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Morphology nerve

Duncan M Stevens, Jacqueline Bishop, Mike D Picker
The low vagility of the southern African Notonemouridae (stoneflies, Plecoptera), and their restriction to temperate montane refugia, make them a useful model for examining the evolution and biogeography of the rich palaeogenic fauna of the region. Here we use maximum parsimony tree reconstruction based on morphological characters and a partial COI mtDNA sequence to explore the evolutionary history and biogeography of the family in southern Africa. Morphological and molecular parsimony cladograms were largely in agreement, and supported monophyly of all six genera in the region...
September 24, 2018: Zootaxa
Ching-Tzu Tseng, Roger F Hou, Li-Cheng Tang
A new isolate of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema taiwanensis n. sp., was isolated from soil in Pingtung County, Taiwan. This new species could be characterized and distinguished from other related species by its morphological characters, morphometrics, and phylogenetic analysis. The body length and distance from anterior end to nerve ring of infective juveniles is 1012 (983-1045) µm and 124 (120-127) µm, lateral field formula 2, 6, 7, 8, 2, and the tail length 90 (79-96) µm without dorsal constriction in tail region...
June 18, 2018: Zootaxa
James W Albers, Ryan Jacobson
Aim: To assess lower extremity decompression nerve surgery (DNS) to treat the consequences of diabetic distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Research design and methods: MEDLINE, PubMed, and related registries were searched through December 2017 to identify randomized, quasi-randomized or observational trials that evaluated the efficacy of lower extremity DNS on pain relief (primary outcome) or other secondary outcomes. Observational studies were included, given investigators' reluctance to use sham surgery controls...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
George Jour, Varshini Vasudevaraja, Victor G Prieto, Matija Snuderl, Carlos A Torres-Cabala, Rami Al-Rohil, Erik P Sulman, Leomar Y Ballester, Phyu P Aung
Superficial/cutaneous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor is a rare soft tissue neoplasm that shares morphological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features with spindle/desmoplastic melanoma. We aimed to identify a methylome signature to distinguish these two entities. We analyzed 15 cases of spindle/desmoplastic melanoma and 15 cases of cutaneous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in 23 men and 7 women. DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues was extracted and processed using the Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC array interrogating 866,562 CpG sites...
October 11, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Alexandros Rouvas, Nikolaos S Gouliopoulos, Marilita M Moschos, Panagiotis Theodossiadis
BACKGROUND: We report a rare case of a woman with optic disk melanocytoma (ODMC) in conjunction with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). We also present, for the first time in literature, the clinical and morphological outcomes of the applied treatment, consisting of a session of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and three monthly intravitreal aflibercept injections. CASE PRESENTATION: An 83-year-old Greek woman, complaining for visual decline at her left eye, referred to our department and was diagnosed with ODMC associated with PCV...
October 12, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Alena Kvasilova, Martina Gregorovicova, Martin Kundrat, David Sedmera
Human natural killer (HNK)-1 antibody is an established marker of developing cardiac conduction system (CCS) in birds and mammals. In our search for the evolutionary origin of the CCS, we tested this antibody in a variety of sauropsid species (Crocodylus niloticus, Varanus indicus, Pogona vitticeps, Pantherophis guttatus, Eublepharis macularius, Gallus gallus, and Coturnix japonica). Hearts of different species were collected at various stages of embryonic development and studied to map immunoreactivity in cardiac tissues...
October 10, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Johannes J Roggenbuck, Joseph Boucraut, Emilien Delmont, Karsten Conrad, Dirk Roggenbuck
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a rare immune-mediated neuropathy with demyelination of nerve fibers as leading morphological feature. The course of disease can be chronic progressive or remitting relapsing. Whereas for acute immune-mediated neuropathies several serological markers have been identified and used successfully in clinical routine, the serological diagnosis of chronic variants such as CIDP has not yet been evolved satisfactory. The typical CIDP and its various atypical variants are characterized by a certain diversity of clinical phenotype and response to treatment...
September 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Eugenia Hoi Chi Woo, Peter White, Christopher Wai Keung Lai
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of static hand postures during various finger and wrist positions on morphological changes of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel in intensive and nonintensive electronic device users. METHODS: Forty-eight university students, equally divided into intensive and nonintensive users (≥5 h/d and <5 h/d of electronic device usage, respectively), were randomly selected after questionnaire responses and evaluated clinically and by ultrasonography...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Anthony J Treichel, Jacob H Hines
During vertebrate neural development, oligodendrocytes insulate nerve axons with myelin sheaths. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a useful model organism for studying oligodendrocyte development. However, the absence of an in vitro culture system necessitates in vivo manipulations and analyses, which, in some instances, limits the questions that can be addressed. To fill this gap we developed a mixed coculture system for embryonic zebrafish neurons and oligodendrocyte-lineage cells. Cultures harvested from embryos ≥30 hours postfertilization (hpf) yielded oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) positive for olig2 and sox10 transgenic reporters...
October 9, 2018: Zebrafish
Samiha Shaikh, Michael Nahorski, Geoffery Woods
Bi-allelic dysfunctional mutations in Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) cause the rare human phenotype Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy type 5 (HSAN5). We describe a novel NGF mutation in an individual with typical HSAN5 findings. The mutation c.361C>T, p.R121W is at the last residue of the furin cleavage motif RSKR in proNGF. We show that the p.R121W mutation completely abolishes the formation of mature NGF-β. Surprisingly, mutant p.R121W cells produced very little proNGF. Instead, the two progressive cleavage products of proNGF were produced, proA-NGF and proB-NGF, with proB-NGF being the predominant NGF-derived peptide and the only peptide secreted by mutant R121W cells...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Pain
Huihui Sun, Dong Li, Ming Yuan, Qiuju Li, Ni Li, Guoyun Wang
Endometriosis is a common multifactorial gynecological disorder defined as the proliferation of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. Neuroangiogenesis (co-recruitment of nerves and blood vessels) is believed to play an integral part in the establishment and growth of endometriotic lesions. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from abnormal endometrium may serve as the second identifier of endometriosis and play an important role in the development of endometriosis by regulating neuroangiogenesis...
October 5, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Xichun Wang, Mengxue Fan, Xiaoyan Chu, Yafei Zhang, Sajid Ur Rahman, Yunjing Jiang, Xiaofang Chen, Dianfeng Zhu, Shibin Feng, Yu Li, Jinjie Wu
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin capable of producing a variety of toxic effects in human and animals. In this study, the effect of DON treatment on cytotoxicity and apoptotic pathways in piglet hippocampal nerve cells (PHNCs) was determined. The effects of DON on cellular morphology, cell activity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, the protein expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and the relative expression of key genes related to apoptosis were evaluated. The results indicated that DON significantly inhibited cellular viability and promoted the release of LDH by damaging the membrane integrity of PHNCs, however, the cellular viability was increased and LDH leakage rate were decreased after adding MAPK inhibitors...
October 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Kenichiro Fukuoka, Joerg Wilting, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Gen Murakami, Akimitsu Ishizawa, Akio Matsubara
Although the embryonic kidney's ascent is well established, the intermediate morphological changes that occur during the process are unclear. To evaluate the morphological events that accompany the kidney's ascent, we examined serial sagittal sections from 24 embryos at five to seven weeks' gestation. Six specimens had bilaterally ascending kidneys that were between the levels of the second to fifth lumbar vertebrae, and each kidney had a primitive renal cortex surrounding clusters of ampullae, which branched from the pelvis, and a dense tissue band that connected the renal cortex with the embryonic adrenal cortex or celiac ganglia, and there was no adipose capsule or renal artery...
October 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Fei Yao, Endong Zhang, Zhaolin Gao, Hongpei Ji, Mahmoud Marmouri, Xiaobo Xia
Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) and Fluorogold(FG) are two widely utilized retrograde tracers to assess the number and function of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, the relative advantages and disadvantages of these tracers remain unclear, which may lead to their inappropriate application. In this study, we compared these tracers by separately injecting the tracer into the superior Colliculi (SC) in rats, one or 2 weeks later, the rats were sacrificed, and their retinas, brains, and optic nerves were collected...
2018: PloS One
Kyoko Hirakawa, Seiji Takashio, Kyohei Marume, Masahiro Yamamoto, Shinsuke Hanatani, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Kenji Sakamoto, Yasuhiro Izumiya, Koichi Kaikita, Seitaro Oda, Daisuke Utsunomiya, Shinya Shiraishi, Mitsuharu Ueda, Taro Yamashita, Yasuyuki Yamashita, Yukio Ando, Kenichi Tsujita
AIMS: Mutant transthyretin (ATTRm) amyloidosis is a systemic disease caused by the deposition of amyloid fibrils derived from mutated transthyretin. Although cardiac involvement impacts the prognosis of patients with ATTRm amyloidosis, the incidence of cardiac events, such as bradyarrhythmia, ventricular tachycardia, and heart failure, has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognosis and predictors of clinical outcomes, including cardiac events, in patients with ATTRm amyloidosis in Japan...
October 4, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Małgorzata Piechota, Robert Król, David A Elias, Wojciech Wawrzynek, Andrzej Lekstan
Background The nerve root sedimentation sign is a magnetic resonance (MR) sign, shown to be present in central lumbar spinal stenosis. The lack of sedimentation of the nerve roots to the dorsal part of the dural sac is consistent with the positive nerve root sedimentation sign. Purpose To validate the reliability of the nerve root sedimentation sign in diagnosis of different grades of lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Material and Methods This study was a retrospective review of 101 consecutive MR imaging (MRI) studies obtained on patients with clinically suspected lumbar canal stenosis...
October 3, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Conrad Helm, Patrick Beckers, Thomas Bartolomaeus, Stephan H Drukewitz, Ioannis Kourtesis, Anne Weigert, Günter Purschke, Katrine Worsaae, Torsten H Struck, Christoph Bleidorn
Background: A median, segmented, annelid nerve cord has repeatedly been compared to the arthropod and vertebrate nerve cords and became the most used textbook representation of the annelid nervous system. Recent phylogenomic analyses, however, challenge the hypothesis that a subepidermal rope-ladder-like ventral nerve cord (VNC) composed of a paired serial chain of ganglia and somata-free connectives represents either a plesiomorphic or a typical condition in annelids. Results: Using a comparative approach by combining phylogenomic analyses with morphological methods (immunohistochemistry and CLSM, histology and TEM), we compiled a comprehensive dataset to reconstruct the evolution of the annelid VNC...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Ping Yang, An Chen, You Qin, Jian Yin, Xiong Cai, Yu-Jie Fan, Liang Li, Hui-Yong Huang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Buyang huanwu decoction (BYHWD) is a classic recipe in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to supplement Qi and activate blood. It has been used to recover the neural function after the injury of central nervous system for hundreds of years in China. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated whether Buyang huanwu decoction (BYHWD) combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation had synergistic effect on neuroprotection of red nucleus neurons after spinal cord injury (SCI)...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Giacomo Zaccone, Eugenia Rita Lauriano, Gioele Capillo, Michał Kuciel
In fishes, exploitation of aerial gas exchange has evolved independently many times, involving a variety of air-breathing organs. Indeed, air-breathing occurs in at least 49 known families of fish (Graham, 1997). Many amphibious vertebrates, at some stage of their development are actually trimodal breathers that use various combinations of respiratory surfaces to breath both water (skin and/or gill) and air (skin and/or lung). The present review examines the evolutionary implications of air-breathing organs in fishes and the morphology of the peripheral receptors and the neurotransmitter content of the cells involved in the control of air-breathing...
October 2018: Acta Histochemica
Magda Descorbeth, Karen Figueroa, Miguel Serrano-Illán, Marino De León
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exhibits neuroprotective properties and has been shown to preserve nerve cells following trauma and ischemic injury. Recently, we showed that DHA pretreatment improved locomotion and reduced neuropathic pain after acute spinal cord injury in adult rats. These improvements were associated with an increase in the levels of AKT in spinal cord injury neurons. In this study, we investigate the implication of PI3K/AKT and mTOR pathway in DHA-mediated protection of primary cultured Schwann cells (pSC) undergoing palmitic acid-induced lipotoxicity (PA-LTx)...
September 28, 2018: Brain and Behavior
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