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Culture Syndrome

Lorna J Hale, Sara E Howden, Belinda Phipson, Andrew Lonsdale, Pei X Er, Irene Ghobrial, Salman Hosawi, Sean Wilson, Kynan T Lawlor, Shahnaz Khan, Alicia Oshlack, Catherine Quinlan, Rachel Lennon, Melissa H Little
The podocytes within the glomeruli of the kidney maintain the filtration barrier by forming interdigitating foot processes with intervening slit diaphragms, disruption in which results in proteinuria. Studies into human podocytopathies to date have employed primary or immortalised podocyte cell lines cultured in 2D. Here we compare 3D human glomeruli sieved from induced pluripotent stem cell-derived kidney organoids with conditionally immortalised human podocyte cell lines, revealing improved podocyte-specific gene expression, maintenance in vitro of polarised protein localisation and an improved glomerular basement membrane matrisome compared to 2D cultures...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Leila Hajivandi, Mahnaz Noroozi, Firoozeh Mostafavi, Maryam Ekramzadeh
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women. Inappropriate eating behaviors are some of the most important risk factors for obesity in all age groups. Therefore, performing comprehensive culturally sensitive interventions for modification of eating behaviors as a useful affordable strategy seems necessary. So, this study aims to present a comprehensive interventional program for promoting eating behaviors in adolescent girls with PCOS...
December 4, 2018: Reproductive Health
Hsin-Yi Huang, Ming-Chen Wang, Zhi-Yu Chen, Wen-Ying Chiu, Ko-Hua Chen, I-Chan Lin, Wei-Chung Vivian Yang, Chi-Chang Wu, Ching-Li Tseng
Introduction: Dry-eye syndrome (DES) is a general eye disease. Eye drops are the common ophthalmological medication. However, the ocular barrier makes it difficult to attain high drug bioavailability. Nanomedicine is a promising alternative treatment for ocular diseases and may increase drug content in the affected eye. Methods: To explore this potential, we constructed nanoparticles (NPs) containing an anti-inflammatory agent for DES treatment. The NPs were made of gelatin-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) with surface decoration by hyaluronic acid (HA) and designated "GEH"...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Stefan Hägele, Alexander Müller, Christian Nusshag, Jochen Reiser, Martin Zeier, Ellen Krautkrämer
Orthohantaviruses Hantaan (HTNV) and Puumala (PUUV) virus cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), that is characterized by acute renal failure with often massive proteinuria and by morphological changes of the tubular and glomerular apparatus. Orthohantaviral N protein is found in renal cells and plays a key role in replication. However, the replication in human renal cells is not well characterized. Therefore, we examined the orthohantaviral infection in different human renal cells. Differences in localization of N protein, release of particles, and modulation of the actin cytoskeleton between both virus species are observed in human renal cells...
November 30, 2018: Virus Research
Matthew T Pereira, Mridu Malik, Jillian A Nostro, Gretchen J Mahler, Laura Palanker Musselman
Increased intestinal barrier permeability has been correlated with aging and disease, including type 2 diabetes, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis and irritable bowel syndrome. The prevalence of these ailments has risen together with an increase in industrial food processing and food additive consumption. Additives, including sugar, metal oxide nanoparticles, surfactants and sodium chloride, have all been suggested to increase intestinal permeability. We used two complementary model systems to examine the effects of food additives on gut barrier function: a Drosophila in vivo model and an in vitro human cell co-culture model...
November 28, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Ivonne Hernandez Schulman, Wayne Balkan, Joshua M Hare
Chronic diseases and degenerative conditions are strongly linked with the geriatric syndrome of frailty and account for a disproportionate percentage of the health care budget. Frailty increases the risk of falls, hospitalization, institutionalization, disability, and death. By definition, frailty syndrome is characterized by declines in lean body mass, strength, endurance, balance, gait speed, activity and energy levels, and organ physiologic reserve. Collectively, these changes lead to the loss of homeostasis and capability to withstand stressors and resulting vulnerabilities...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Fangfang Di, Jiansheng Liu, Shang Li, Guangxin Yao, Yan Hong, Zi-Jiang Chen, Weiping Li, Yanzhi Du
Ovulatory disorder is common in patients with hyperprolactinemia or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Previous studies have shown that ATF4 plays critical role in apoptosis and glucose homeostasis, but its role in regulating reproductive function was not explored. The present study investigated the role of ATF4 in ovarian ovulatory function. Human granulosa cells (hGCs) from 48 women newly diagnosed with PCOS and 37 controls were used to determine ATF4 expression. In vitro cultured hGCs were used to detect the upstream and downstream genes of ATF4...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Cristina Sáez-López, Maria Teresa Salcedo-Allende, Cristina Hernandez, Olga Simó-Servat, Rafael Simó, David M Selva
Context: There is emerging evidence that sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is significantly reduced in chronic metabolic diseases, including obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We have recently reported using in vitro (HepG2 cells) and in vivo models (SHBG-C57BL/ksJ-db/db mice) that SHBG could play a role in arresting the progression of NAFLD by downregulating lipogenesis. Objective: The main aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which SHBG prevents the hepatic lipogenesis by examining the relationship between SHBG and a key lipogenic enzyme such as Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC) in the liver of obese subjects...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jeremy A Lavine, Arun D Singh, Kimberly Baynes, Sunil K Srivastava
PURPOSE: To report the multimodal imaging findings of immune recovery uveitis mimicking recurrent T-cell lymphoma after autologous bone marrow transplant therapy. METHODS: A 71-year-old man presented with posterior uveitis 6 weeks after chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplant for angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Multimodal imaging included fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography. Diagnostic testing included ocular polymerase chain reaction and diagnostic vitrectomy...
November 26, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Guadalupe Echeverría, Catalina Dussaillant, Emma E McGee, Catalina Mena, María Pía Nitsche, Inés Urquiaga, Marcela Bitran, Nuria Pedrals, Attilio Rigotti
Increasing scientific evidence shows that the Mediterranean lifestyle -including a characteristic dietary pattern as well as psychosocial and cultural features- has beneficial effects on human health. However, production and use of some of the distinctive components (e.g., olive oil, red wine, nuts, legumes, fish and seafood) of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) are not exclusively confined to the Mediterranean Basin, but are also found in other world regions, including California, Southwestern Australia, South Africa, and Chile...
November 28, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
M N Tarana, S M Shamsuzzaman
Pathogenic microorganisms are important cause of maternal and neonatal infections which are transmitted from colonized vagina of mother. The purpose of the present study was to detect the potential pathogens other than Group B Streptococcus in vaginal swab of pregnant women. This prospective cross sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to June 2014 at Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 224 vaginal swab samples were studied. Gram stain Nugent score was applied for all vaginal smear to detect bacterial vaginosis...
October 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Brian Arturo Mondeja, Javier Couri, Nadia Maria Rodríguez, Orestes Blanco, Carmen Fernández, Jørgen Skov Jensen
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma genitalium is a major concern worldwide. In Cuba, several cases of clinical treatment failure with 1 g single dose and extended azithromycin regimen have been detected and the aim of the present investigation was to retrospectively determine the prevalence of macrolide-resistance mediating mutations (MRMM) in M. genitalium-positive samples conserved at the Cuban National Reference Laboratory of Mycoplasma Research between 2009 and 2016...
November 29, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Christine Le, Dean Gennaro, Derek Marshall, Orly Alaev, Alicia Bryan, Aleksandra Gelfman, Zhe Wang
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Lemierre's syndrome is often misdiagnosed as a common cold or viral infection. Fusobacterium necrophorum is the most common causative organism. The recommended treatment regimen is 6 weeks of a beta-lactam antibiotic along with metronidazole. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present two cases of Lemierre's syndrome with internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis and positive blood cultures for F. necrophorum. The first case was successfully treated with 6 weeks of a beta-lactam antibiotic and 4 weeks of metronidazole, while the second case was successfully treated with 4 weeks of a beta-lactam antibiotic and 2 weeks of metronidazole...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Hiroshi Yabuki, Tatsuaki Watanabe, Hisashi Oishi, Masato Katahira, Masahiko Kanehira, Yoshinori Okada
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is one of the main causes of primary graft dysfunction that accounts for 25% of mortality after lung transplantation. Disruption of blood supply and subsequent reperfusion result in organ damage with activating innate and adaptive immune response, leading to inflammatory insults. The IRI after lung transplantation is primarily manifested by permeability pulmonary edema on the basis of pulmonary vascular endothelial cell injury as seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shiyan Song, Yong Tan
The present study aimed to examine the expression of FK‑506 binding protein 52 (FKBP52) in the ovary tissues of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and its action on mediating androgen receptor (AR) through the mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. PCOS model rats were established by dehydroepiandrosterone injection. Enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measured serum sex hormones. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to examine histological changes of the ovarian tissues...
November 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Isaac Chun-Hai Fung, Jing Zeng, Chung-Hong Chan, Hai Liang, Jingjing Yin, Zhaochong Liu, Zion Tsz Ho Tse, King-Wa Fu
BACKGROUND: Different linguo-cultural communities might react to an outbreak differently. The 2015 South Korean MERS outbreak presented an opportunity for us to compare tweets responding to the same outbreak in different languages. METHODS: We obtained a 1% sample through Twitter streaming application programming interface from June 1 to 30, 2015. We identified MERS-related tweets with keywords such as 'MERS' and its translation in five different languages. We translated non-English tweets into English for statistical comparison...
March 2018: Infection, disease & health
Patricia Pérez, María Q Marín, Adrián Lázaro-Frías, Nereida Jiménez de Oya, Ana-Belén Blázquez, Estela Escribano-Romero, Carlos Óscar S Sorzano, Javier Ortego, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Mariano Esteban, Miguel A Martín-Acebes, Juan García-Arriaza
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that affects humans and can cause severe neurological complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Since 2007 there have been three large outbreaks; the last and larger spread in the Americas in 2015. Actually, ZIKV is circulating in the Americas, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands, and represents a potential pandemic threat. Given the rapid ZIKV dissemination and the severe neurological and teratogenic sequelae associated with ZIKV infection, the development of a safe and efficacious vaccine is critical...
November 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrea T Obi, Christopher J Tignanelli, Benjamin N Jacobs, Shipra Arya, Pauline K Park, Thomas W Wakefield, Peter K Henke, Lena M Napolitano
BACKGROUND: An association between increased venous thromboembolism (VTE) events and influenza A H1N1 (H1N1) was noted in the first 10 patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). An empirical systemic anticoagulation protocol (heparin intravenous infusion) was initiated when autopsy of patients with severe hypoxemia confirmed multiple primary pulmonary thrombi and emboli. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between H1N1 and VTE events and to assess the efficacy of empirical systemic heparin anticoagulation in preventing VTE and death in H1N1 severe ARDS patients...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
C Nabet, C Belzunce, D Blanchet, P Abboud, F Djossou, B Carme, C Aznar, M Demar
BACKGROUND: American histoplasmosis is a mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. A variety of clinical features of histoplasmosis have been commonly described ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe pulmonary infections. In immunocompromised individuals, progressive disseminated forms are frequent, leading to fatal outcome if untreated. However, H. capsulatum sinusitis is unusual with a few cases documented over the last three decades and may be underdiagnosed or confused with other fungal aetiologies, especially outside endemic regions...
November 26, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Daniel G Dunlap, Christopher W Marshall, Adam Fitch, Sarah F Rapport, Vaughn S Cooper, Bryan J McVerry, Alison Morris, Georgios D Kitsios
BACKGROUND Severe pneumonia requiring admission to an intensive care unit carries high morbidity and mortality. Evidence-based management includes early administration of empiric antibiotics against plausible bacterial pathogens while awaiting results of microbiologic cultures. However, in over 60% of pneumonia cases, no causative pathogen is identified with conventional diagnostic techniques. In this case report, we demonstrate how direct-from-sample sequencing of bacterial DNA could have identified the multiple culprit pathogens early in the disease course to guide appropriate antibiotic management...
November 26, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
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