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medical review

Fatemeh Babaei, Mohammadreza Mirzababaei, Marjan Nassiri-Asl
Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is found in vegetables and fruits. It is one of the major flavonoids that is part of human diets. Quercetin has several pharmacological effects in the nervous system as a neuroprotective agent. In this review, we summarize the research on quercetin and its role in memory in both animals and humans. Articles were chosen from the Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. In this review, we describe and summarize the importance of quercetin's presence in the body, particularly in the brain; its kinetics, including its absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion; its behavioral effects; and some of the possible mechanisms of action of quercetin on memory in different animal models...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Francesco Simonit, Fabio Bassan, Carlo Scorretti, Lorenzo Desinan
Complex suicides are rare and consist in the use of more than one method to induce death, representing a challenging investigation for forensic pathologists. According to the several combinations reported in literature, they have been classified into "typical" (where two common suicide methods are associated) and "atypical" (where more than two methods, or infrequent combinations of suicide methods are involved). In the case discussed here, an elderly man suffering of depression was found dead inside the tool shed of his house with a knife embedded in the abdomen and two plastic bags fastened around the neck using a twine...
August 2, 2018: Forensic Science International
Wolfgang Geidl, Chelsea Gobster, René Streber, Klaus Pfeifer
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to evaluate the quality of clinical guidelines (CGs) for MS and to critically appraise physical activity-related recommendations. DATA SOURCES: Medical databases (MEDLINE, TRIP), clearinghouses, and guideline developers. An expert was asked to confirm if the list of CGs was complete. STUDY SELECTION: Evidence-based CGs specific to MS with recommendations including aspects of rehabilitation or physical activity were included...
August 3, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Mabel Guzman-Rodriguez, Julie A K McDonald, Richard Hyde, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Erika C Claud, Prameet M Sheth, Elaine O Petrof
The study of complex microbial communities has become a major research focus as mounting evidence suggests the pivotal role microbial communities play in host health and disease. Microbial communities of the gastrointestinal tract, known as the gut microbiota, have been implicated in aiding the host with vitamin biosynthesis, regulation of host energy metabolism, immune system development, and resistance to pathogen invasion. Conversely, disruptions of the gut microbiota have been linked to host morbidity, including the development of inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, increased cardiovascular risk, and increased risk of infectious diseases...
August 10, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Bridget E Shields, Misha Rosenbach, Zoe Brown-Joel, Anthony Berger, Bradley A Ford, Karolyn A Wanat
Angioinvasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality due to their propensity to invade blood vessel walls, resulting in catastrophic tissue ischemia, infarct, and necrosis. While occasionally seen in immunocompetent hosts, opportunistic fungi are emerging in immunosuppressed hosts, including patients with hematologic malignancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), organ transplant, and poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. The widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis has led to an "arms race" of emerging fungal resistance patterns...
August 10, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Lena Alsabban, Felix Jose Amarista, Louis G Mercuri, Daniel Perez
PURPOSE: Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR) is a relatively uncommon condition. Its diagnosis, etiology, and management options are controversial. Furthermore, it is difficult for 1 provider to collect a large cohort of ICR patients to develop a statistically significant study of these concerns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to survey experienced temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgeons who have managed ICR cases relative to these concerns, as well as review the management outcome literature...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Kornelia Kreiser, Isabell Gröber, Claus Zimmer, Katharina Storck
BACKGROUND: Carotid blowout syndrome due to tumor infiltration, fistulas, and therapy-related necrosis can occur as late as years after the treatment. Reporting our experiences with preventive and acute treatment with stent grafts and discussing different ways of antiplatelet therapy. METHODS: We reviewed all patients between 2010 and 2016 who underwent stent graft placement and analyzed outcome, complications, and antiplatelet regime. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were treated in 24 sessions (n = 7 threatened, n = 5 imminent, and n = 12 acute bleeding)...
August 13, 2018: Head & Neck
Susan M Peterson, Cathi A Harbertson, James J Scheulen, Gabor D Kelen
OBJECTIVES: To meet the unique comparative data needs of academic emergency departments, we describe the recent five-year national and regional trends for adult emergency patients' characteristics and operational parameters at academic emergency medical centers. METHODS: Data collected from the recent five-year period academic year (AY) 2012 through AY 2016 of the Academy of Administrators in Academic Emergency Medicine (AAAEM) and the Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine (AACEM) Academic Emergency Medicine Benchmarking Survey were analyzed for trends in 1) ED volumes and modes of arrival 2) triage acuity level 3) trends in ED professional fee billing and 4) disposition patterns of ED patients including admission rates and walkouts...
August 13, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Yuko Mizuno, Darrel H Higa, Carolyn A Leighton, Katherine B Roland, Julia B Deluca, Linda J Koenig
OBJECTIVE: To provide the first systematic review on the associations between HIV patient navigation and HIV care continuum outcomes (i.e., linkage to care, retention in care, ART uptake, medication adherence, and viral suppression) in the United States (U.S.). We identified primary research studies that addressed these associations and qualitatively assessed whether provision of patient navigation was positively associated with these outcomes, including strength of the evidence. METHODS: A systematic review, including both electronic (MEDLINE [OVID], EMBASE [OVID], PsycINFO [OVID], and CINAHL [EBSCOhost]) online databases and manual searches, was conducted to locate studies published from January 1, 1996 through April 23, 2018...
August 9, 2018: AIDS
Suha Rizik, Fahed Hakim, Lea Bentur, Nira Arad-Cohen, Imad Kassis
BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised children are at high risk of rapid deterioration and of developing life-threatening pulmonary infections. Etiologies in this setting are diverse, including those that are infectious and noninfectious, and many etiologies may coexist. Accurate diagnosis is required for the rational use of medications. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can identify infectious causes in this population. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate diagnostic rate, safety, and changes in treatment following FOB with BAL, when applied with advanced laboratory diagnostic techniques...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Elizabeth K Potter, Luke Hodgson, Ben Creagh-Brown, Lui G Forni
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. Disturbed microvascular blood flow is associated with excess mortality and is a potential future target for interventions. This review addresses the evidence for pharmacological manipulation of the microcirculation in sepsis assessed by techniques that evaluate the sublingual microvasculature. METHODS: Systematic review using a published protocol. Eligibility criteria were studies of septic patients published from Jan 2000 - February 2018...
August 10, 2018: Shock
Mitchell L Schubert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the past year's literature, both clinical and basic science, regarding potential adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors. RECENT FINDINGS: Proton pump inhibitors are amongst the most widely prescribed and overprescribed medications worldwide. Although generally considered well tolerated, epidemiologic studies mining large databases have reported a panoply of purported serious adverse effects associated with proton pump inhibitors, including chronic kidney disease, cognitive decline, myocardial infarction, stroke, bone fracture and even death...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Hannah Lewis, Robert Egerman, Amir Kazory, Maryam Sattari
Diabetes in pregnancy increases the risk of adverse maternal, obstetric, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. Internists can reduce these risks by optimizing glycemic control before conception and providing effective counseling on strategies to reduce the risks associated with pregnancy and diabetes. Routine screening of reproductive-age women with diabetes should include a comprehensive physical examination and laboratory tests to identify at-risk patients and begin strategic management. A review of medications for teratogenic potential is also needed...
August 2018: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
K Simpson, P Chapman, A Klag
OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of relapse after discharge from the hospital in dogs with a diagnosis of presumed primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, risk factors associated with relapse and whether or not indefinite use of immunosuppressive medication influences risk of relapse. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records from August 2007 through July 2016 were reviewed to identify dogs with a diagnosis of presumed primary immune-mediated thrombocytopenia...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
R K Morgan, Y Cortes, L Murphy
Hypoglycaemia is a common, life-threatening complication that occurs as a component of a wide variety of disease processes. Despite its frequent occurrence, information concerning the aetiology, characteristics and outcomes of hypoglycaemic crises in veterinary medicine is limited. This review summarises the current understanding of the pathophysiology of hypoglycaemia, the body's counter-regulatory response, underlying aetiologies, diagnosis and treatment. Disease mechanisms are discussed and published evidence in veterinary literature regarding prognostic indicators, prevalence, diagnosis and treatment is examined for hypoglycaemia-related disease processes including insulinoma, glucose-lowering toxins and medications...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Anne Ducassou, Laetitia Padovani, Leonor Chaltiel, Stéphanie Bolle, Jean-Louis Habrand, Line Claude, Christian Carrie, Xavier Muracciole, Bernard Coche-Dequeant, Claire Alapetite, Stéphane Supiot, Charlotte Demoor-Goldschmidt, Valerie Bernier-Chastagner, Aymeri Huchet, Julie Leseur, Elisabeth Le Prise, Christine Kerr, Gilles Truc, Tan Dat Nguyen, Anne-Isabelle Bertozzi, Didier Frappaz, Sergio Boetto, Annick Sevely, Fatima Tensaouti, Anne Laprie
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to analyze survival and prognostic factors for children, adolescents, and young adults treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) for intracranial ependymoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 2000 and 2013, 202 patients aged ≤25 years were treated in the 13 main French pediatric RT reference centers. Their medical records were reviewed for information, treatments received, and survival rates. All children had received postoperative RT- conformal, intensity modulated, or proton beam...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Udaya Tantry, Rahul Chaudhary, Jacek Kubica, Kevin Bliden, Paul A Gurbel
All oral P2Y12 receptor blockers are associated with some degree of delayed onset and offset of pharmacodynamic (PD) effects in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Although intravenous glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are associated with rapid onset of action, they are also associated with delayed offset and other limitations such as elevated bleeding risk and thrombocytopenia. Areas covered: In this review, the authors focus on cangrelor, an intravenous, reversible P2Y12 receptor blocker with fast onset and offset of effects...
August 13, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Stephen Ross
Cancer is highly prevalent and one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Psychological and existential suffering is common in cancer patients, associated with poor psychiatric and medical outcomes. Promising early-phase clinical research (1960s to early 1970s) suggested a therapeutic signal for serotoninergic psychedelics (e.g. psilocybin, LSD) in treating cancer-related psychiatric distress. After several decades of quiescence, research on psychedelic-assisted therapy to treat psychiatric disorders in cancer patients has resumed within the last 2 decades in the US and Europe...
August 13, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Thomas W Flanagan, Charles D Nichols
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)2A receptor agonists have recently emerged as promising new treatment options for a variety of disorders. The recent success of these agonists, also known as psychedelics, like psilocybin for the treatment of anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and addiction, has ushered in a renaissance in the way these compounds are perceived in the medical community and populace at large. One emerging therapeutic area that holds significant promise is their use as anti-inflammatory agents...
August 13, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Rachel Jug, Xiaoyin Sara Jiang, Sarah M Bean
CONTEXT: - Feedback is the delivery of information based on direct observation that is meant to improve performance. Learning is at the heart of feedback, and as such, feedback is a required competency in pathology resident education. In the laboratory setting, the ability of laboratory professionals in all practice settings and experience levels to give and receive feedback is crucial to workflow and ultimately patient care. OBJECTIVE: - To summarize the importance of feedback, strategies for optimizing feedback exchange, and overcoming barriers to giving and receiving feedback...
August 13, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
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