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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827109/chromofungin-chr-chga47-66-is-downregulated-in-persons-with-active-ulcerative-colitis-and-suppresses-pro-inflammatory-macrophage-function-through-the-inhibition-of-nf-kb-signaling
#1
Nour Eissa, Hayam Hussein, Laëtitia Kermarrec, Omar Elgazzar, Marie-Helene Metz-Boutigue, Charles N Bernstein, Jean-Eric Ghia
Chromogranin-A (CHGA) is a prohormone secreted by neuroendocrine cells and is a precursor of several bioactive peptides, which are implicated in different and distinctive biological and immune functions. Chromofungin (CHR: CHGA47-66) is a short peptide with antimicrobial effects and encodes from CHGA exon-IV. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by alterations in the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways, pro-inflammatory macrophages (M1), and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling leading to the perpetuation of the inflammatory process...
August 18, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821831/targeted-inhibition-of-rage-in-substantia-nigra-of-rats-blocks-6-ohda-induced-dopaminergic-denervation
#2
Juciano Gasparotto, Camila Tiefensee Ribeiro, Rafael Calixto Bortolin, Nauana Somensi, Thallita Kelly Rabelo, Alice Kunzler, Natália Cabral Souza, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt Pasquali, José Claudio Fonseca Moreira, Daniel Pens Gelain
The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a pattern-recognition receptor associated with inflammation in most cell types. RAGE up-regulates the expression of proinflammatory mediators and its own expression via activation of NF-kB. Recent works have proposed a role for RAGE in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we used the multimodal blocker of RAGE FPS-ZM1, which has become available recently, to selectively inhibit RAGE in the substantia nigra (SN) of rats intracranially injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819266/amalaki-rasayana-a-traditional-indian-drug-enhances-cardiac-mitochondrial-and-contractile-functions-and-improves-cardiac-function-in-rats-with-hypertrophy
#3
Vikas Kumar, Kumar A Aneesh, K Kshemada, Kumar G S Ajith, Raj S S Binil, Neha Deora, G Sanjay, A Jaleel, T S Muraleedharan, E M Anandan, R S Mony, M S Valiathan, Kumar T R Santhosh, C C Kartha
We evaluated the cardioprotective effect of Amalaki Rasayana (AR), a rejuvenating Ayurvedic drug prepared from Phyllanthus emblica fruits in the reversal of remodeling changes in pressure overload left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH) and age-associated cardiac dysfunction in male Wistar rats. Six groups (aging groups) of 3 months old animals were given either AR or ghee and honey (GH) orally; seventh group was untreated. Ascending aorta was constricted using titanium clips in 3 months old rats (N = 24; AC groups) and after 6 months, AR or GH was given for further 12 months to two groups; one group was untreated...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813782/urea-cycle-pathway-targeted-therapeutic-action-of-naringin-against-ammonium-chloride-induced-hyperammonemic-rats
#4
Arumugam Ramakrishnan, Natesan Vijayakumar
Ammonia is a well-known neurotoxin that causes liver disease and urea cycle disorder. Excessive ammonia content in the blood leads to hyperammonemic condition and affects both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission including brain edema and coma. Naringin, a plant bioflavonoid present in various citrus fruits and mainly extracted from the grape fruit. This study was designed to assess the protective effect of naringin on ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) induced hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced by intraperitoneal injections (i...
August 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813012/inhibitory-effect-of-lycopene-on-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-apoptosis-in-neuronal-cells
#5
Sinwoo Hwang, Joo Weon Lim, Hyeyoung Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Brain amyloid-β deposition is a crucial feature of AD, causing neuronal cell death by inducing oxidative damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate NF-κB, which induces expression of Nucling. Nucling is a pro-apoptotic factor recruiting the apoptosome complex. Lycopene is an antioxidant protecting from oxidative stress-induced cell damage. We investigated whether lycopene inhibits amyloid-β-stimulated apoptosis through reducing ROS and inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and NF-κB-mediated Nucling expression in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells...
August 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811301/topically-applied-carvedilol-attenuates-solar-ultraviolet-radiation-induced-skin-carcinogenesis
#6
Kevin M Huang, Sherry Liang, Steven Yeung, Etuajie Oiyemhonlan, Kristan H Cleveland, Cyrus Parsa, Robert Orlando, Frank L Meyskens, Bradley Andresen, Ying Huang
In previous studies, the β-blocker carvedilol inhibited EGF-induced epidermal cell transformation and chemical carcinogen-induced mouse skin hyperplasia. As exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation leads to skin cancer, the present study examined whether carvedilol can prevent UV-induced carcinogenesis. Carvedilol absorbs UV like a sunscreen; thus, to separate pharmacological from sunscreen effects, 4-hydroxycarbazole (4-OHC), which absorbs UV to the same degree as carvedilol, served as control. JB6 P+ cells, an established epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, were used for evaluating the effect of carvedilol on UV-induced neoplastic transformation...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808215/ginkgol-c17-1-inhibits-tumor-growth-by-blunting-the-egf-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#7
Yueying Li, Jun Liu, Xiaoming Yang, Yan Dong, Yali Liu, Min Chen
Ginkgol C17:1 has been shown to inhibit apoptosis and migration of cancer cells, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, we explored whether the inhibitory effects of Ginkgol C17:1 were associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and PI3K/Akt signaling. The results showed that EGF treatment increased the phosphorylation of EGFR, PI3K, Akt, mTOR and NF-kB, and also enhanced the proliferation, migration and invasion of HepG2 cells. Ginkgol C17:1 dose-dependently inhibited EGF-induced phosphorylation/activation of all the key components including EGFR, PI3K, Akt, mTOR and NF-kB, leading to a significant reduction either of proliferation or migration and invasion of HepG2 cells...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803264/hyaluronan-in-the-experimental-injury-of-the-cartilage-biochemical-action-and-protective-effects
#8
REVIEW
Angela Avenoso, Angela D'Ascola, Michele Scuruchi, Giuseppe Mandraffino, Alberto Calatroni, Antonino Saitta, Salvatore Campo, Giuseppe M Campo
INTRODUCTION: Our knowledge of extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and function has increased enormously over the last decade or so. There is evidence demonstrating that ECM provides signals affecting cell adhesion, shape, migration, proliferation, survival, and differentiation. ECM presents many domains that become active after proteolytic cleavage. These active ECM fragments are called matrikines which play different roles; in particular, they may act as potent inflammatory mediators during cartilage injury...
August 12, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803048/novel-unsaturated-glycyrrhetic-acids-derivatives-design-synthesis-and-anti-inflammatory-activity
#9
Bo Li, Shi Cai, Yong-An Yang, Shi-Chao Chen, Rui Chen, Jing-Bo Shi, Xin-Hua Liu, Wen-Jian Tang
To develop novel anti-inflammatory agents, a series of unsaturated glycyrrhetic acids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using RAW264.7 cells. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of NO inhibitory activity was analyzed. α,β-Unsaturated glycyrrhetic acids showed better activity, among them, compounds 6k and 6l with piperazine unit exhibited the most potent nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibitory activity (IC50 = 13.3 and 15.5 μM respectively). Furthermore, compound 6k could also significantly suppress LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression and IL-6 production through MAPKs and NF-kB signaling pathway...
August 3, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801636/inhibition-of-hypoxic-response-decreases-stemness-and-reduces-tumorigenic-signaling-due-to-impaired-assembly-of-hif1-transcription-complex-in-pancreatic-cancer
#10
Olivia McGinn, Vineet K Gupta, Patricia Dauer, Nivedita Arora, Nikita Sharma, Alice Nomura, Vikas Dudeja, Ashok Saluja, Sulagna Banerjee
Pancreatic tumors are renowned for their extremely hypoxic centers, resulting in upregulation of a number of hypoxia mediated signaling pathways including cell proliferation, metabolism and cell survival. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that Minnelide, a water-soluble pro-drug of triptolide (anti-cancer compound), decreases viability of cancer cells in vitro as well as in vivo. However, its mechanism of action remain elusive. In the current study we evaluated the effect of Minnelide, on hypoxia mediated oncogenic signaling as well as stemness in pancreatic cancer...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796790/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-msc-from-jak2-myeloproliferative-neoplasms-differ-from-normal-msc-and-contribute-to-the-maintenance-of-neoplastic-hematopoiesis
#11
Teresa L Ramos, Luis Ignacio Sánchez-Abarca, Beatriz Rosón-Burgo, Alba Redondo, Ana Rico, Silvia Preciado, Rebeca Ortega, Concepción Rodríguez, Sandra Muntión, Ángel Hernández-Hernández, Javier De Las Rivas, Marcos González, José Ramón González Porras, Consuelo Del Cañizo, Fermín Sánchez-Guijo
There is evidence of continuous bidirectional cross-talk between malignant cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC), which favors the emergence and progression of myeloproliferative neoplastic (MPN) diseases. In the current work we have compared the function and gene expression profile of BM-MSC from healthy donors (HD-MSC) and patients with MPN (JAK2V617F), showing no differences in the morphology, proliferation and differentiation capacity between both groups. However, BM-MSC from MPN expressed higher mean fluorescence intensity (MIF) of CD73, CD44 and CD90, whereas CD105 was lower when compared to controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794034/an-epstein-barr-virus-microrna-blocks-il-1-signaling-by-targeting-the-interleukin-1-receptor-1
#12
Camille M Skinner, Nikita S Ivanov, Sarah A Barr, Yan Chen, Rebecca L Skalsky
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes >44 viral microRNAs (miRNAs) that are differentially expressed throughout infection, can be detected in EBV-positive tumors, and manipulate several biological processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and immune responses. Here, we show that EBV BHRF1-2 miRNAs block NF-kB activation following treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokines, specifically interleukin-1 beta. Analysis of EBV PAR-CLIP miRNA targetome datasets combined with pathway analysis revealed multiple BHRF1-2 miRNA targets involved in interleukin signaling pathways...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792003/vaccine-modified-nf-kb-and-gr-signaling-in-cervicovaginal-epithelium-correlates-with-protection
#13
L Shang, A J Smith, C S Reilly, L Duan, K E Perkey, S Wietgrefe, M Zupancic, P J Southern, R P Johnson, J V Carlis, A T Haase
Cervicovaginal epithelium plays a critical role in determining the outcome of virus transmission in the female reproductive tract (FRT) by initiating or suppressing transmission-facilitating mucosal immune responses in naïve and SIVmac239Δnef-vaccinated animals, respectively. In this study, we examined the very early responses of cervical epithelium within 24 h after vaginal exposure to SIV in naive and SIVmac239Δnef-vaccinated rhesus macaques. Using both ex vivo and in vivo experimental systems, we found that vaginal exposure to SIV rapidly induces a broad spectrum of pro-inflammatory responses in the epithelium associated with a reciprocal regulation of NF-kB and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling pathways...
August 9, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782486/nf-kb-as-a-mediator-of-brain-inflammation-in-ad
#14
Jin Tae Hong
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. It is characterized by beta-amyloid peptide fibrils which are extracellular deposition of a specific protein, and is accompanied by extensive neuroinflammation. Various studies show the presence of a number of inflammation markers in the AD brain: elevated inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and an accumulation of activated microglia in the damaged regions. NF-kB is a redox of transcriptional factors, and it is known to be located in the genes involved in amyloidogenesis and inflammation...
August 7, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766353/the-significance-of-akt-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-the-posterior-cataract-animal-model
#15
D W Shao, X Q Zhu, L Huo, W Sun, P Pan, W Chen, H Wang, B Liu
OBJECTIVE: To establish SD rat posterior capsular opacification (posterior capsular opacification- PCO) animal model, and to detect the expression of Akt/NF-kb signaling pathway in the PCO model. METHODS: 30 healthy SD rats were randomly divided into control group (0d) and the experimental groups (7d and 14 d), there were 10 rats at all time points. All rats (right eye) were treated with the lens capsule, and the inflammatory reaction of the anterior segment of the eye and the occurrence of PCO at different time points were observed under the microscope...
2017: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756738/inflammation-stem-cells-and-the-aging-hypothalamus
#16
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James W Larrick
The aging hypothalamus has been hypothesized to play a key role in vertebrate aging. Increased inflammation in microglial cells during aging reduces the number of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the mediobasal region of the hypothalamus. Ectopic brain-specific expression of SIRT1 and localized hypothalamic expression of a dominantly acting nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) inhibitor to microglia or to NSCs extend life span in mice. NSCs in the hypothalamus secrete miRNA-containing exosomes and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that oppose aging-associated neurological and skeletomuscular dysfunction...
August 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756232/tim3-galectin-9-alleviates-the-inflammation-of-tao-patients-via-suppressing-akt-nf-kb-signaling-pathway
#17
Lihua Luo, Dongmei Li, Kang Wang, Shuang Li, Jigang Yang, Chunlin Li, Wei Feng, Hong Guo
Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is an autoimmune disease. Studies showed that T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cells play important roles in the pathology of TAO. Tim-3 and its only known ligand Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is related to the suppression of Th1 and Th17 cytokine secretion. This study aims to investigate the role of Tim3/Gal-9 in the inflammatory response of TAO. In this study, the levels of Tim3, Gal-9, and cytokines of Th1 (TNF-α and IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-4), and Th17 (IL-17) cells were analyzed in the blood samples of TAO patients and healthy controls as well as in orbital fibroblasts...
July 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753251/liraglutide-mitigates-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-pro-atherogenic-changes-and-microvesicles-release-in-huvec-from-diabetic-women
#18
Pamela Di Tomo, Paola Lanuti, Natalia Di Pietro, Maria Pompea Antonia Baldassarre, Marco Marchisio, Assunta Pandolfi, Agostino Consoli, Gloria Formoso
BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether exposure to GLP-1 receptor agonist Liraglutide could modulate pro-atherogenic alterations previously observed in endothelial cells obtained by women affected by gestational diabetes, thus exposed in vivo to hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and inflammation and to evaluate endothelial microvesicles (EMV) release, a new reliable biomarker of vascular stress/damage. METHODS: we studied Liraglutide effects and its plausible molecular mechanisms on monocyte cells adhesion and adhesion molecules expression and membrane exposure in control (C-) Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) as well as in HUVEC of women affected by gestational diabetes (GD) exposed in vitro to TNF-α...
July 28, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749599/heat-induced-inflammation-and-its-role-in-esophageal-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Mohaddese Maghsudlu, Ehsan Farashahi Yazd
Esophageal cancer as the sixth common cause of cancer death in the world consists of different histological types with various incidence patterns. Among them, esophageal adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma are the most prevalent types which also have different causality, cell of origin and risk factors. Since epidemiological studies have announced consumption of hot substances as one of the major risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma, evaluating the effect of this external stress on esophagus cells seems desirable...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748903/immunoglobulin-a-nephropathy-in-a-patient-with-igg-kappa-light-chain-myeloma
#20
Abhilash Chandra, Anupama Kaul, Vinita Aggarwal
Paraproteins can cause a variable set of pathologic changes in the kidney. The introduction of novel anti-plasma cell agents capable of reversing renal failure have revolutionized the management of paraprotein-mediated kidney injury. Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) has been shown to be involved in the development of human glomerulonephritis (GN). Inhibitors of NF-kB may provide potential agents for treatment of immune complex GN. In this paper, we report a patient with IgA nephropathy and IgG kappa myeloma, who responded dramatically to chemotherapy targeted toward myeloma...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
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