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Morphology nerve

Kiyokazu Ozaki, Yui Terayama, Tetsuro Matsuura
Purpose: Previous experimental studies assessing corneal nerves as a measure of the severity of diabetic peripheral neuropathy have yielded discordant results; this may have been due to the effect of the short duration of the induced diabetes. We investigated whether increases in the duration of hyperglycemia result in the development of corneal lesions in a mouse model of alloxan (AL)- or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes. We further determined whether corneal nerve fiber density, intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD), and sural nerve morphology can be used as morphologic markers of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rodent models...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
M F Vázquez-Alonso, A L Díaz-Avalos
INTRODUCTION: Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compression neuropathy of the upper limb, and the release of the median nerve is the surgical treatment that is carried out. There are several surgical techniques used to treat this condition; However, this virtual cavity, which we call the carpal tunnel, undergoes several morphological and dimensional changes, prior to surgery and after surgery using the various techniques that the surgeon has a predilection for. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational, prospective and longitudinal study conducted in the period from March to November 2009...
July 2018: Acta Ortopédica Mexicana
Karel Dewulf, Emmanuel Weyne, Thomas Gevaert, Yves Deruyver, Thomas Voets, Dirk De Ridder, Wouter Everaerts, Maarten Albersen
OBJECTIVES: To create a rat model for neurogenic detrusor underactivity (DU) by bilateral pelvic nerve crush injury (BPNI) and to study temporal changes in detrusor contractility and morphology. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to BPNI or sham surgery and evaluated 1, 3 and 9 weeks after surgery. Bladder function was determined in vivo by awake cystometry, micturition pattern analysis and 24-hours urine collection. Bladders were harvested for in vitro pharmacological investigation by isometric tension recording...
December 14, 2018: BJU International
Mohammed Asdullah, Afroz Alam Ansari, Masood Hassan Khan, Nasir A Salati, Kauser J Khawja, Arti S Sachdev
Introduction: The lingula is used for identifying the site for injection of local anesthetics and for excision of nerve in facial neuralgia. The relationship between lingula and lingual nerves may aid in risk associated with an impacted third molar. Due to its connection to nerve and vascular structures, the study of the lingula provides important information related to oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures, such as the sagittal split ramus osteotomy and the intraoral vertico-sagittal ramus osteotomy carried out to correct dento facial deformities...
July 2018: National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
Maria Lucia Caruso, Federica Di Pinto, Antonia Ignazzi, Sergio Coletta, Anna Maria Valentini, Elisabetta Cavalcanti, Francesco De Michele
RATIONALE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients manifest symptoms of disturbed gut function, such as neural sensory-motor changes. Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), normally present in neural tissue, exists in close apposition to the mucosal immune system and intestinal epithelium, and a bi-directional communication is known to occur at these interfaces. Somatostatin has been shown to suppress the inflammatory reaction, and has been used in several clinical trials to treat inflammatory disorders, such rheumatoid arthritis...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Cynthia L Walker, Atsuko Uchida, Yinyun Li, Niraj Trivedi, J Daniel Fenn, Paula C Monsma, Roxanne C Lariviére, Jean-Pierre Julien, Peter Jung, Anthony Brown
Myelinated axons are constricted at nodes of Ranvier. These constrictions are important physiologically because they increase the speed of saltatory nerve conduction, but they also represent potential bottlenecks for the movement of axonally transported cargoes. One type of cargo are neurofilaments, which are abundant space-filling cytoskeletal polymers that function to increase axon caliber. Neurofilaments move bidirectionally along axons, alternating between rapid movements and prolonged pauses. Strikingly, axon constriction at nodes is accompanied by a reduction in neurofilament number that can be as much as 10-fold in the largest axons...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Xiaoling Lv, Zi Li, Jiyu Guan, Shiyu Hu, Jing Zhang, Yungang Lan, Kui Zhao, Huijun Lu, Deguang Song, Hongbin He, Feng Gao, Wenqi He
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a highly neurotropic virus that causes diffuse neuronal infection with neurological damage and high mortality. Virus-induced cytoskeletal dynamics are thought to be closely related to this type of nerve damage. Currently, the regulation pattern of the actin cytoskeleton and its molecular mechanism remain unclear when PHEV enters the host cells. Here, we demonstrate that entry of PHEV into N2a cells induces a biphasic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and a dynamic change in cofilin activity...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
Yachao Jia, Weichao Yang, Kuihua Zhang, Shuo Qiu, Jia Xu, Chunyang Wang, Yimin Chai
Topographical cues presented by aligned nanofibers have been demonstrated to stimulate peripheral nerve regeneration across long gaps, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely elucidated. Because macrophages play a crucial role in peripheral nerve regeneration and can be phenotypically modulated by topographical cues, we hypothesized that aligned nanofibers might induce the development of macrophage phenotypes that facilitate the regeneration of peripheral nerves. Here, macrophages were seeded on aligned and random poly(l-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) nanofibers and their morphology and phenotypes were compared...
January 1, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
M Kováčová, M Meliška, B Kalvodová
PURPOSE: To evaluate OCT findings and long-term follow-up results in patient with optic disc pit (ODP) and associated maculopathy treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). METHODS: Six eyes of 6 patients (3 females, 3 males) were included in a retrospective study. We excluded patients with ODP without maculopathy. Patients were followed in years 2008-2017. Mean age at the first examination was 40,3 years (15-70 years). Duration of worsening of the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ranged from 2 days to few years...
2018: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
Carla S Medeiros, Gustavo K Marino, Luciana Lassance, Thangavadivel Shanmugapriya, Marcony R Santhiago, Steven E Wilson
PURPOSE: To determine how photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and mitomycin C (MMC) affect corneal nerves and their regeneration over time after surgery. METHODS: Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits had corneal epithelial scraping with (n = 3) and without (n = 3) MMC 0.02% or -9.00 diopter PRK with (n = 6) and without (n = 16) MMC 0.02%. Corneas were removed after death and corneal nerve morphology was evaluated using acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry and beta-III tubulin staining after 1 day for all groups, after 1 month for PRK with and without MMC, and 2, 3, and 6 months after PRK without MMC...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Cătălina Bichir, Mugurel Constantin Rusu, Alexandra Diana Vrapciu, Nicoleta Măru
The pneumatization of the articular tubercle (PAT) of the temporal squama is a rare condition that modifies the barrier between the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) space and the middle cranial fossa. During a routine examination of the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) files of patients who were scanned for dental medical purposes, we identified a case with multiple rare anatomic variations. First, the petrous apex was bilaterally pneumatized. Moreover, bilateral and multilocular pneumatizations of the AT were observed, while on one side it was further found that the pneumatic cells were equally dehiscent towards the extradural space and the superior joint space...
December 11, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Lin-Li Yao, E Zhang, Chun-Li Li, Qi Yao, Chang Huang, Xi Huang, Pei Chen
The precise anatomy of the facial nerve branches innervating rat whisker pad and the distribution of their corresponding motor neurons in facial nucleus area were investigated. The extratemporal facial nerves of 6 rats were anatomically observed under a surgical microscope, and then the nerve specimens of facial nerve branches at 7 anatomical sites were taken and examined for the axons and myelin sheath using Luxol fast blue staining. The distribution of facial motor neurons innervating the facial branches was observed in 12 rats by retrograde labelling...
December 2018: Current medical science
Christian Philipp Reinert, Martin Ulrich Schuhmann, Benjamin Bender, Isabel Gugel, Christian la Fougère, Jürgen Schäfer, Sergios Gatidis
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the clinical use of FDG-PET/MRI for monitoring enlargement and metabolism of plexiform neurofibromas (PNF) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), in whom the development of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is often a life limiting event. METHODS: NF1 patients who underwent a simultaneous FDG-PET/MRI examination in our institution from September 2012 to February 2018 were included. Indication was suspicion of malignant transformation of a PNF to MPNST...
December 8, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Yuki Muraoka, Akihito Uji, Masaharu Ishikura, Yuto Iida, Sotaro Ooto, Akitaka Tsujikawa
Purpose: To differentiate the four layers of the retinal vessel network in the human macula and examine their morphologic features using high-resolution optical coherence tomography angiography (HR-OCTA). Methods: Macular areas measuring 464 × 464 pixels of 10 right eyes of 10 healthy subjects without ocular disease were scanned 10 times using a HR-OCTA device. Averaged OCTA images were created. Based on clear decorrelation signals, four vascular slabs were segmented, comprising one each in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and top and bottom of the inner nuclear layer (INL)...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Laura Emilia Toader, Gabriela Camelia Roşu, Bogdan Cătălin, Ionica Pirici, Ion Cristian Gîlceavă, Valeria Carmen Albu, Anca Maria Istrate-Ofiţeru, Dafin Fior Mureşanu, Daniel Pirici
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex chronic neurodegenerative disease that involves an abnormal autoimmune response directed against the brain, nerves and spinal cord; it is considered the most frequent cause of neurological disability, because MS-associated inflammatory lesions can affect a wide range of systems to a varying degree and may cause a plethora of neurological comorbidities and symptoms. The symptoms are quite variable from patient to patient and depend on the spatial distribution of the central nervous system (CNS) lesions, but usually involve sensory disturbances, cognitive deficits, unilateral vision loss, bladder dysfunction, ataxia, fatigue, double vision, weakness of the limbs and intestinal disorders...
2018: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Shuaifeng Yan, Yunfan Zhang, Kai Wang, Yingchao Han, Kai Zhu, Fan He, Jun Tan
Intervertebral foramen is the doorway of nerve root and it plays an important role of radiculopathy and surgical treatment of intervertebral foramen diseases. The purpose of the study is to obtain three-dimensional (3D) morphological characteristics of lumbar intervertebral foramen and their relationship with age. Pedicle-superior articular process (P-SAP), disc height between adjacent vertebra (DH), pedicle-inferior vertebrae (P-IV), inferior posterior vertebrae-superior articular process (IPV-SAP), and bony boundary area (BBA) were measured in entrance, middle slice, and exit of lumbar intervertebral foramen for 25 males of different age groups...
2018: BioMed Research International
Jian Gu, He Xu, Ya-Ping Xu, Huan-Hai Liu, Jun-Tian Lang, Xiao-Ping Chen, Wei-Hua Xu, Yue Deng, Jing-Ping Fan
Olfactory ensheathing cells from the olfactory bulb and olfactory mucosa have been found to increase axonal sprouting and pathfinding and promote the recovery of vibrissae motor performance in facial nerve transection injured rats. However, it is not yet clear whether olfactory ensheathing cells promote the reparation of facial nerve defects in rats. In this study, a collagen sponge and silicone tube neural conduit was implanted into the 6-mm defect of the buccal branch of the facial nerve in adult rats. Olfactory ensheathing cells isolated from the olfactory bulb of newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were injected into the neural conduits connecting the ends of the broken nerves, the morphology and function of the regenerated nerves were compared between the rats implanted with olfactory ensheathing cells with the rats injected with saline...
January 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Lin-Hwa Wang, Kuo-Cheng Lo, I-Ming Jou, Fong-Chin Su
This study examined the morphologic changes of the ulnar nerve in different elbow positions by ultrasonography and the effects of fatigue on forearm muscle control during overhand movements. We enrolled 12 tennis players who performed flat serves and 15 baseball pitchers who performed fastball pitching. The motion capture was conducted with 14 reflective markers attached on anatomic landmarks of the participant for tennis serve and baseball pitching data collection. The distance from the nerve to the medial condyle between the tennis players and baseball pitchers showed significant differences (p = 0...
December 11, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Elena N Temereva, Igor A Kosevich
Introduction: Among bryozoans, cyclostome anatomy is the least studied by modern methods. New data on the nervous system fill the gap in our knowledge and make morphological analysis much more fruitful to resolve some questions of bryozoan evolution and phylogeny. Results: The nervous system of cyclostome Crisia eburnea was studied by transmission electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The cerebral ganglion has an upper concavity and a small inner cavity filled with cilia and microvilli, thus exhibiting features of neuroepithelium...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
Stéphane J Montuelle, Rachel A Olson, Hannah Curtis, JoAnna V Sidote, Susan H Williams
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the effect of unilateral lingual sensory loss on the spatial and temporal dynamics of jaw movements during pig chewing. DESIGN: X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology (XROMM) was used to reconstruct the 3-dimensional jaw movements of 6 pigs during chewing before and after complete unilateral lingual nerve transection. The effect of the transection were evaluated at the temporal and spatial level using Multiple Analysis of Variance...
November 22, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
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