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Hepatitis c screening

Shrikant Dashrath Warkad, Satish Balasaheb Nimse, Keum-Soo Song, Taisun Kim
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 71 million people were living with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection worldwide in 2015. Each year, about 399,000 HCV-infected people succumb to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver failure. Therefore, screening of HCV infection with simple, rapid, but highly sensitive and specific methods can help to curb the global burden on HCV healthcare. Apart from the determination of viral load/viral clearance, the identification of specific HCV genotype is also critical for successful treatment of hepatitis C...
October 12, 2018: Sensors
Motaz Fathy Saad, Saleh Alenezi, Haifaa Asker
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of death, especially in immunocompromised patients. The lack of clear prevalence data in the Middle East makes it difficult to estimate the true morbidity and mortality burden of HCV. In Kuwait, estimating the burden of disease is complicated by the constant flow of expatriates, many of whom are from HCV-endemic areas. The development of new and revolutionary treatments for HCV necessitates the standardization of clinical practice across all healthcare institutions...
2018: Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research
C Y Wang, J Wen, Y H Zhou, S Li, Y Zhang, W Lu, J Li
Objective: A retrospective analysis of the predictive value of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography for esophageal varices in post-hepatitis B cirrhosis patients. Methods: 124 patients with post-hepatitis B cirrhosis who were admitted to Tianjin Second People's Hospital from August 2016 to August 2017 were selected. According to the shape of esophageal varices under gastroscopy and the risk of bleeding, patients were divided into 4 groups, none, mild, moderate and severe. In ARFI mode, the VTQ function was used to detect the VTQ values of the liver and spleen...
July 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
W Li, Y N Wu, L L Xi, J L Li, D He, Y Kang, J Shang
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by survey methods based on big data of hospital. Methods: Inpatients data of anti-HCV was collected in 2016 and 2011. Patient's data related to Department of Liver Diseases were excluded. The research population was divided into Surgical and Non-surgical Department. The characteristics of the two groups were analyzed and the changing trends of anti -HCV positive rate in different years was compared and analyzed. Results: Patients in the surgical and non-surgical department of hospital were equally distributed across gender, urban and rural areas, and region, but the distribution of patients in surgical departments were relatively equal in all age groups...
June 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Nathalie Lydié, Leila Saboni, Arnaud Gautier, Cécile Brouard, Stéphane Chevaliez, Francis Barin, Christine Larsen, Florence Lot, Delphine Rahib
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial screening for HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in France, a great number of infected persons remain undiagnosed. In this context, Santé publique France experimented with a new screening approach for HBV, HCV, and HIV infection, based on home self-sampling using dried blood spot (DBS) for blood collection. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of the BaroTest study were to assess the acceptability and feasibility of this approach and to update the prevalence estimates of HBV, HCV, and HIV infections in the general population...
October 12, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Alexander J Stockdale, Collins Mitambo, Dean Everett, Anna Maria Geretti, Melita A Gordon
BACKGROUND: Viral hepatitis is an important public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to rising mortality from cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and limited implementation of screening and treatment programmes, it has been characterised as a neglected tropical disease. Synthesis of the existing evidence on the epidemiology of viral hepatitis B, C and D in Malawi is required to inform policy and identify research gaps. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, EMBASE and Scopus for studies reporting the epidemiology of viral hepatitis B, C and D in Malawi from 1990 to 2018...
October 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Issam I Raad, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Harrys A Torres, Ehab Mouris Ayoub, Liliane Iskander Narouz, Jalen Bartek, Ray Hachem
Egypt has one of the highest prevalence rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the world, mostly with genotype 4 that is highly associated with severe fibrosis. As a consequence, hepatocellular carcinoma has become the leading cause of cancer in this country. Mauritania is a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV and HCV could both be iatrogenically transmitted through infected blood products, infected needles, and medical equipment improperly sterilized. Adequate and efficient healthcare and public health measures with good surveillance programs, access for screening, prevention strategies, and successful treatment are needed to halt the spread of these diseases...
September 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Connor G G Bamford, Elihu Aranday-Cortes, Ines Cordeiro Filipe, Swathi Sukumar, Daniel Mair, Ana da Silva Filipe, Juan L Mendoza, K Christopher Garcia, Shaohua Fan, Sarah A Tishkoff, John McLauchlan
As antimicrobial signalling molecules, type III or lambda interferons (IFNλs) are critical for defence against infection by diverse pathogens, including bacteria, fungi and viruses. Counter-intuitively, expression of one member of the family, IFNλ4, is associated with decreased clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the human population; by contrast, a natural frameshift mutation that abrogates IFNλ4 production improves HCV clearance. To further understand how genetic variation between and within species affects IFNλ4 function, we screened a panel of all known extant coding variants of human IFNλ4 for their antiviral potential and identify three that substantially affect activity: P70S, L79F and K154E...
October 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Tzu-Lun Huang, Kung-Hung Lin, Jia-Kang Wang, Rong-Kung Tsai
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease with pathogenic autoantibodies that act against the astrocyte water channel protein, i.e. aquaporin-4: the disease is associated with recurrent episodes of optic neuritis (ON) and transverse myelitis, often resulting in severe disability. The main goals in treatment of NMO include acute symptomatic therapy and long-term stabilization of symptoms by preventing relapse. In recent years, ongoing randomized controlled trials in NMO patients have studied evidence for treatment...
October 2018: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
Alanna Carla da Costa, José Damião da Silva Filho, Eduardo Arrais Rocha, Mônica Coelho Andrade, Arduina Sofia Ortet de Barros Vasconcelos Fidalgo, Eliana Régia Barbosa Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Menezes Viana, Erlane Chaves Freitas, Ivo Castelo Branco Coelho, Maria de Fátima Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: The transmission of Chagas disease (CD) through blood transfusion, organ transplantation, and oral transmission has gained greater visibility as a result of intensified vector control activities in endemic regions and to control CD in non-endemic regions. In Brazil, Ceará is one of the states that perform the most organ transplants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in organ donor candidates. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on data from potential organ donors at the Center of Transplantation of the State of Ceará from 2010 - 2015...
September 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Sammy Saab, Timothy Ahn, Terina McDaniel, Beshoy Yanny, Myron J Tong
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening is traditionally performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and HCV infection is confirmed by measuring the viral load using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). An alternative screening approach is to use only PCR, without the ELISA pretest. Methods: We compared the cost ratio of screening for HCV using 2 approaches: (1) ELISA followed by PCR testing, and (2) PCR testing alone. The results were analyzed using a decision analysis model. A sensitivity analysis and a threshold analysis were performed by varying both the prevalence of HCV infection (to encompass populations in which viral infection is overrepresented) as well as the costs of PCR testing...
August 2018: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Volker Lohmann
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections affect 71 million people worldwide, often resulting in severe liver damage. Since 2014 highly efficient therapies based on directly acting antivirals (DAAs) are available, offering cure rates of almost 100%, if the infection is diagnosed in time. It took more than a decade to discover HCV in 1989 and another decade to establish a cell culture model. This review provides a personal view on the importance of HCV cell culture models, particularly the replicon system, in the process of therapy development, from drug screening to understanding of mode of action and resistance, with a special emphasis on the contributions of Ralf Bartenschlager's group...
October 8, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
S L Wu, M Gao, J Zheng, P P Yan, Y S Yan
Objective: To identify the influencing factors that leading to nonspecific responses to indeterminate HIV antibody tests, to provide scientific evidence for the differential diagnosis of HIV infection and control strategy. Methods: A case control study was conducted. The samples of HIV antibody indeterminate in confirmed Western blot (WB) tests, but were negative in HIV nucleic acid tests, were collected as HIV antibody indeterminate group from WB results of HIV confirmatory laboratories of Fujian province in 2015-2016...
September 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Nicole J Kim, Catherine Magee, Cassie Cummings, Helen Park, Mandana Khalili
Recent hepatitis C virus (HCV) guidelines recommend disease monitoring and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening in patients with advanced fibrosis after a sustained virologic response (SVR) with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. However, data on practice patterns in this setting is lacking. We aimed to characterize disease monitoring and HCC screening practices post-SVR in an underserved HCV-infected cohort. Records of 192 patients who received DAA therapy at the San Francisco safety-net health care system between January 2014 and January 2016 with ≥12 months of follow-up post-SVR were reviewed...
October 2018: Hepatology Communications
Lauren E Cipriano, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert
The World Health Organization HCV Guideline Development Group is considering a "treat all" recommendation for persons infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We reviewed the model-based evidence of cost-effectiveness and population health impacts comparing expanded treatment policies to more limited treatment access policies, focusing primarily on evaluations of all-oral directly acting antivirals published after 2012. Searching PubMed, we identified 2,917 unique titles. Sequentially reviewing titles and abstracts identified 226 potentially relevant articles for full-text review...
January 2018: MDM Policy & Practice
Jean-Michel Delile, Victor de Ledinghen, Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Perrine Roux, Brigitte Reiller, Juliette Foucher, Daniel Dhumeaux
After France removed hepatitis C treatment reimbursement restrictions on 25 May 2016, an expert report presented recommendations, which focused on vulnerable groups including people who inject drugs (PWID). This commentary presents the key points of the chapter with a particular focus on policy. Thanks to the official lifting of restrictions based on disease stage and to the excellent efficacy and tolerance of the new DAA (Direct-Acting Antivirals) among PWID, the main issue is to improve the HCV care cascade...
2018: Hepatology, Medicine and Policy
Felix R Stahl, Roman Jung, Virginija Jazbutyte, Eléonore Ostermann, Silvia Tödter, Renke Brixel, Annette Kemmer, Stephan Halle, Stefan Rose-John, Martin Messerle, Petra C Arck, Wolfram Brune, Thomas Renné
Mouse models are important and versatile tools to study mechanisms and novel therapies of human disease in vivo. Both, the number and the complexity of murine models are constantly increasing and modification of genes of interest as well as any exogenous challenge may lead to unanticipated biological effects. Laboratory diagnostics of blood samples provide a comprehensive and rapid screening for multiple organ function and are fundamental to detect human disease. Here, we adapt an array of laboratory medicine-based tests commonly used in humans to establish a platform for standardized, multi-parametric, and quality-controlled diagnostics of murine blood samples...
October 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xingchun Han, Chengang Zhou, Min Jiang, Yongguang Wang, Jianhua Wang, Zhanling Cheng, Min Wang, Yongqiang Liu, Chungen Liang, Jianping Wang, Zhanguo Wang, Robert Weikert, Wenzhe Lv, Jianxun Xie, Xin Yu, Xue Zhou, Souphalone Luangsay, Hong C Shen, Alexander V Mayweg, Hassan Javanbakht, Song Yang
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health burden and current therapies cannot achieve satisfactory cure rate. There are high unmet medical needs of novel therapeutic agents with differentiated mechanism of action (MOA) from the current standard of care. RG7834, a compound from the dihydroquinolizinone (DHQ) chemical series, is a first-in-class highly selective and orally bioavailable HBV inhibitor which can reduce both viral antigens and viral DNA with a novel mechanism of action...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Abdulrahman A Aljumah, Hadi Kuriry, Nabiha Faisal, Hamdan Alghamdi
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver malignancy and one of the most common cancers worldwide. Few studies in Saudi Arabia have compared the clinicopathologic characteristics of HCC caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) versus hepatitis C virus (HCV) and their effect on patient survival and prognosis. OBJECTIVES: Identify differences in clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) caused by HBV versus HCV...
September 2018: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Hiroyuki Onodera, Risa Nakagawa, Hitoshi Nakagawa, Takeru Urayama, Katsuyuki Haino, Mikihiro Yunoki
BACKGROUND: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) contains immunoglobulin G against various viruses, except those that have been screened, such as human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C viruses. Antivirus titers reflect the serostatus of the blood donor population in the collection region and are of clinical interest. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: During the past 10 years, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella-zoster, hepatitis A and B, Epstein-Barr, and human respiratory syncytial viruses; human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3; human herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2; human herpesvirus 6; cytomegalovirus (CMV); human adenoviruses (HAdVs) 1, 2, 3, 7, and 11; human parvovirus B19; and human echovirus 9 and 11 titers in IVIG lots have been measured by a commercial testing facility...
October 4, 2018: Transfusion
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