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Morphology nerve

Jingyi Chi, Audrey Crane, Zhuhao Wu, Paul Cohen
Adipose tissue plays a central role in energy homeostasis and thermoregulation. It is composed of different types of adipocytes, as well as adipocyte precursors, immune cells, fibroblasts, blood vessels, and nerve projections. Although the molecular control of cell type specification and how these cells interact have been increasingly delineated, a more comprehensive understanding of these adipose-resident cells can be achieved by visualizing their distribution and architecture throughout the whole tissue. Existing immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence approaches to analyze adipose histology rely on thin paraffin-embedded sections...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sirin Gandhi, Justin Mascitelli, Douglas Hardesty, Michael T Lawton
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms account for 3% to 4% of all intracranial aneurysms with an unusually high predilection towards a nonsaccular morphology making microsurgical clipping or endovascular reconstruction of the parent artery difficult. The management of these complicated aneurysms may require revascularization procedures for flow preservation with aneurysm trapping. Recently, there is an increasing inclination towards intracranial-intracranial (IC-IC) bypasses over traditional extracranial donors...
August 7, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Jian Du, Gehua Zhen, Huanwen Chen, Shuming Zhang, Liming Qing, Xiuli Yang, Gabsang Lee, Hai-Quan Mao, Xiaofeng Jia
Peripheral nerve injuries often lead to incomplete recovery and contribute to significant disability to approximately 360,000 people in the USA each year. Stem cell therapy holds significant promise for peripheral nerve regeneration, but maintenance of stem cell viability and differentiation potential in vivo are still major obstacles for translation. Using a made-in-house 96-well vertical electrical stimulation (ES) platform, we investigated the effects of different stimulating pulse frequency, duration and field direction on human neural crest stem cell (NCSC) differentiation...
July 20, 2018: Biomaterials
Ying Zhu, Anthony C Pappas, Rui Wang, Philip Seifert, Daniel Sun, Tatjana C Jakobs
Purpose: To study age- and intraocular pressure-induced changes in the glial lamina of the murine optic nerve on the ultrastructural level. Methods: Naïve C57bl/6 mice at various ages spanning the time between early adulthood (3 months) and senescence (30 months) were used in this study. In addition, the intraocular pressure (IOP) was increased in a group of young mice by injection of microbeads into the anterior chamber. The unmyelinated segments of the optic nerve containing the glial lamina were prepared for transmission electron microscopy and imaged at high resolution...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Zenghui Zhao, Liang Guo, Yong Zhu, Wei Luo, Yunsheng Ou, Zhengxue Quan, Dianming Jiang
BACKGROUND Long-term follow-up results showed that epidural scar formation and adhesion after laminectomy always affected the outcomes of repeat operations. The establishment of a barrier between scar tissue and dura was effective in preventing epidural scar formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS A nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 (n-HA/PA66) artificial lamina was designed and fabricated and used to cover the opened spinal canal in patients who received laminectomy. The visual analogue scale (VAS) and Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) Scores, X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging results were periodically recorded and evaluated...
August 11, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Tao Wang, Dao-Rui Yu, Jing Huang, Qiang Liu, Dan-Xin Wang, Nan Luo, Hao Jia, Hao-Fei Fan, Qi-Bing Liu
BACKGROUND: Despite the intense efforts devoted to preventing and treating cerebral ischemia, some individuals will continue to have completed infarctions. Failure of prevention or intervention does not, however, preclude therapeutic approaches to enhance recovery. Our study aims to explore the effect of multimodal rehabilitation program on the motor function recovery of rats with ischemic stroke. METHODS: Rat models of ischemic stroke were established using clean-grade adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Kristine Ravina, Ian A Buchanan, Erik M Wolfswinkel, Ben A Strickland, Robert C Rennert, Joseph N Carey, Jonathan J Russin
A variety of supraorbital approaches to the anterior cranial fossa utilizing a transciliary or supraciliary incision have been described. An orbitotomy is a valuable addition to the standard supraorbital keyhole approach offering an extended angle of exposure with minimal frontal lobe retraction. The transpalpebral approach is common in oculoplastic surgery and offers excellent cosmetic outcomes utilizing the natural crease of the superior eyelid. This approach avoids risk of eyebrow alopecia, damage to the frontalis muscle or frontalis branches of the facial nerve...
August 6, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Karl-Dietrich Sievert, Jörg Hennenlotter, Thomas Dillenburg, Patricia Toomey, J Wöllner, P Zweers, J Pannek, Karl-Erik Andersson, Bastian Amend
OBJECTIVE: To perform descriptive microscopic study of prostatectomy specimens from 19 patients which anatomically characterizes distributions of periprostatic nerves qualities and visualize them using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Serial whole-mounted sections were stained for cholinergic(nNOS), adrenergic(TH), and sensory(CGRP) nerves. Extracapsular stained nerves were counted by prostate surface sector and classified by diameter. Stain-related relative density was calculated and distribution patterns were evaluated...
August 9, 2018: BJU International
Alexa Alves de Moraes, Cayo Antônio Soares de Almeida, Guilherme Lucas, José Antonio Thomazini, Aline Santos DeMaman
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate morphological alterations caused by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PNL) and the efficacy of a moderate-intensity swimming training as therapeutic strategy for nerve regeneration. METHODS: A number of 30 male adult mice were equally divided in control, 14 days after PNL (PNL 14 days), 42 days after PNL (PNL 42 days), 70 days after PNL (PNL 70 days) and 5-week exercise training after 7 days post-lesion (PNL trained 35 days) groups...
August 9, 2018: Neurological Research
Nasim Golafshan, Mahshid Kharaziha, Morteza Alehosseini
A significant clinical challenge in the surgery of peripheral nervous system injured via accidents and natural disease is development of biomimetic grafts which could potentially promote nerve repair and regeneration. Although various engineered neural tissue scaffolds have been proposed to support the neural cell functions, they have not been able to instantaneously mimic the whole characteristics of endogenous microenvironment. In this study, we proposed a bi-layered tubular scaffold which could provide appropriate electrical, mechanical and biological properties for peripheral nerve engineering...
August 8, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Yuan Wang, Qian Yang, Dongyuan Cao, David Seminowicz, Bethany Remeniuk, Lin Gao, Ming Zhang
Background Recent neuroimaging studies have reported grey matter alterations in primary trigeminal neuralgia patients. However, few studies have focused on quantitative measurements of trigeminal nerves and the interaction between trigeminal nerve volume and brain morphology, particularly grey matter volume. In this study, we investigated the link between trigeminal nerves and grey matter volume changes in primary trigeminal neuralgia patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, we explored the association of structure of trigeminal nerves and grey matter to collected pain clinical variables...
August 7, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Eleonora Benatti, Elena Garoli, Francesco Viola
PURPOSE: Optic disk pit (ODP) is a rare congenital abnormality of the optic nerve head that can lead to a maculopathy characterized mainly by serous retinal detachment. Optic disk pit maculopathy (ODP-M) in children is rare, and at present, the best management is still unknown. Long-lasting ODP-M can lead to organic amblyopia and photoreceptor damage, whereas surgical treatments are invasive and have an uncertain prognosis. We present a case of spontaneous resolution of ODP-M in a child who was monitored morphologically and functionally during a 6-year follow-up...
August 6, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Vidya S Krishnan, Tea Shavlakadze, Miranda D Grounds, Stuart I Hodgetts, Alan R Harvey
Age-related changes in ventral lumbar spinal cord (L3-L5) were compared in young [3 month, (M)] and old (27 M) C57BL/6J male mice. The aged mice had previously been shown to exhibit sarcopenia and changes to peripheral nerve morphology. The putative connectivity of β-III tubulin positive α-motor neurons was compared in immunostained transverse sections using excitatory and inhibitory terminal markers vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGLUT1) and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT). Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) immunostaining was used to monitor changes in astrocyte and microglial phenotype respectively...
August 6, 2018: Biogerontology
Ryan Adams, Sarah Herrera-Nicol, Arthur L Jenkins
Background  Advancements in radiological imaging and diagnostic criteria enable doctors to more accurately identify lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) and their association with back and L5 distribution leg pain. It is considered the most common congenital anomaly of the lumbosacral spine with an incidence between 4 and 35%, 3 although many practitioners describe 10 to 12% overall incidence. LSTVs include sacralization of the L5 vertebral body and lumbarization of the S1 segment while demonstrating varying morphology, ranging from broadened transverse processes to complete fusion...
July 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
Liancai Mu, Jingming Chen, Jing Li, Matthew Arnold, Stanislaw Sobotka, Themba Nyirenda, Mary Fowkes, Mark Christopherson, Ira Sanders
The human soft palate plays an important role in respiration, swallowing, and speech. These motor activities depend on reflexes mediated by sensory nerve endings. To date, the details of human sensory innervation to the soft palate have not been demonstrated. In this study, eight adult human whole-mount (soft palate-tongue-pharynx-larynx-upper esophagus) specimens were obtained from autopsy. Each specimen was bisected in the midline, forming two equal and symmetrical halves. Eight hemi-specimens were processed with Sihler's stain, a whole-mount nerve staining technique...
August 6, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Kathryn M Tabor, Trevor S Smith, Mary Brown, Sadie A Bergeron, Kevin L Briggman, Harold A Burgess
Filtering mechanisms prevent a continuous stream of sensory information from swamping perception, leading to diminished focal attention and cognitive processing. Mechanisms for sensory gating are commonly studied using prepulse inhibition, a paradigm that measures the regulated transmission of auditory information to the startle circuit; however, the underlying neuronal pathways are unresolved. Using large-scale calcium imaging, optogenetics, and laser ablations, we reveal a cluster of 30 morphologically identified neurons in zebrafish that suppress the transmission of auditory signals during prepulse inhibition...
July 25, 2018: Current Biology: CB
A M Stabile, L Marinucci, S Balloni, A Giuliani, A Pistilli, M Bodo, M Rende
Long-term exposure to cigarette smoke induces severe injuries to respiratory system through several mechanisms, some of them are well defined, but many others are not yet elucidated. Beside its classical role in nervous system, we have previously shown that Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and its receptors have a crucial role in airway inflammatory diseases, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. To expand our knowledge about the relevance of NGF and its receptors in airway diseases induced by cigarette smoking, we exposed for 16 weeks the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B to sub-toxic concentrations of whole cigarette smoke extract or pure nicotine...
August 1, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Thomas J M Verlinden, Paul van Dijk, Andreas Herrler, Corrie de Gier-de Vries, Wouter H Lamers, S Eleonore Köhler
Communicating fibres between the phrenic nerve and sympathetic nervous system may exist, but have not been characterized histologically and immunohistochemically, even though increased sympathetic activity due to phrenic nerve stimulation for central sleep apnoea may entail morbidity and mortality. We, therefore, conducted a histological study of the phrenic nerve to establish the presence of catecholaminergic fibres throughout their course. The entire phrenic nerves of 35 formalin-fixed human cadavers were analysed morphometrically and immunohistochemically...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jong Chul Han, Jae Hwan Choi, Do Young Park, Eun Jung Lee, Changwon Kee
Purpose: We investigated the relationship between visual field (VF) defect pattern and deep optic nerve head (ONH) morphology in open angle glaucoma (OAG) eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: Of 278 OAG eyes, 169 with and 55 without externally oblique border tissue (EOBT) were included in the final analysis. Enhance depth imaging SD-OCT was used to measure the deep ONH parameters, such as EOBT length, ONH tilt angle, and optic canal (OC) obliqueness...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Zhikang Miao, Zhenhui Lu, Shixing Luo, Danqing Lei, Yi He, Huayu Wu, Jinmin Zhao, Li Zheng
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)‑based therapy has been commonly used in cartilage reconstruction, due to its self‑renewing ability and multi‑differentiation potential. Nerve growth factor (NGF) from cobra venom has been reported to regulate chondrogenesis of bone‑derived MSCs (BMSCs) and chondrocyte metabolism. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether other sources of NGF behave in the same manner as NGF from natural venom. The present study compared the effects of NGF from two sources, the commercially purchased recombinant murine β‑NGF (mNGF) and cobra venom‑derived NGF (cvNGF), on chondrogenesis of BMSCs by performing hematoxylin and eosin and fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide staining, DNA and glycosaminoglycan quantization and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction to investigate cell morphology, viability, proliferation, glycosaminoglycan synthesis and cartilage‑specific gene expression...
July 23, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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