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R S Sandoval-González, H Jiménez-Islas, J L Navarrete-Bolaños
Saccharomyces paradoxus, a native microorganism of the aguamiel, was used successfully for endoinulinase synthesis for agave fructooligasaccharide (FOS) production. We optimized the fermentation parameters to maximize the enzyme synthesis, and we performed enzyme kinetics studies to achieve agave fructans hydrolysis. The results showed that under constant operating conditions (pH 7.7, 40 °C, 175 rpm of agitation, and 0.005 VVM of aeration) results in the production of an enzymatic extract with 49.57 mg/L...
October 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Asad Maroufi, Mansour Karimi, Khosro Mehdikhanlou, Marc De Loose
Chicory capable of synthesizing long-chain inulin is of great interest. During the growing season, the sucrose-sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) activity is vital for production of long-chain inulin in chicory. With the purpose to increase inulin chain length, we employed Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method. Transgenic chicory plants ( Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum ) cv. 'Melci' has been developed to overexpress sucrose-sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Celeste Alexander, Tzu-Wen L Cross, Saravanan Devendran, Franka Neumer, Stephan Theis, Jason M Ridlon, Jan S Suchodolski, Maria R C de Godoy, Kelly S Swanson
Because obesity is associated with many co-morbidities, including diabetes mellitus, this study evaluated the second-meal effect of a commercial prebiotic, inulin-type fructans, and the effects of the prebiotic on faecal microbiota, metabolites and bile acids (BA). Nine overweight beagles were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design to test a non-prebiotic control (cellulose) against a low (equivalent to 0·5 % diet) and high dose (equivalent to 1·0 % diet) of prebiotic over 14-d treatments. All dogs were fed the same diet twice daily, with treatments provided orally via gelatin capsules before meals...
August 1, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Lucy Harper, Justine Bold
Aim: To explore the motivation for gluten avoidance in the absence of coeliac disease (CD) and ascertain what symptoms are triggered by gluten and what beliefs/reasons influence this decision. Background: Links between physical/psychological symptoms and gluten in CD are well known but less is known about those who self-select a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the absence of CD. Methods: An empirical study using responses to an anonymous on-line questionnaire...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Alexia F P Lépine, Nicole de Wit, Els Oosterink, Harry Wichers, Jurriaan Mes, Paul de Vos
Scope: Salmonellosis is a prevalent food-borne illness that causes diarrhea in over 130 million humans yearly and can lead to death. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to antibiotics as many salmonellae are now multidrug resistant. As such, specific beneficial bacteria and dietary fibers can be an alternative as they may prevent Salmonella Typhimurium (STM) infection and spreading by strengthening intestinal barrier function. Methods and Results: We tested whether immune active long-chain inulin-type fructans and/or L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hanna Fjeldheim Dale, Jessica R Biesiekierski, Gülen Arslan Lied
The spectrum of gluten-related disorders includes coeliac disease (CD), wheat allergy (WA) and the suggested entity of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). An increasing number of the world's population are avoiding gluten due to the assumption of health benefits and self-diagnosed gastrointestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms. Unlike CD and WA, NCGS is a relatively new entity with an unknown prevalence and mechanisms, complicated by recent literature suggesting that gluten is not the only food component that may trigger symptoms experienced by this group of patients...
July 16, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
M C Tamayo-Ordóñez, B A Ayil-Gutiérrez, Y J Tamayo-Ordóñez, L C Rodríguez-Zapata, M Monforte-González, E A De la Cruz-Arguijo, M J García-Castillo, L F Sánchez-Teyer
Several of the over 200 known species of Agave L. are currently used for production of distilled beverages and biopolymers. The plants live in a wide range of stressful environments due to their resistance to abiotic stress (drought, salinity, extreme temperature) and pathogens, which gives the genus potential for germplasm conservation and biotechnological applications that may minimize economic losses due to global climate change. However, the limited knowledge in the genus of genome structure and organization hampers development of potential improved biotechnological applications by means of genetic manipulation and biocatalysis...
July 16, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Maria Elena Ortiz-Soto, Julia Ertl, Jürgen Mut, Juliane Adelmann, Thien Anh Le, Junwen Shan, Jörg Teßmar, Andreas Schlosser, Bernd Engels, Jürgen Seibel
Carbohydrate processing enzymes are sophisticated tools of living systems that have evolved to execute specific reactions on sugars. Here we present for the first time the site-selective chemical modification of exposed tyrosine residues in SacB, a levansucrase from Bacillus megaterium ( Bm -LS) for enzyme engineering purposes via an ene-type reaction. Bm -LS is unable to sustain the synthesis of high molecular weight (HMW) levan (a fructose polymer) due to protein-oligosaccharide dissociation events occurring at an early stage during polymer elongation...
June 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Souha Tohme, Gül Gülenay Hacıosmanoğlu, Mehmet Sayip Eroğlu, Ceyda Kasavi, Seval Genç, Zehra Semra Can, Ebru Toksoy Oner
Levan is a fructan type polysaccharide that has long been considered as an industrially important biopolymer however its limited availability is mainly due to the bottlenecks associated with its large-scale production. To overcome such bottlenecks in the commercialization of this very promising polysaccharide, co-production of levan with polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by halophilic Halomonas smyrnensis cultures has been proposed in this study for the first time. After in silico and in vitro assessment of PHA accumulation, fermentation profiles for levan and PHA concentrations were obtained in the presence of sucrose and glucose and the PHA granules observed by TEM were found to be poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) after detailed structural characterization by GC-MS, DSC, FTIR and NMR...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Salvatore La China, Gabriele Zanichelli, Luciana De Vero, Maria Gullo
Acetic acid bacteria are versatile organisms converting a number of carbon sources into biomolecules of industrial interest. Such properties, together with the need to limit chemical syntheses in favor of more sustainable biological processes, make acetic acid bacteria appropriate organisms for food, chemical, medical, pharmaceutical and engineering applications. At current, well-established bioprocesses by acetic acid bacteria are those derived from the oxidative pathways that lead to organic acids, ketones and sugar derivates...
July 10, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
John Szpylka, Nancy Thiex, Belisario Acevedo, Asier Albizu, Parul Angrish, Sean Austin, Knuk Erik Bach Knudsen, Charles A Barber, Daniel Berg, Sneh D Bhandari, Annie Bienvenue, Kaitlin Cahill, Jane Caldwell, Christian Campargue, France Cho, Mark W Collison, Claudio Cornaggia, Hans Cruijsen, Manisha Das, Marcel De Vreeze, Inge Deutz, Jennifer Donelson, Aurelie Dubois, Gustaaf S Duchateau, Lucien Duchateau, David Ellingson, Jay Gandhi, Frank Gottsleben, Jonathan Hache, Gale Hagood, Mohamed Hamad, Philip Andrew Haselberger, Thomas Hektor, Ryan Hoefling, Steve Holroyd, Douglas Lloyd Holt, Jeff G Horst, Ruth Ivory, Arrate Jaureguibeitia, Martha Jennens, Diana C Kavolis, Lindsay Kock, Erik J M Konings, Scott Krepich, Dana A Krueger, Markus Lacorn, Cheryl L Lassitter, Sookwang Lee, Han Li, Alex Liu, Kai Liu, Bozena D Lusiak, Eva Lynch, Katerina Mastovska, Barry V McCleary, Gaston M Mercier, Pierre L Metra, Lucia Monti, Carlos Jhonatan Moscoso, Hari Narayanan, Salvatore Parisi, Giampaolo Perinello, Melissa Meaney Phillips, Susan Pyatt, Miachael Raessler, Lars M Reimann, Catherine A Rimmer, Alejandra Rodriguez, Joe Romano, Sandra Salleres, Mariusz Sliwinski, Georgina Smyth, Kathryn Stanley, Monique Steegmans, Hiroko Suzuki, Kathy Swartout, Naim Tahiri, Richard Ten Eyck, Marina Graciela Torres Rodriguez, James Van Slate, Peter J Van Soest, Tom Vennard, Roberta Vidal, Rikke Susanne Vinbord Hedegaard, Ioannis Vrasidas, Yannis Vrasidas, Stephen Walford, Paul Wehling, Paul Winkler, Ronald Winter, Bryan Wirthwine, Doug Wolfe, Laura Wood, David C Woollard, Sudhakar Yadlapalli, Xun Yan, Jinchuan Yang, Zheng Yang, Guhong Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Szimonetta Lohner, Viktória Jakobik, Krisztina Mihályi, Sara Soldi, Sotirios Vasileiadis, Stephan Theis, Manuela Sailer, Carolin Sieland, Károly Berényi, Günther Boehm, Tamás Decsi
Background: Inulin-type fructans used in formula have been shown to promote microbiota composition and stool consistency closer to those of breastfed infants and to have beneficial effects on fever occurrence, diarrhea, and incidence of infections requiring antibiotic treatment in infants. Objectives: The primary study aim was to explore whether prophylactic supplementation with prebiotic fructans is able to influence the frequency of infectious diseases in kindergarten children during a winter period...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Renee Korczak, Joanne L Slavin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dietary fiber may play a role in obesity prevention through reduction of body weight and control of appetite, however, not all fibers are created equally, and characteristics of fiber such as viscosity, fermentability and solubility may affect appetite differently. RECENT FINDINGS: Although early studies supported that fructan fibers, including inulin, fructooligosaccharides, and oligofructose affected satiety, more recent studies are less supportive...
June 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Molly L McGhee, Hans H Stein
An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and starch and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in three varieties of hybrid rye and in one source of barley, wheat, and corn. Seven growing barrows (initial BW = 26.1 ± 2.4 kg) were randomly allotted to a 7 × 7 Latin square design with seven periods and seven experimental diets. Six diets included one of the grains as the sole source of AA, and an N-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of CP and AA...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Kaarel Adamberg, Signe Adamberg, Karin Ernits, Anneli Larionova, Tiia Voor, Madis Jaagura, Triinu Visnapuu, Tiina Alamäe
The aim of the study was to investigate the metabolism of non-digestible oligo- and polysaccharides by fecal microbiota, using isothermal microcalorimetry. The five tested substrates were raffinose, melibiose, a mixture of oligo- and polysaccharides produced from raffinose by levansucrase, levan synthesized from raffinose, and levan from timothy grass. Two inocula were comprised of pooled fecal samples from overweight or normal-weight children, from healthy adult volunteers and a pure culture of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron as a reference bacterium for colon microbiota...
June 20, 2018: Anaerobe
Onur Kırtel, Maxime Versluys, Wim Van den Ende, Ebru Toksoy Öner
Saline and hypersaline environments make up the largest ecosystem on earth and the organisms living in such water-restricted environments have developed unique ways to cope with high salinity. As such these organisms not only carry significant industrial potential in a world where freshwater supplies are rapidly diminishing, but they also shed light upon the origins and extremes of life. One largely overlooked and potentially important feature of many salt-loving organisms is their ability to produce fructans, fructose polymers widely found in various mesophilic Eubacteria and plants, with potential functions as storage carbohydrates, aiding stress tolerance, and acting as virulence factors or signaling molecules...
September 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Jussi Loponen, Michael G Gänzle
A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet allows most irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients to manage their gastrointestinal symptoms by avoiding FODMAP-containing foods, such as onions, pulses, and products made from wheat or rye. The downside of a low FODMAP diet is the reduced intake of dietary fiber. Applying sourdoughs—with specific FODMAP-targeting metabolic properties—to wholegrain bread making can help to remarkably reduce the content of FODMAPs in bread without affecting the content of the slowly fermented and well-tolerated dietary fiber...
June 22, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Frédéric Meuriot, Annette Morvan-Bertrand, Nathalie Noiraud-Romy, Marie-Laure Decau, Abraham J Escobar-Gutiérrez, François Gastal, Marie-Pascale Prud'homme
In grassland plant communities, the ability of individual plants to regrow after defoliation is of crucial importance since it allows the restoration of active photosynthesis and plant growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing defoliation intensity (0, 25, 65, 84, and 100% of removed leaf area) on sugar remobilization and N uptake, remobilization, and allocation in roots, adult leaves, and growing leaves of ryegrass over 2 days, using a 15N tracer technique. Increasing defoliation intensity decreased plant N uptake in a correlative way and increased plant N remobilization, but independently...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Keiji Ueno, Takahiro Sonoda, Midori Yoshida, Norio Shiomi, Shuichi Onodera
Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) accumulates inulin- and inulin neoseries-type fructans. Fructose released by the hydrolysis of fructans is an energy source for emerging asparagus spears. Plant fructans are hydrolyzed by fructan exohydrolases (FEH), whose presence in asparagus has not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe for the first time the purification and characterization of a FEH from asparagus, and the functional analysis of its gene. The purified enzyme was predicted to exist as a dimer (approximately 130 kDa), consisting of two polypeptides with a molecular mass of approximately 68 kDa...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Geizecler Tomazetto, Sarah Hahnke, Daniel Wibberg, Alfred Pühler, Michael Klocke, Andreas Schlüter
Proteiniphilum saccharofermentans str. M3/6T is a recently described species within the family Porphyromonadaceae (phylum Bacteroidetes ), which was isolated from a mesophilic laboratory-scale biogas reactor. The genome of the strain was completely sequenced and manually annotated to reconstruct its metabolic potential regarding biomass degradation and fermentation pathways. The P. saccharofermentans str. M3/6T genome consists of a 4,414,963 bp chromosome featuring an average GC-content of 43.63%. Genome analyses revealed that the strain possesses 3396 protein-coding sequences...
June 2018: Biotechnology Reports
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