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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219703/immunomodulatory-properties-of-1-2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamide-derivative-vl15
#1
Anna Maria Malfitano, Chiara Laezza, Simone Bertini, Daniela Marasco, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Maurizio Bifulco, Clementina Manera
1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamide derivative VL15 has been recently developed as a selective cannabinoid CB2 receptor compound. Given the high selectivity of this compound at the cannabinoid CB2 receptor and the well-known protective function of this receptor in neurological disorders with autoimmune component like multiple sclerosis, we assessed the immunomodulatory properties of VL15. We assessed on activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), proliferation and viability, cell cycle progression and measured activation markers and the expression of phosphorylated proteins...
February 17, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219599/aminophylline-effect-on-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#2
K Seo, J W Choi, D-W Kim, D Han, S J Noh, H S Jung
BACKGROUND: Aminophylline increases the intracellular concentration of cAMP and exerts an anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aminophylline on renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. METHODS: Thirty C57BL/6 mice were divided into 3 groups. In the sham group (group S, n = 10), only right nephrectomy was performed. In the control group (group C, n = 10), after right nephrectomy, the mice were subjected to 30 minutes of left renal ischemia...
March 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218280/mangiferin-from-pueraria-tuberosa-reduces-inflammation-via-inactivation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome
#3
Ramakrishna K Bulugonda, Kotha Anil Kumar, D Gangappa, Harshavardhan Beeda, Gundala Harold Philip, Dowlathabad Muralidhara Rao, Syed M Faisal
Recent reports have demonstrated the role of phyto-constituents in modulating inflammatory responses. Mangiferin isolated from Mangifera indica is known to induce potent anti-oxidative, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity is not properly understood. In this study we have isolated Mangiferin from the tubers of Pueraria tuberosa (PT-Mangiferin) and analysed the mechanism of its potent anti-inflammatory effects in LPS stimulated RAW 264...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212354/the-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-oxidative-stress-response-following-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats-and-the-expression-of-intracellular-adhesion-molecule-1-icam-1-and-s100b
#4
Yanwen Li, Shikun Liu
BACKGROUND Ischemia-reperfusion injury of whole brain involves a complicated pathophysiology mechanism. Dexmedetomidine (Dex) has been shown to have neuro protective functions. This study observed the effect of Dex on serum S100B and cerebral intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS Healthy Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (males, 7 weeks old) were randomly divided into sham, model, and Dex groups (n=20 each). A cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model was prepared by clipping of the bilateral common carotid artery combined with hypotension...
February 17, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197807/telomere-length-in-the-gastric-mucosa-after-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-and-its-potential-role-in-the-gastric-carcinogenesis
#5
Tomomitsu Tahara, Sayumi Tahara, Tetsuya Tuskamoto, Noriyuki Horiguchi, Tomohiko Kawamura, Masaaki Okubo, Takamitsu Ishizuka, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Yoshihito Nakagawa, Tomoyuki Shibata, Makoto Kuroda, Naoki Ohmiya
The molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication remain unclear. We examined the telomere length of gastric mucosa samples after successful H. pylori eradication in patients without and those with gastric cancer. Telomere length was measured by the real-time PCR among four different groups of biopsies: gastric body from subjects without history of H. pylori infection (Hp-: n = 23), gastric body from cancer-free subjects after H. pylori eradication (cancer-free body: n = 24), gastric body from early gastric cancer patients diagnosed after H...
February 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193640/grk2-mediates-arginine-vasopressin-induced-il-6-production-via-nf-kb-signaling-in-neonatal-rat-cardiac-fibroblast
#6
Feifei Xu, Suzhen Sun, Xiaojun Wang, Eran Ni, Lingling Zhao, Weizhong Zhu
: Elevated interleukin 6(IL-6) levels in congestive heart failure are associated with myocardial damage during acute exacerbation and with chronic inflammation. Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a hormone released in response to cardiac stress, could be a factor of inflammation and fibrosis in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Recently, we have shown that AVP promotes the proliferation of neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (NRCFs) through a V1Avasopressin receptor-mediated G protein-coupled receptor kinase2 (GRK2) signaling...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193539/dimeric-but-not-monomeric-%C3%AE-lactalbumin-potentiates-apoptosis-by-up-regulation-of-atf3-and-reduction-of-histone-deacetylase-activity-in-primary-and-immortalised-cells
#7
Julie A Sharp, Amelia J Brennan, Galina Polekhina, David B Ascher, Christophe Lefevre, Kevin R Nicholas
α-lactalbumin is a protein of dual function found in milk of most mammals. α-lactalbumin binds β-1,4-galactosyltransferase to form the regulatory subunit for lactose synthesis and has also been shown to cause cell death. This study shows, for the first time, that α-lactalbumin isolated in a rare 28kDa dimeric form induces cell death, while 14kDa monomeric α-lactalbumin is inactive. In contrast to the casein derived and chemically induced α-lactalbumin variants, MAL and HAMLET/BAMLET, the effects of 28kDa α-lactalbumin are calcium independent and, unlike MAL and HAMLET, 28kDa α-lactalbumin dimer causes cell death of primary mammary cells and a variety of immortalised cell lines, which are committed to cell death pathways within 1-4h of exposure...
February 10, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191863/ulinastatin-downregulates-tlr4-and-nf-kb-expression-and-protects-mouse-brains-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#8
Xiaofang Li, Likai Su, Xiangjian Zhang, Cong Zhang, Lina Wang, Yaoru Li, Ye Zhang, Tingting He, Xingyuan Zhu, Lili Cui
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory damage plays an important role in ischemic stroke and provides potential targets for therapy. Ulinastatin (UTI), a drug used to treat shock and acute pancreatitis in clinic, has attracted attention for its protective effects through immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of UTI in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is not clear. This study is to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of UTI and explore its underlying mechanisms...
February 13, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191652/goniothalamin-and-celecoxib-effects-during-aging-targeting-pro-inflammatory-mediators-in-chemoprevention-of-prostatic-disorders
#9
Larissa Akemi Kido, Fabio Montico, Débora Barbosa Vendramini-Costa, Ronaldo Aloise Pilli, Valeria Helena Alves Cagnon
BACKGROUND: Prostate is highly affected by aging, which lead to inflammatory disorders that can predispose to cancer development. Chemoprevention has emerged as a new therapeutic approach, intensifying studies evaluating the biological properties of new compounds. The aim of this study was to characterize the inflammatory responses in the prostate ventral lobe from senile mice treated with Goniothalamin (GTN), a promising natural compound with anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties...
February 13, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188410/simvastatin-inhibits-il-1%C3%AE-induced-apoptosis-and-extracellular-matrix-degradation-by-suppressing-the-nf-kb-and-mapk-pathways-in-nucleus-pulposus-cells
#10
Tu Ji, Li Wentian, Zhang Yukun, Wu Xinghuo, Song Yu, Kang Liang, Liu Wei, Wang Kun, Li Shuai, Hua Wenbin, Yang Cao
Statins are widely used hypocholesterolemic drugs that block the mevalonate pathway. Some studies have shown that statins may have the potential to inhibit intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration (IDD). Interleukin (IL)-1β, a catabolic cytokine, is a key regulator of IDD. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of simvastatin on IDD. The viability of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells was determined by the methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The apoptosis of NP cells was measured by flow cytometric analysis, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and western blotting of relevant apoptotic proteins...
February 10, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186459/bioactivity-of-carotenoids-chasms-of-knowledge
#11
Torsten Bohn
Carotenoid dietary intake, especially within fruits/vegetables and their plasma levels have been associated in many epidemiological studies with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases, including type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, several types of cancer, and agerelated macular degeneration. However, intervention trials with isolated carotenoids (as supplements) have fallen short of fulfi lling the hopes that were placed in these lipophilic pigments, often producing no positive or even adverse effects, such as increased lung cancer rate or total mortality...
February 10, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182096/veronicastrum-axillare-alleviates-ethanol-induced-injury-on-gastric-epithelial-cells-via-downregulation-of-the-nf-kb-signaling-pathway
#12
Wei-Chun Zhao, Yan-Shan Xu, Gang Chen, Yan Guo, Dan-Yi Wang, Gui-Bin Meng
We used human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1) line in an ethanol-induced cell damage model to study the protective effect of Veronicastrum axillare and its modulation to NF-κB signal pathway. The goal was to probe the molecular mechanism of V. axillare decoction in the prevention of gastric ulcer and therefore provide guidance in the clinical application of V. axillare on treating injuries from chronic nephritis, pleural effusion, gastric ulcer, and other ailments. The effects of V. axillare-loaded serums on cell viability were detected by MTT assays...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181299/phospholipid-localization-implies-microglial-morphology-and-function-via-cdc42-in-vitro
#13
Kyohei Tokizane, Hiroyuki Konishi, Kumiko Makide, Hiroki Kawana, Shinichi Nakamuta, Kozo Kaibuchi, Tomohiko Ohwada, Junken Aoki, Hiroshi Kiyama
Under a quiescent state, microglia exhibit a ramified shape, rather than the amoeboid-like morphology following injury or inflammation. The manipulation of microglial morphology in vitro has not been very successful, which has impeded the progress of microglial studies. We demonstrate that lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS), a kind of lysophospholipids, rapidly and substantially alters the morphology of primary cultured microglia to an in vivo-like ramified shape in a receptor independent manner. This mechanism is mediated by Cdc42 activity...
February 9, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179529/differential-disruption-of-nucleocytoplasmic-trafficking-pathways-by-rhinovirus-2a-proteases
#14
Kelly Watters, Bahar Inankur, Jaye C Gardiner, Jay Warrick, Nathan M Sherer, John Yin, Ann C Palmenberg
The RNA rhinoviruses (RV) encode 2A proteases (2A(pro)) that contribute essential polyprotein processing and host-cell shutoff functions during infection, including the cleavage of Phe/Gly-containing nucleoporin proteins (Nups) within nuclear pore complexes (NPC). Within the 3 RV species, multiple divergent genotypes encode diverse 2A(pro) sequences which act differentially on specific Nups. Since only subsets of Phe/Gly motifs, particularly those within Nup62, Nup98 and Nup153, are recognized by transport receptors (karyopherins) when trafficking large molecular cargos through the NPC, the processing preferences of individual 2A(pro) predict RV genotype-specific targeting of NPC pathways and cargos...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177129/role-of-parp-activity-in-lung-cancer-induced-cachexia-effects-on-muscle-oxidative-stress-proteolysis-anabolic-markers-and-phenotype
#15
Alba Chacon-Cabrera, Mercè Mateu-Jimenez, Klaus Langohr, Clara Fermoselle, Elena García-Arumí, Antoni L Andreu, Jose Yelamos, Esther Barreiro
Strategies to treat cachexia are still at its infancy. Enhanced muscle protein breakdown and ubiquitin-proteasome system are common features of cachexia associated with chronic conditions including lung cancer (LC). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP), which play a major role in chromatin structure regulation, also underlie maintenance of muscle metabolism and body composition. We hypothesized that protein catabolism, proteolytic markers, muscle fiber phenotype, and muscle anabolism may improve in respiratory and limb muscles of LC-cachectic Parp-1-deficient (Parp-1(-/-) ) and Parp-2(-/-) mice...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173836/complex-regulation-of-neutrophil-derived-mmp-9-secretion-in-central-nervous-system-tuberculosis
#16
Catherine W M Ong, Przemyslaw J Pabisiak, Sara Brilha, Poonam Singh, Federico Roncaroli, Paul T Elkington, Jon S Friedland
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) may be fatal even with treatment. Neutrophils are the key mediators of TB immunopathology, and raised CSF matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) which correlates to neutrophil count in CNS-TB is associated with neurological deficit and death. The mechanisms by which neutrophils drive TB-associated CNS matrix destruction are not clearly defined. METHODS: Human brain biopsies with histologically proven CNS-TB were stained for neutrophils, neutrophil elastase, and MMP-9...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173812/anthocyanins-encapsulated-by-plga-peg-nanoparticles-potentially-improved-its-free-radical-scavenging-capabilities-via-p38-jnk-pathway-against-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-oxidative-stress
#17
Faiz Ul Amin, Shahid Ali Shah, Haroon Badshah, Mehtab Khan, Myeong Ok Kim
BACKGROUND: In order to increase the bioavailability of hydrophilic unstable drugs like anthocyanins, we employed a polymer-based nanoparticles approach due to its unique properties such as high stability, improved bioavailability and high water-soluble drug loading efficiency. Anthocyanins constitute a subfamily of flavonoids that possess anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. However, anthocyanins are unstable because their phenolic hydroxyl groups are easily oxidized into quinones, causing a reduced biological activity...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173800/oxidized-ldl-induced-jab1-influences-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-independent-inflammatory-signaling-in-human-macrophages-during-foam-cell-formation
#18
Anja Schwarz, Gabriel A Bonaterra, Hans Schwarzbach, Ralf Kinscherf
BACKGROUND: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) mediates the transformation of macrophages (MΦ) to cholesterol-rich foam cells and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines during atherogenesis. JAB1 (Jun activation domain binding protein-1) is present in all stages of human plaques, involved in the Toll-like receptor-mediated activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and controls nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Thus, we were interested in the role of JAB1 during foam cell formation of MΦ after oxLDL exposition...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173625/bet-proteins-an-approach-to-future-therapies-in-transplantation
#19
Beatriz Suarez-Álvarez, Ramón M Rodríguez, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Carlos López-Larrea
In order to develop new efficient therapies for organ transplantation it is essential to acquire a comprehensive knowledge of the molecular mechanisms and processes, such as immune activation, chronic inflammation and fibrosis that lead to rejection and long-term graft loss. Recent efforts have shed some light on the epigenetic regulation associated with these processes. In this context, the bromo and extraterminal (BET) family of bromodomain proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT) have emerged as major epigenetic players, connecting chromatin structure with gene expression changes...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168814/targeting-multiple-pathways-reduces-renal-and-cardiac-fibrosis-in-rats-with-subtotal-nephrectomy-followed-by-coronary-ligation
#20
N R Oosterhuis, L G Bongartz, M C Verhaar, C Cheng, Y J Xu, A van Koppen, M J Cramer, R Goldschmeding, C A Gaillard, P A Doevendans, B Braam, J A Joles
AIM: Multiple interacting pathways contribute to progression of renal and cardiac damage in chronic kidney disease followed by chronic heart failure (renocardiac syndrome). We hypothesized that simultaneous pharmacological modulation of critical pathways implicated in renocardiac syndrome would effectively reduce fibrosis in and preserve function of heart and kidney. METHODS: Rats were subjected to subtotal nephrectomy followed 9 weeks later by coronary artery ligation...
November 7, 2016: Acta Physiologica
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