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Jiankuan Li, Xin Zhang, Lingya Cao, Jiaojiao Ji, Jianping Gao
Radix Codonopsis, derived from the roots of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf., Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. Var. modesta (Nannf.) L.T. Shen and Codonopsis tangshen Oliv., has been used as traditional Chinese medicine for improving poor gastrointestinal function, treating gastric ulcers and chronic gastritis in China. Inulin-type fructans are carbohydrates consisting mainly of β (2→1) fructosyl-fructose links in chemical structure and exhibit a range of properties such as prebiotic activity, fat substitutes in low-calorie foods and disease-modifying effects...
November 29, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Po-Yun Teng, Woo Kyun Kim
In recent years, prebiotics have been considered as potential alternatives to antibiotics. Mechanisms by which prebiotics modulate the ecosystem of the gut include alternation of the intestinal microbiota, improvement of the epithelium, and stimulation of the immune system. It is suggested that the administration of prebiotics not only influences these aspects but also regulates the interaction between the host and the intestinal microbiota comprehensively. In this review, we will discuss how each prebiotic ameliorates the ecosystem by direct or indirect mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
J G Muir, J E Varney, M Ajamian, P R Gibson
Wheat- and gluten-containing products are often blamed for triggering a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms, and this has fueled demand for gluten-free products worldwide. The best studied 'gluten intolerance' is coeliac disease, an auto-immune disease that affects the small intestine. Coeliac disease occurs in 1% of the population and requires strict, life-long avoidance of gluten-containing foods as the only medical treatment. There is a larger group of individuals (around 10-15% of the population) who report a wide-range of gastrointestinal symptoms that respond well to a 'gluten-free diet', but who do not have coeliac disease - so called 'non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS)'...
October 24, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Jorge A Ramos-Hernández, Juan A Ragazzo-Sánchez, Montserrat Calderón-Santoyo, Rosa I Ortiz-Basurto, Cristina Prieto, Jose M Lagaron
High degree of polymerization Agave fructans (HDPAF) are presented as a novel encapsulating material. Electrospraying coating (EC) was selected as the encapsulation technique and β-carotene as the model bioactive compound. For direct electrospraying, two encapsulation methodologies (solution and emulsion) were proposed to find the formulation which provided a suitable particle morphology and an adequate concentration of β-carotene encapsulated in the particles to provide a protective effect of β-carotene by the nanocapsules...
October 23, 2018: Nanomaterials
Jiaying Peng, Wei Xu, Dawei Ni, Wenli Zhang, Tao Zhang, Cuie Guang, Wanmeng Mu
Less attention has been focused on the industrial applications of levan-type fructan than that of inulin. Levan-type fructan is a unique homopolysaccharide consisting of fructose residues with a β-(2, 6) linkage that possesses unique physiochemical properties such as low intrinsic viscosity. In this study, the recombinant levansucrase from Erwinia amylovora was used to efficiently produce levan from sucrose, and under optimised conditions, 195 g/L levan was produced from 500 g/L sucrose, with the highest conversion rate of 59%...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Damien P Belobrajdic, Colin L D Jenkins, Claus T Christophersen, Anthony R Bird
PURPOSE: Intestinal fermentation of inulin-type fructans, including oligofructose, can modulate adiposity, improve energy regulation, and increase mineral absorption. We aimed to determine whether cereal fructans had greater effects on reducing adiposity and improving mineral absorption compared with oligofructose. METHODS: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments that contained 0% fructan (control), or 5% fructan provided by oligofructose (OF), a barley grain fraction (BGF), or a wheat stem fraction (WSF)...
October 3, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Jiao Jiao, Ji Wang, Mengjia Zhou, Xuyang Ren, Wenyue Zhan, Zongjiu Sun, Haiyan Zhao, Yao Yang, Mingxiang Liang, Wim Van den Ende
The inulin-type fructans in Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers exhibit different degrees of polymerization and are critical for germination. We aimed to characterize the sugar metabolism dynamics in the tubers without bud eyes or shoots (T) and BE/S of indoor- and field-grown Jerusalem artichokes during germination. Ht1-FEH II and Ht1-FEH III (1-fructan exohydrolases II and III, inulin-degrading enzymes) expression increased 5 days after planting indoors, whereas Ht1-FEH II expression increased 72 days after planting in the field in T and BE/S...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Junfeng Hou, Xin Huang, Wan Sun, Chenyang Du, Chenyang Wang, Yingxin Xie, Ying Ma, Dongyun Ma
In order to understand the effects of sugar metabolism on drought resistance in wheat, two wheat cultivars with different levels of drought resistance were used in this study. We investigated the accumulation pattern of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and expression profiles of twelve fructan metabolism-related genes in peduncle (PED), penultimate (PEN), and lower internode (LOW) stem tissues under drought stress. LH7, a higher drought-resistance cultivar, contained a higher stem dry weight and higher content of WSC in PED, PEN, and LOW tissues, while XN979, a lower drought-resistance cultivar, contained lower values...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Octavio Alvarado-Reveles, Silvia Fernández-Michel, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Cristina Cueto-Wong, Luz Vázquez-Moreno, Gabriela Ramos-Clamont Montfort
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L. rhamnosus GG) cells were encapsulated in buttermilk proteins by spray drying, alone (E), or with Agave tequilana fructans (CEF). Buttermilk proteins acted as a thermo-protector for the probiotic cells undergoing the spray-dried process. The addition of Agave fructans in CEF microcapsules significantly enhanced storage stability and survival to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions, compared to E capsules. After 14 days storage at - 20 °C, the number of living cells in CEF microcapsules was in the order of 7...
October 1, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Gerardo Espinosa-Velázquez, Ana Mayela Ramos-de-la-Peña, Julio Montanez, Juan Carlos Contreras-Esquivel
Functional food has been highly demanded lately because of its benefits in counteracting diseases. Fucoidan and agave fructan are ingredients that enhance the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut (prebiotics). This mixture has great potential to develop innovative products but it has never been explored before. Because of fucoidan is more expensive than agave fructan, the innovative proposed mixture is vulnerable to adulteration. This research was aimed to assess the accuracy of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR) coupled with chemometrics to identify and predict concentration of both polysaccharides in powder mixtures (0-100%)...
April 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Markus C L Boger, Alicia Lammerts van Bueren, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Probiotic gut bacteria employ specific metabolic pathways to degrade dietary carbohydrates beyond the capabilities of their human host. Here, we report how individual commercial probiotic strains degrade prebiotic (inulin type) fructans. First, a structural analysis of commercial fructose oligosaccharide-inulin samples was performed. These β-(2-1)-fructans differ in termination by either glucose (GF) or fructose (FF) residues, with a broad variation in the degrees of polymerization (DPs). The growth of individual probiotic bacteria on short-chain inulin (sc-inulin) (Frutafit CLR), a β-(2-1)-fructan (DP 2 to DP 40), was studied...
November 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Nore Struyf, Hannah Vandewiele, Beatriz Herrera-Malaver, Joran Verspreet, Kevin J Verstrepen, Christophe M Courtin
There is evidence that a diet low in Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides And Polyols (FODMAPs) alleviates symptoms in approx. 70% of the patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Through fructans, wheat containing products are a major source of FODMAPs in the western diet. Although fructans are partially degraded during dough fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase, wheat bread contains notable fructan levels. In this study, it was shown that Kluyveromyces marxianus strain CBS6014 can degrade more than 90% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal during bread making, which can be attributed to its high inulinase activity...
December 2018: Food Microbiology
P Priyanka, S Gayam, J T Kupec
Background: Nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a recently defined clinical entity characterized by intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms associated with gluten ingestion in individuals in whom celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA) has been excluded. Despite its name and definition, gluten has been shown to precipitate symptoms in only 16-30% of these patients. In addition to gluten, other components of wheat, including fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs), alpha-amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) and wheat germ agglutinin have been implicated in the causation of the symptoms of NCGS, with FODMAPs garnering the most attention...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Wim Van den Ende
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Onur Kirtel, Carmen Menéndez, Maxime Versluys, Wim Van den Ende, Lázaro Hernández, Ebru Toksoy Öner
Fructans, homopolymers of fructose produced by fructosyltransferases (FTs), are emerging as intriguing components in halophiles since they are thought to be associated with osmotic stress tolerance and overall fitness of microorganisms and plants under high-salinity conditions. Here, we report on the full characterization of the first halophilic FT, a levansucrase from Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6T (HsLsc; EC The encoding gene (lsc) was cloned into a vector with a 6xHis Tag at its C-terminus, then expressed in Escherichia coli...
November 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Gabriel Keeble-Gagnère, Philippe Rigault, Josquin Tibbits, Raj Pasam, Matthew Hayden, Kerrie Forrest, Zeev Frenkel, Abraham Korol, B Emma Huang, Colin Cavanagh, Jen Taylor, Michael Abrouk, Andrew Sharpe, David Konkin, Pierre Sourdille, Benoît Darrier, Frédéric Choulet, Aurélien Bernard, Simone Rochfort, Adam Dimech, Nathan Watson-Haigh, Ute Baumann, Paul Eckermann, Delphine Fleury, Angela Juhasz, Sébastien Boisvert, Marc-Alexandre Nolin, Jaroslav Doležel, Hana Šimková, Helena Toegelová, Jan Šafář, Ming-Cheng Luo, Francisco Câmara, Matthias Pfeifer, Don Isdale, Johan Nyström-Persson, Iwgsc, Dal-Hoe Koo, Matthew Tinning, Dangqun Cui, Zhengang Ru, Rudi Appels
BACKGROUND: Numerous scaffold-level sequences for wheat are now being released and, in this context, we report on a strategy for improving the overall assembly to a level comparable to that of the human genome. RESULTS: Using chromosome 7A of wheat as a model, sequence-finished megabase-scale sections of this chromosome were established by combining a new independent assembly using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map, BAC pool paired-end sequencing, chromosome-arm-specific mate-pair sequencing and Bionano optical mapping with the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium RefSeq v1...
August 17, 2018: Genome Biology
R S Sandoval-González, H Jiménez-Islas, J L Navarrete-Bolaños
Saccharomyces paradoxus, a native microorganism of the aguamiel, was used successfully for endoinulinase synthesis for agave fructooligasaccharide (FOS) production. We optimized the fermentation parameters to maximize the enzyme synthesis, and we performed enzyme kinetics studies to achieve agave fructans hydrolysis. The results showed that under constant operating conditions (pH 7.7, 40 °C, 175 rpm of agitation, and 0.005 VVM of aeration) results in the production of an enzymatic extract with 49.57 mg/L...
October 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Asad Maroufi, Mansour Karimi, Khosro Mehdikhanlou, Marc De Loose
Chicory capable of synthesizing long-chain inulin is of great interest. During the growing season, the sucrose-sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) activity is vital for production of long-chain inulin in chicory. With the purpose to increase inulin chain length, we employed Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method. Transgenic chicory plants ( Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum ) cv. 'Melci' has been developed to overexpress sucrose-sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Celeste Alexander, Tzu-Wen L Cross, Saravanan Devendran, Franka Neumer, Stephan Theis, Jason M Ridlon, Jan S Suchodolski, Maria R C de Godoy, Kelly S Swanson
Because obesity is associated with many co-morbidities, including diabetes mellitus, this study evaluated the second-meal effect of a commercial prebiotic, inulin-type fructans, and the effects of the prebiotic on faecal microbiota, metabolites and bile acids (BA). Nine overweight beagles were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design to test a non-prebiotic control (cellulose) against a low (equivalent to 0·5 % diet) and high dose (equivalent to 1·0 % diet) of prebiotic over 14-d treatments. All dogs were fed the same diet twice daily, with treatments provided orally via gelatin capsules before meals...
September 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Lucy Harper, Justine Bold
Aim: To explore the motivation for gluten avoidance in the absence of coeliac disease (CD) and ascertain what symptoms are triggered by gluten and what beliefs/reasons influence this decision. Background: Links between physical/psychological symptoms and gluten in CD are well known but less is known about those who self-select a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the absence of CD. Methods: An empirical study using responses to an anonymous on-line questionnaire...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
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