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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118350/neonatal-gut-and-immune-maturation-is-determined-more-by-postnatal-age-than-by-post-conceptional-age-in-moderately-preterm-pigs
#1
Shuqiang Ren, Yan Hui, Karina Obelitz-Ryom, Anne B Brandt, Witold Kot, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Thomas Thymann, Per T Sangild, Duc Ninh Nguyen
Preterm infants have immature organ functions that predispose them to gut and immune disorders. Developmental delays at preterm birth may affect various organs differently at term-corrected age. We hypothesized that gut and immune maturation in moderately preterm neonates depends more on birth and postnatal factors than on advancing post-conceptional age (PCA). Using preterm pigs as models, we investigated how gut and immune parameters develop until term-corrected age, and how these differ from those in term counterparts...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105058/vitamin-d-status-and-associated-factors-in-neonates-in-a-resource-constrained-setting
#2
Khadija Murtaza Bhimji, Helga Naburi, Said Aboud, Karim Manji
Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is emerging as a serious public health problem globally; however due to lack of resources, vitamin D levels are not routinely measured among neonates. The study was conducted to determine vitamin D levels in neonates and factors associated with the same. A cross-sectional study was conducted among neonates admitted at neonatal ward of a tertiary care hospital. Means and proportions were calculated from summarized data in frequency tables. Chi square test was used to determine association between vitamin D and various associated factors such as sex, infant birth weight, gestation age, parity of the mother, maternal age, and HIV status of the mother...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090126/cranial-sonography-in-preterm-infants-with-short-review-of-literature
#3
Rajendra K Diwakar, Omesh Khurana
Background: Premature newborn infants are exposed to a wide spectrum of brain lesions which are clinically silent supporting a possible role of cerebral ultrasound screening. Aim of the study is to describe the pattern of cranial ultrasound abnormalities in preterm infants defining the short term and long term neurologic outcomes. Material and Methods: A hospital-based bedside cranial ultrasound was carried out at day 1, 3, 7 and follow-up scan at 3-6 months in the Department of Radio-diagnosis...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089091/less-is-more-modern-neonatology
#4
REVIEW
Amir Kugelman, Liron Borenstein-Levin, Huda Jubran, Gil Dinur, Shlomit Ben-David, Elena Segal, Julie Haddad, Fanny Timstut, Iris Stein, Imad R Makhoul, Ori Hochwald
Iatrogenesis is more common in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) because the infants are vulnerable and exposed to prolonged intensive care. Sixty percent of extremely low-birth-weight infants are exposed to iatrogenesis. The risk factors for iatrogenesis in NICUs include prematurity, mechanical or non-invasive ventilation, central lines, and prolonged length of stay. This led to the notion that "less is more." In the delivery room delayed cord clamping is recommended for term and preterm infants, and suction for the airways in newborns with meconium-stained fluid is not performed anymore...
July 30, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084479/sequential-sonographic-features-in-neonatal-renal-vein-thrombosis
#5
Aleksandra Mikołajczak, Anna Tytkowska, Agata Jaworska, Alicja Wesołowska, Maria Katarzyna Borszewska-Kornacka, Renata Bokiniec
OBJECTIVES: Renal vein thrombosis in newborns is a rare but serious and acute disease. Clinical representations of RVT can vary from discrete symptoms to life-threatening conditions. Therefore imaging, and in particular sonography, plays an important role in the diagnosis of RVT in neonates. Gray-scale, color and spectral/power Doppler ultrasound are all used in the diagnosis of RVT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present retrospective sequential ultrasonic imaging of three patients (two term and one preterm infant) with findings characteristic of RVT...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075059/corticosteroids-for-preventing-neonatal-respiratory-morbidity-after-elective-caesarean-section-at-term
#6
REVIEW
Alexandros Sotiriadis, George Makrydimas, Stefania Papatheodorou, John Pa Ioannidis, Emma McGoldrick
BACKGROUND: Infants born at term by elective caesarean section are more likely to develop respiratory morbidity than infants born vaginally. Prophylactic corticosteroids in singleton preterm pregnancies accelerate lung maturation and reduce the incidence of respiratory complications. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effect of prophylactic corticosteroid administration before elective caesarean section at term, as compared to usual management without corticosteroids, in reducing neonatal respiratory morbidity and admission to special care with respiratory complications...
August 3, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072805/application-of-neonatologist-performed-echocardiography-in-the-assessment-and-management-of-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn
#7
REVIEW
Willem P de Boode, Yogen Singh, Zoltan Molnar, Ulf Schubert, Marilena Savoia, Arvind Sehgal, Philip Levy, Patrick McNamara, Afif El-Khuffash
Pulmonary hypertension contributes to morbidity and mortality in both the term newborn infant, referred to as persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), and the premature infant, in the setting of abnormal pulmonary vasculature development and arrested growth. In the term infant, PPHN is characterized by the failure of the physiological postnatal decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance that results in impaired oxygenation, right ventricular failure, and pulmonary-to-systemic shunting. The pulmonary vasculature is either maladapted, maldeveloped, or underdeveloped...
July 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30068006/accuracy-of-suction-rectal-biopsy-for-diagnosis-of-hirschsprung-s-disease-in-neonates
#8
Ashley Rebekah Allen, Angelica R Putnam, Angela P Presson, Chelsea McCarty Allen, Douglas C Barnhart, Michael D Rollins
PURPOSE:  Recent publications have questioned the sensitivity of suction rectal biopsy (SRB) for diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) in newborns. A recent European survey reported that 39% of pediatric surgeons performed full-thickness transanal biopsies due to concerns about the accuracy of SRB. We sought to examine our contemporary SRB experience in infants. METHODS:  A review was performed (2007-2016) of patients under 6 months of age who had a SRB at our children's hospital...
August 1, 2018: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30054165/neonatal-sepsis-of-early-onset-and-hospital-acquired-and-community-acquired-late-onset-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Eric Giannoni, Philipp K A Agyeman, Martin Stocker, Klara M Posfay-Barbe, Ulrich Heininger, Ben D Spycher, Sara Bernhard-Stirnemann, Anita Niederer-Loher, Christian R Kahlert, Alex Donas, Antonio Leone, Paul Hasters, Christa Relly, Thomas Riedel, Claudia Kuehni, Christoph Aebi, Christoph Berger, Luregn J Schlapbach
OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiology of blood culture-proven early- (EOS) and late-onset neonatal sepsis (LOS). STUDY DESIGN: All newborn infants admitted to tertiary care neonatal intensive care units in Switzerland and presenting with blood culture-proven sepsis between September 2011 and December 2015 were included in the study. We defined EOS as infection occurring <3 days after birth, and LOS as infection ≥3 days after birth. Infants with LOS were classified as having community-acquired LOS if onset of infection was ≤48 hours after admission, and hospital-acquired LOS, if onset was >48 hours after admission...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035724/evaluation-of-developmental-outcomes-with-bayley-iii-test-in-preterm-infants-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#10
M Kherkheulidze, I Chkhaidze, N Kavlashvili, E Kandelaki, N Adamia, D Abelashvili, T Tabatadze
Aim of our study was assessment of developmental outcome of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, evaluation of the impact of RDS on child's health, growth and neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. Case control study included 138 children, from those, 74 preterm (gestational age 32-36 weeks), who were divided into 2 study groups: I groups - involved 38 preterm with RDS and II group - 36 preterm patients without RDS and other neonatal problems. Control group included 42 patients born term with uncomplicated history...
June 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30035502/extrauterine-growth-restriction-at-discharge-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-retrospective-study-in-a-level-iii-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#11
Pedro C Marques, Gustavo Rocha, Filipa Flor-De-Lima, Hercília Guimarães
BACKGROUND: Extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) remains a serious problem among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and is a marker of severe nutritional deficit during the first weeks of life. It can lead to a higher risk of growth impairment during childhood and long-term medical problems. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors of EUGR in preterm infants below 1500 grams. METHODS: Descriptive retrospective study of all preterm infants with birth weight below 1500 grams who were born at and discharged from our center, from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2016...
July 23, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30033781/the-utility-of-amniotic-fluid-ph-and-electrolytes-for-prediction-of-neonatal-respiratory-disorders
#12
Seda Yılmaz Semerci, Burak Yücel, Ibrahim Mert Erbas, Osman Samet Gunkaya, Merve Talmac, Merih Çetinkaya
BACKGROUND: Amniotic fluid (AF) is a complex structure with a changing content by gestation. Lower genomic expression of Na channels in airways was shown to be associated with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The aim of this study was to determine the possible role of amniotic fluid pH and electrolytes for prediction of neonatal respiratory morbidities. METHODS: This was a prospective controlled cohort study. During C-section, 1 ml of AF was aspirated before incision of membranes...
July 22, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032881/plasma-concentrations-of-alpha-1-acid-glycoprotein-in-preterm-and-term-newborns-influence-of-mode-of-delivery-and-implications-for-plasma-protein-binding-of-local-anaesthetics
#13
M Anell-Olofsson, S Ahmadi, P A Lönnqvist, S Eksborg, H von Horn, M Bartocci
BACKGROUND: Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAGP) is an acute-phase protein with high affinity for amide local anaesthetics (LAs), and a major determinant of free and potentially toxic concentrations of LAs in plasma. Neonates are known to have lower plasma concentrations of AAGP than adults, and are at risk of developing high free concentrations of LAs. Data regarding AAGP in newborns are so far sparse. The aim of this study was to determine plasma concentrations of AAGP after delivery of preterm and term infants, and to investigate correlations between AAGP and gestational age, birth weight, gender, and mode of delivery...
August 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024662/labor-in-pregnancies-with-small-for-gestational-age-suspected-fetuses
#14
Damian Warzecha, Eliza Kobryń, Marta Bagińska, Dorota Bomba-Opoń
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is an unclearly defined condition described as a fetal weight which is too low in relation to gestational age. It is recognized in 10-15% of singleton pregnancies and can lead to severe complications, including stillbirth. To reduce the adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes, many medical interventions are being introduced by obstetricians. These, like all medical procedures, may induce further complications, such as preterm labor and its consequences...
July 19, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021557/determinants-of-perinatal-mortality-among-cohorts-of-pregnant-women-in-three-districts-of-north-showa-zone-oromia-region-ethiopia-community-based-nested-case-control-study
#15
Elias Merdassa Roro, Mitike Molla Sisay, Lynn M Sibley
BACKGROUND: Statistics indicate that Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality. It is however estimated that there is high rate of perinatal mortality although there is scarcity of data due to a lack of vital registration in the country. This study was conducted with the purpose of assessing the determinants and causes of perinatal mortality among babies born from cohorts of pregnant women in three selected districts of North Showa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia...
July 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018178/imposed-work-of-breathing-during-high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-in-spontaneously-breathing-neonatal-and-pediatric-models
#16
Alice Bordessoule, Lise Piquilloud, Aissam Lyazidi, Amelia Moreira, Peter C Rimensberger
BACKGROUND: High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is used in cases of neonatal and pediatric acute respiratory failure, sometimes even as the primary ventilatory mode. Allowing patients (at least neonates) on HFOV to breathe spontaneously soon after intubation has been shown to be feasible, and this is becoming a more generally used approach for infants and small children. However, such an approach may increase the imposed work of breathing (WOB), raising the question of whether the imposed WOB varies with the use of newer-generation HFOV devices, which operate according to different functional principles...
July 17, 2018: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003852/association-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-with-an-increased-risk-of-late-onset-neonatal-xepsis
#17
Rajeshwari Dhandai, Mamta Jajoo, Amitabh Singh, Anirban Mandal, Rahul Jain
Background Vitamin D deficiency in mothers and neonates is being recognised increasingly as a leading cause of many adverse health effects in the newborn infant, including sepsis. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary care Paediatric teaching hospital in northern India to assess vitamin D deficiency as a possible risk factor for late-onset sepsis (LOS) in term and late preterm neonates and also to examine the correlation between maternal and infant vitamin D levels during the neonatal period...
July 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997896/revert-to-the-original-time-to-re-establish-delayed-umbilical-cord-clamping-as-the-standard-approach-for-preterm-neonates
#18
EDITORIAL
Ryan M McAdams, Carl H Backes, Omid Fathi, David J R Hutchon
Delayed cord clamping, the common term used to denote placental-to-newborn transfusion at birth, is a practice now endorsed by the major governing bodies affiliated with maternal-newborn care. Despite considerable evidence, delayed cord clamping, not early cord clamping, continues to be viewed as the "experimental" intervention category when discussed in research studies. We provide a brief overview of placental-to-newborn transfusion in relation to birth transitional physiology and discuss areas where we may need to modify our interpretation of "normal" vital signs and laboratory values as delayed cord clamping becomes standardized...
2018: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986620/effects-of-antenatal-indomethacin-on-ductus-arteriosus-early-closure-and-on-adverse-outcomes-in-preterm-neonates
#19
Daniela Doni, Giuseppe Paterlini, Anna Locatelli, Sara Arnoldi, Maria Chiara Magri, Davide Bernasconi, Maria Grazia Valsecchi, Paolo Emilio Tagliabue
Premature birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Since gestational age at birth is the most important predictive factor of adverse neonatal outcomes, strategies to postpone premature labor are of major importance. Studies on tocolytic drugs show that COX inhibitors such as indomethacin are superior to others in terms of efficiency in delaying birth, but results concerning neonatal outcomes associated with prenatal exposure to these drugs show controversial results. Indomethacin is also used in the postnatal age for pharmacologic treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), but no data concerning the effects of antenatal exposure on postnatal ductal patency are available...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974046/prenatal-and-neonatal-factors-predicting-sleep-problems-in-children-born-extremely-preterm-or-with-extremely-low-birthweight
#20
Kristine M Stangenes, Mari Hysing, Silje K Fevang, Irene B Elgen, Thomas Halvorsen, Trond Markestad, Bjørn Bjorvatn
Objective: Prematurely born children have been reported to have more sleep problems throughout childhood than children born at term. The aim of this study was to explore if prenatal or neonatal factors can predict sleep problems at age 11 years in children born extremely preterm (EPT). Method: A prospective observational study of all infants who were born EPT in Norway in 1999 and 2000. Prenatal and neonatal data were collected by all Norwegian obstetric and pediatric departments. Parental questionnaire mapped sleep problems and sleep habits at the age of 11 years...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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