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M Elzain, I Elimam, S Barry
While suicide and injury account for increased mortality, a large volume of premature deaths in psychiatry are due to medical conditions. The Royal College of Psychiatrists recommend that every new psychiatric admission should have a thorough physical examination within 24 hours of their admission. We randomly reviewed charts of 50 new admission to the Acute Psychiatric Unit to check the adherence to these guidelines. Forty patients (80%) had complete physical examination, nine patients (18%) had incomplete physical examination, and one patient (2%) had no physical examination in the Re Audit...
September 10, 2018: Irish Medical Journal
Jordan T Jones, Nasreen Talib, Daniel Lovell, Mara L Becker
BACKGROUND: Arthropathy of Down syndrome (DA) is largely under-recognized, with an average 2-year delay in diagnosis. Most patients present with polyarthritis, and treatment has historically been challenging. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate the clinical features and treatment of DA in the largest cohort reported to date. METHODS: In a retrospective chart review at two tertiary care hospitals, International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for Down syndrome (DS) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2015, were identified and charts reviewed...
December 13, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
Shanshan Qin, Lauren Nelson, Lori McLeod, Sonya Eremenco, Stephen Joel Coons
PURPOSE: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2009 guidance for industry on patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures describes how the Agency evaluates the psychometric properties of measures intended to support medical product labeling claims. An important psychometric property is test-retest reliability. The guidance lists intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the assessment time period as key considerations for test-retest reliability evaluations. However, the guidance does not provide recommendations regarding ICC computation, nor is there consensus within the measurement literature regarding the most appropriate ICC formula for test-retest reliability assessment...
December 13, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Amr El-Sayed, Mohamed Kamel
The invention of new techniques to manipulate materials at their nanoscale had an evolutionary effect on various medical sciences. At the time, there are thousands of nanomaterials which can be divided according to their shape, origin, or their application. The nanotechnology provided new solutions for old problems. In medical sciences, they are used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. They can also be applied in the preparation of nanovaccines and nanoadjuvants. Their use in the treatment of cancer and in gene therapy opened the door for a new era in medicine...
December 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Du Hyun Ro, Heejin Jin, Jae-Young Park, Myung Chul Lee, Sungho Won, Hyuk-Soo Han
PURPOSE: This study hypothesized that the use of bisphosphonates (BPs) after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is associated with a lower implant revision rate. This study aimed (1) to investigate the association between BP use and the revision rate of TJA and (2) to determine the relationship between the medication period and the revision rate of TJA. METHODS: National Health Insurance Service data on surgeries, medications, diagnoses, and screenings of 50 million Koreans were reviewed...
December 13, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Sriram Gubbi, Fady Hannah-Shmouni, Constantine A Stratakis, Christian A Koch
The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus can be affected by autoimmune-mediated structural and functional disruption. These autoimmune-mediated diseases occur more commonly in females and are often found during pregnancy or in the post-partum period. Autoimmune diseases can either affect parts of the pituitary or hypothalamus, or can involve both sellar and suprasellar structures. Most of these cases comprise primary hypophysitis (PRH). Over the years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of reported PRH cases and related disorders, including hypophysitis induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors...
December 13, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Mahmoud Abu-Amna, Gil Bar-Sela
INTRODUCTION: In a previous study, we found that co-administration of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with cetuximab was associated with increased skin toxicity. Both these drugs can induce hypomagnesemia. The aim of this study was to retrospectively explore the possible influence of PPI drugs on cetuximab skin toxicity and the potential synergistic effect of hypomagnesemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The files of all eligible patients treated with cetuximab during 2015-2016 with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) or head and neck (H&N) carcinoma were reviewed...
December 13, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
James Heath Pelham, Lynae Hanks, Stella Aslibekyan, Shima Dowla, Ambika P Ashraf
Aim: Significant knowledge gaps exist regarding lipoprotein profiles in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The primary objective was to analyze the type and nature of lipoprotein abnormalities present in children with T2DM and to identify determinants of adverse lipoprotein profiles. The secondary objective was to assess associations with elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), i.e., <8% vs. ≥8.0% and pediatric dyslipidemias in the setting of T2DM. Methods: This retrospective chart review included children with T2DM who had undergone lipoprotein analysis and were not on lipid lowering medications (n = 93)...
March 2019: Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology
Mohammad Adeel, Muhammad Shaheryar Ahmed Rajput, Asif Ali Arain, Maqbool Baloch, Mumtaz Khan
Introduction Ameloblastoma is a locally destructive tumor with a propensity for recurrence if not entirely excised. Management of ameloblastoma poses a challenge for all involved in the field of head and neck surgery because successful treatment requires not only adequate resection but also a functional and aesthetically acceptable reconstruction of the residual defect. Methods Patients who had histologically proven ameloblastoma between 1991 and 2009 were identified from the database of Aga Khan University Hospital...
October 10, 2018: Curēus
Aunaly Palmer, Lisa A Taitsman, May J Reed, Bala G Nair, Itay Bentov
Hip fractures result in significant morbidity and mortality in elders. Indicators of frailty are associated with poor outcomes. Commonly used frailty tools rely on motor skills that cannot be performed by this population. We determined the association between the Charlson Comorbidity Score (CCS), intraoperative hypotension (IOH), and a geriatric medicine consult index (GCI) with short-term mortality in hip fracture patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single institution over a 2-year period...
2018: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
Erfan Soliman, Sarujan Ranjan, Tianyou Xu, Carol Gee, Aidan Harker, Alvaro Barrera, John Geddes
There are 12 billion injections given worldwide every year. For many injections, the intramuscular route is favoured over the subcutaneous route due to the increased vascularity of muscle tissue and the corresponding increase in the bioavailability of drugs when administered intramuscularly. This paper is a review of the variables that affect the success of intramuscular injections and the implications that these success rates have in psychiatry and general medicine. Studies have shown that the success rates of intended intramuscular injections vary between 32 and 52%, with the rest potentially resulting in inadvertent subcutaneous drug deposition...
2018: Bio-design and manufacturing
Yoshinori Yanai, Takeo Kosaka, Hiroshi Hongo, Kazuhiro Matsumoto, Toshiaki Shinojima, Eiji Kikuchi, Akira Miyajima, Ryuichi Mizuno, Shuji Mikami, Masahiro Jinzaki, Mototsugu Oya
There is an increasing proportion of individuals aged 70 years and older, as well as an increasing life expectancy worldwide. The present study may guide the management of older patients with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA). The medical records of 241 older men aged >70 years who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) before prostate biopsy (PBx) at our institution were reviewed retrospectively. Multiple variables were evaluated as predictors for the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa)...
December 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Shadi Saleh, Amena El Harakeh, Maysa Baroud, Najah Zeineddine, Angie Farah, Abla Mehio Sibai
Background: Global mortality rates resulting from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are reaching alarming levels, especially in low- and middle-income countries, imposing a considerable burden on individuals and health systems as a whole. This scoping review aims at synthesizing the existing literature evaluating the cost associated with the management and treatment of major NCDs across all Arab countries; at evaluating the quality of these studies; and at identifying the gap in existing literature...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
Chirn-Bin Chang, Hsiu-Yun Lai, Shinn-Jang Hwang, Shu-Yu Yang, Ru-Shu Wu, Hsing-Cheng Liu, Ding-Cheng Chan
Background: PIM-Taiwan criteria were first established in 2010 for potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). Currently, updating of PIM criteria is mandatory because of newly established evidence and newly developed medications. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of PIM based on country-specific PIM criteria and factors associated with PIM use by applying 2010 version and newly updating PIM-Taiwan criteria in a cohort with polypharmacy. Methods: The baseline data of Medication Safety Review Clinic Taiwan (MSRC-Taiwan) study were used to investigate the prevalence of PIMs...
December 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Carla Gramaglia, Eleonora Gambaro, Giuseppe Bartolomei, Paolo Camera, Maira Chiarelli-Serra, Luca Lorenzini, Patrizia Zeppegno
Mounting evidence has shown that the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is substantially overlapping in the diagnostic subgroups of psychiatric disorders. While it is widely acknowledged that patients receiving antipsychotic medications are at higher risk of MetS than antipsychotic-naive ones, the association between antidepressants and MetS is still debated. The goal of our mini review was to analyse the relationship among depressive symptoms, antidepressant use and the occurrence of MetS. Adhering to PRISMA guidelines, we searched MEDLINE, reference lists and journals, using the following search string: ((("Mental Disorders"[Mesh]) AND "Metabolic Syndrome"[Mesh]) AND "Antidepressive Agents"[Mesh]), and retrieved 36 records...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Tomoko M Nakanishi
Since plants live on inorganic elements, absorbing ions from roots and transferring them to each tissue in a plant is an essential activity. However, little is known about the movement of the elements or water in plant tissue. Though fluorescent imaging is now overwhelmingly used at the microscopic level in biology, especially to visualize chemicals or organelles in a cell, radioisotope imaging has become one of the important methods for human imaging in the medical field. In the case of plant studies, however, real-time radioisotope imaging is little-known among plant researchers...
2018: Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Silvia A Purro, Mark A Farrow, Jacqueline Linehan, Tamsin Nazari, David X Thomas, Zhicheng Chen, David Mengel, Takashi Saito, Takaomi Saido, Peter Rudge, Sebastian Brandner, Dominic M Walsh, John Collinge
We previously reported1 the presence of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) deposits in individuals with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) who had been treated during childhood with human cadaveric pituitary-derived growth hormone (c-hGH) contaminated with prions. The marked deposition of parenchymal and vascular Aβ in these relatively young individuals with treatment-induced (iatrogenic) CJD (iCJD), in contrast to other prion-disease patients and population controls, allied with the ability of Alzheimer's disease brain homogenates to seed Aβ deposition in laboratory animals, led us to argue that the implicated c-hGH batches might have been contaminated with Aβ seeds as well as with prions...
December 13, 2018: Nature
Stefano Omboni, Mauro Tenti, Claudio Coronetti
Community pharmacists play a crucial role in hypertension management and their intervention, mainly including education, medication monitoring, and reviewing, blood pressure (BP) measurement and cardiovascular risk factors tracking, have proved to enhance BP control and adherence to antihypertensive treatment. A multidisciplinary collaborative approach with the referring physician and a patient-centered model of care have been proved to be particularly effective for improving control of hypertension and promoting patients' health...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Human Hypertension
Markos Kyriakos Tomidis Chatzimanouil, Louise Wilkens, Hans-Joachim Anders
BACKGROUND: In 2004, researchers reported that the number of nephrology clinical trials was low and that the reporting quality of such trials was suboptimal. Furthermore, the number or quality of preclinical kidney-related studies has not been systematically evaluated. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials published in 1966-2017 (listed in the Cochrane Library) and preclinical studies published in 1945-2017 (listed in PubMed). For reporting quality analysis, we evaluated the final main paper of 118 clinical trial reports and 135 preclinical studies published in leading journals in 1996, 2006, and 2016 on the basis of criteria from the widely used CONSORT and ARRIVE guidelines...
December 13, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Elaine Zibrowski, Lisa Shepherd, Kamran Sedig, Richard Booth, Candace Gibson
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of Lean Thinking as a quality improvement method for health care has been contested due, in part, to our limited contextual understanding of how it affects the working conditions and clinical workflow of nurses and physicians. Although there are some initial indications, arising from prevalence surveys and interviews, that Lean may intensify work performed within medical environments, the evidence base still requires detailed descriptions of the changes that were actually introduced to individuals' clinical workflow and how these changes impacted health care professionals...
December 13, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
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