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Hepatitis c screening

Fabrizio Fabrizi, Piergiorgio Messa
Liver disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is most commonly due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and contributes to increased rates of mortality. Among the pre-dialysis population, the estimated prevalence of anti-HCV positivity is based on few, limited-size studies. In hemodialysis patients however, HCV remains very prevalent despite large declines in seropositivity rates in dialysis facilities in developed countries after preventive measures were adopted in the 1990s. Recent surveys indicate that the HCV seropositivity prevalence ranges from 1...
December 9, 2018: Seminars in Dialysis
Graham R Foster, Gregory J Dore, Stanley Wang, Jason Grebely, Kenneth E Sherman, Axel Baumgarten, Brian Conway, Daniel Jackson, Tarik Asselah, Michael Gschwantler, Krzysztof Tomasiewicz, Humberto Aguilar, Armen Asatryan, Yiran Hu, Federico J Mensa
BACKGROUND: Injection drug use is the primary mode of transmission for hepatitis C virus (HCV), and treatment guidelines recommend treating HCV-infected people who use drugs; however, concerns about adherence, effectiveness, and reinfection have impeded treatment uptake. METHODS: Data were pooled from seven phase III trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of 8 or 12 weeks of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (G/P) in patients chronically infected with HCV genotypes 1-6...
November 24, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jagpreet Chhatwal, Norman L Sussman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Christine Chang, Chao-Hung Hung, Jing-Houng Wang, Sheng-Nan Lu
Hepatitis C virus core antigen (HCV-Ag) immunoassay has been proposed as a more cost and time efficient one-step alternative to the current two-step screening and diagnostic process. This study investigates the correlation between the HCV-Ag immunoassay and the current gold standard of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecular assay. Stored sera of 221 consecutive treatment-naive patients tested anti-HCV positive were selected to undergo both HCV-Ag immunoassay and HCV RNA molecular assay. Active infection status and HCV genotype were determined using both assays, and correlation was calculated using a logarithmic scale...
December 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Elena Csernok, Xavier Bossuyt
The diagnosis of systemic vasculitis is challenging. Laboratory testing may provide useful information. Routine laboratory tests include erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), blood count, serum creatinine, urinalysis, specific autoantibodies, complement, immunoglobulin, cryoglobulin, and Hepatitis B and C serology. Although ESR and CRP are often helpful for the diagnosis of vasculitis, they are nonspecific and do not help in distinguishing between vasculitis disease activity and a concomitant infection or another source of inflammation...
February 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
Rob Bielen, Cécile Kremer, Özgür M Koc, Dana Busschots, Diana M Hendrickx, Pascal Vanelderen, Niel Hens, Frederik Nevens, Geert Robaeys
INTRODUCTION: Patients are not screened adequately for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Belgium. In the USA, the CDC recommends screening for patients born in the babyboom period (1945-1965). In Europe, the babyboom cohort was born between 1955-1974, but no screening policy has been targeted to this group. We aimed to study the prevalence of HCV in an emergency department (ED) population in Belgium and the risk factors associated with HCV infection. METHOD: We performed a monocentric, cross-sectional seroprevalence study between January and November 2017 in a large Belgian non-university hospital...
December 7, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Autumn Zuckerman, Alicia Carver, Cody A Chastain
Purpose of review: An increasing number of specialists and non-specialists are developing clinical programs to treat and cure hepatitis C virus (HCV). The goal of this paper is to evaluate and describe optimal strategies to improve outcomes related to HCV care delivery. Recent findings: Screening and diagnosis of HCV should be guided by established recommendations. Given the recognized disparity in HCV diagnosis and linkage to care, a multi-modal approach involving care coordination and technology resources should be used to improve patient engagement...
2018: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases
Jan Klimas, Christopher Fairgrieve, Helen Tobin, Catherine-Anne Field, Clodagh Sm O'Gorman, Liam G Glynn, Eamon Keenan, Jean Saunders, Gerard Bury, Colum Dunne, Walter Cullen
BACKGROUND: Problem alcohol use is common among people who use illicit drugs (PWID) and is associated with adverse health outcomes. It is also an important factor contributing to a poor prognosis among drug users with hepatitis C virus (HCV) as it impacts on progression to hepatic cirrhosis or opioid overdose in PWID. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in PWID (users of opioids and stimulants). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group trials register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, from inception up to August 2017, and the reference lists of eligible articles...
December 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yasser Farid, Charlotte Martin, Marc Delforge, Stephane De Wit
OBJECTIVES: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are both worldwide health concerns with similar routes of transmission and no curative treatment to date. Coinfection is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We aim to provide epidemiological data about HIV-HBV coinfected patients and asses if management of patients following European recommendation (EACS) was achieved in a large AIDS Reference Center in Belgium. METHODS: Retrospective review of the HIV database of Saint-Pierre University Hospital in Brussels (Belgium) focusing on HIV-HBV coinfected patients in active follow-up...
December 4, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
Joanne E F Costa, Viviane M S Morais, Juliana P Gonçales, Ana Anizia D P Medeiros, Haline Barroso, Adriana P Compri, Lucila Fukasawa, Regina C Moreira, Maria Rosângela C D Coêlho
Leprosy patients may present with immune system impairment and have a higher HBV seroprevalence, justifying the investigation of occult HBV infection in these individuals. The aim of this study is to verify the frequency and the clinical factors associated with occult HBV infection in leprosy patients. Between 2015 and 2016, leprosy patients from a Reference Center in Brazil were interviewed to assess clinical data. Blood samples were collected for the screening of HBV serological markers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Nitika Sanger, Meha Bhatt, Ieta Shams, Hamnah Shahid, Candice Luo, Sabrina Lue Tam, M Constantine Samaan, Russell de Souza, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid misuse in Canada has become a serious public health concern and has contributed to Canada's opioid crisis. There are thousands of Canadians who are currently receiving treatment for opioid use disorder, which is a chronic relapsing disorder with enormous impact on individuals and society. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and demographic differences between cohorts of patients who were introduced to opioids through a prescription and those introduced to opioids for non-medical purposes...
November 2018: Pain Physician
Ricardo Niklas Werner, Matthew Gaskins, Alexander Nast, Corinna Dressler
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) and who engage in condomless anal intercourse with casual partners are at high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but reliable epidemiological data are scarce. Studies on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) enrol MSM who indicate that they engage in behaviour that puts them at high risk of acquiring HIV. Because they also screen for STIs at regular intervals, these studies may serve as a valuable source to estimate incidence rates of STIs in this subpopulation of MSM...
2018: PloS One
Vasily Isakov, Vladimir Chulanov, Dzhamal Abdurakhmanov, Eduard Burnevich, Elena Nurmukhametova, Galina Kozhevnikova, Natalya Gankina, Sergey Zhuravel, Svetlana Romanova, Robert H Hyland, Sophia Lu, Evguenia S Svarovskaia, John McNally, Diana M Brainard, Vladimir Ivashkin, Vyacheslav Morozov, Igor Bakulin, Martin Lagging, Konstantin Zhdanov, Ola Weiland
BACKGROUND: In both Russia and Sweden, the dominant hepatitis C virus (HCV) is genotype 1, but around one-third of patients have genotype 3 infection. For such countries, HCV genotype testing is recommended prior to therapy. An effective pangenotypic therapy may potentially eliminate the need for genotyping. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for 12 weeks in patients from Russia and Sweden. METHODS: In an open-label, single-arm phase-3 study, patients could have HCV genotype 1-6 infection and were treatment-naïve or interferon treatment-experienced...
November 30, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Kornélia Kurucz, Dávid Hederics, Dominika Bali, Gábor Kemenesi, Győző Horváth, Ferenc Jakab
Hepatitis E virus is a major causative agent of acute hepatitis worldwide. Despite its zoonotic potential, there is limited information about the natural chain of hepevirus infection in wildlife, and the potential reservoir species. In this study, we performed a HEV survey by heminested RT-PCR on rodent samples from an urban environment (in the city of Pécs, Hungary) and investigated the prevalence of the virus among these native rodent species (Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus flavicollis, Apodemus sylvaticus, Microtus arvalis and Myodes glareolus)...
November 29, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Timothy Pham, R Chris Rathbun, Shellie Keast, Nancy Nesser, Kevin Farmer, Grant Skrepnek
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: To assess inpatient clinical and economic outcomes for AIDS/HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection in the United States from 2003 to 2014. METHOD: This historical cohort study utilized nationally representative hospital discharge data to investigate inpatient mortality, length of stay (LoS), and inflation-adjusted charges among adults (≥18 years). Outcomes were analysed via multivariable generalized linear models according to demographics, hospital and clinical characteristics, and AIDS/HIV or HCV sequelae...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
María Buti, Raquel Domínguez-Hernández, Miguel Ángel Casado, Eliazar Sabater, Rafael Esteban
BACKGROUND: Elimination of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection requires high diagnostic rates and universal access to treatment. Around 40% of infected individuals are unaware of their infection, which indicates that effective screening strategies are needed. We analyzed the efficiency (incremental cost-utility ratio, ICUR) of 3 HCV screening strategies: a) general population of adults, b) high-risk groups, and c) population with the highest anti-HCV prevalence plus high-risk groups. METHODS: An analytical decision model, projecting progression of the disease over a lifetime, was used to establish the candidate population for HCV screening...
2018: PloS One
Jolynne Mokaya, Anna L McNaughton, Lela Burbridge, Tongai Maponga, Geraldine O'Hara, Monique Andersson, Janet Seeley, Philippa C Matthews
Background: The Global Hepatitis Health Sector Strategy is aiming for the elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. Successful diagnostic, treatment and preventive strategies can reduce incidence and morbidity; it is important to ensure that these interventions and services are not only available, but also accessible. Stigma, poverty, and lack of knowledge may present a substantial barrier, especially in resource limited settings. We therefore set out to assimilate evidence for the nature and impact of stigma on the lives of people with HBV infection and on the community, and to suggest ways to tackle stigma and discrimination...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Raffaele Bruno, Valentina Zuccaro, Carmine Pinto, Massimo Puoti, Giovanni Battista Gaeta, Anna Pagani, Gloria Taliani, Fausto Baldanti, Saverio Cinieri, Paolo Pedrazzoli
PURPOSE: To develop, on behalf of Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Medica and Società Italiana di Malattie Infettive e Tropicali, evidence-based and practical recommendations for the management of cancer patients who are Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive and are undergoing antitumor treatment. METHODS: Recommendations were generated by panel of experts selected by the boards of the Societies Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Medica and Società Italiana di Malattie Infettive e Tropicali (4 oncologists and 6 infectious disease and hepatology specialist)...
October 25, 2018: Seminars in Oncology
Shahram Samiee, Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi, Mohammad Ali Javadi, Abouzar Bagheri, Sahar Balagholi, Marzieh Sadat Hashemi
Purpose: The aim of this study was to report the results of the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in cornea donors at the Central Eye Bank of Iran. Methods: Between 2014 and 2016, all cornea donors that had negative screening serologic results for hepatitis B (HB) surface antigen, HB surface antibody (Ab), hepatitis C virus Ab, human immune deficiency virus Ab, human T-cell leukemia virus Ab, and syphilis, and positive serology for HB core Ab were subjected to real-time PCR with a detection limit of 400 IU/mL to identify HBV DNA...
October 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
R Vargas, J C Balasch, I Brandts, F Reyes-López, L Tort, M Teles
Environmental insults, such as exposure to pathogens, modulate the behavioural coping style of animals to stressors, and repeated exposure to stressful environments may lead to species-specific infection phenotypes. To analyse the influence of stress behavioural phenotypes on immune and metabolic performance, gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) were first screened for proactive and reactive coping styles. Once characterized, both behavioural phenotypes fish groups were bath vaccinated with bacterin from Vibrio anguillarum, an opportunistic widespread pathogen of fish...
November 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
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