña, Breyan H Ross, Octavio Monasterio, Gonzalo A Mardones, Simon E Vidal, Nicole D Tischler
Hantaviruses can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. To enter cells, hantaviruses fuse their envelope membrane with host cell membranes. Previously, we have shown that the Gc envelope glycoprotein is the viral fusion protein sharing characteristics with class II fusion proteins. The ectodomain of class II fusion proteins is composed of three domains connected by a stem region to a transmembrane anchor in the viral envelope. These fusion proteins can be inhibited through exogenous fusion protein fragments spanning domain III (DIII) and the stem region...
July 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300328/atomic-structure-and-biochemical-characterization-of-an-rna-endonuclease-in-the-n-terminus-of-andes-virus-l-protein
#14
Yaiza Fernández-García, Juan Reguera, Carola Busch, Gregor Witte, Oliberto Sánchez-Ramos, Christian Betzel, Stephen Cusack, Stephan Günther, Sophia Reindl
Andes virus (ANDV) is a human-pathogenic hantavirus. Hantaviruses presumably initiate their mRNA synthesis by using cap structures derived from host cell mRNAs, a mechanism called cap-snatching. A signature for a cap-snatching endonuclease is present in the N terminus of hantavirus L proteins. In this study, we aimed to solve the atomic structure of the ANDV endonuclease and characterize its biochemical features. However, the wild-type protein was refractory to expression in Escherichia coli, presumably due to toxic enzyme activity...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27233645/effect-of-vandetanib-on-andes-virus-survival-in-the-hamster-model-of-hantavirus-pulmonary-syndrome
#15
Brian H Bird, Punya Shrivastava-Ranjan, Kimberly A Dodd, Bobbie R Erickson, Christina F Spiropoulou
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease caused by hantavirus infection of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells leading to microvascular leakage, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion and high case fatality. Previously, we demonstrated that Andes virus (ANDV) infection caused up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and concomitant downregulation of the cellular adhesion molecule VE-cadherin leading to increased permeability. Analyses of human HPS-patient sera have further demonstrated increased circulating levels of VEGF...
August 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099308/depletion-of-alveolar-macrophages-does-not-prevent-hantavirus-disease-pathogenesis-in-golden-syrian-hamsters
#16
Christopher D Hammerbeck, Rebecca L Brocato, Todd M Bell, Christopher W Schellhase, Steven R Mraz, Laurie A Queen, Jay W Hooper
UNLABELLED: Andes virus (ANDV) is associated with a lethal vascular leak syndrome in humans termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The mechanism for the massive vascular leakage associated with HPS is poorly understood; however, dysregulation of components of the immune response is often suggested as a possible cause. Alveolar macrophages are found in the alveoli of the lung and represent the first line of defense to many airborne pathogens. To determine whether alveolar macrophages play a role in HPS pathogenesis, alveolar macrophages were depleted in an adult rodent model of HPS that closely resembles human HPS...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26982467/genome-sequence-of-a%C3%A2-divergent-colombian-isolate-of-potato-virus-v%C3%A2-pvv-infecting-solanum-phureja
#17
P Gutiérrez, H Jaramillo Mesa, M Marín Montoya
Deep sequencing analysis of the transcriptome of a Solanum phureja cv. Criolla Colombia plant with symptoms typical of a virus disease revealed an infection with potato virus V (PVV). The PVV-phureja genome comprises 9904 nt, exhibits 83% nucleotide identity with currently fully sequenced PVV isolates and contains one large ORF that codes for a polyprotein of 3065 residues flanked by 5' and 3' UTR of 217 and 448 nt, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the PVV-phureja polyprotein indicates that it is divergent with respect to most PVV isolates...
March 2016: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26907493/andes-hantavirus-infection-of-a-3d-human-lung-tissue-model-reveals-a-late-peak-in-progeny-virus-production-followed-by-increased-levels-of-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-vegf-a
#18
Karin B Sundström, Anh Thu Nguyen Hoang, Shawon Gupta, Clas Ahlm, Mattias Svensson, Jonas Klingström
Andes virus (ANDV) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), a severe acute disease with a 40% case fatality rate. Humans are infected via inhalation, and the lungs are severely affected during HPS, but little is known regarding the effects of ANDV-infection of the lung. Using a 3-dimensional air-exposed organotypic human lung tissue model, we analyzed progeny virus production and cytokine-responses after ANDV-infection. After a 7-10 day period of low progeny virus production, a sudden peak in progeny virus levels was observed during approximately one week...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26826986/-hantavirus-pulmonary-syndrome-in-buenos-aires-2009-2014
#19
Ayelén A Iglesias, Carla M Bellomo, Valeria P Martínez
Andes virus is the causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Argentina and neighboring countries. In our country four different areas are affected: Northwest, Southwest, Central and Northeast, where distinct Andes virus genotypes were characterized. Three genotypes were described in Buenos Aires province (Central area): AND-Buenos Aires, AND-Lechiguanas and AND-Plata. In this work, we considered all HPS cases confirmed by ELISA and real time RT-PCR during the period 2009-2014 in Buenos Aires province...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26726999/co-infection-by-chytrid-fungus-and-ranaviruses-in-wild-and-harvested-frogs-in-the-tropical-andes
#20
Robin W Warne, Brandon LaBumbard, Seth LaGrange, Vance T Vredenburg, Alessandro Catenazzi
While global amphibian declines are associated with the spread of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), undetected concurrent co-infection by other pathogens may be little recognized threats to amphibians. Emerging viruses in the genus Ranavirus (Rv) also cause die-offs of amphibians and other ectotherms, but the extent of their distribution globally, or how co-infections with Bd impact amphibians are poorly understood. We provide the first report of Bd and Rv co-infection in South America, and the first report of Rv infections in the amphibian biodiversity hotspot of the Peruvian Andes, where Bd is associated with extinctions...
2016: PloS One
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