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Damien P Belobrajdic, Colin L D Jenkins, Claus T Christophersen, Anthony R Bird
PURPOSE: Intestinal fermentation of inulin-type fructans, including oligofructose, can modulate adiposity, improve energy regulation, and increase mineral absorption. We aimed to determine whether cereal fructans had greater effects on reducing adiposity and improving mineral absorption compared with oligofructose. METHODS: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments that contained 0% fructan (control), or 5% fructan provided by oligofructose (OF), a barley grain fraction (BGF), or a wheat stem fraction (WSF)...
October 3, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Jiao Jiao, Ji Wang, Mengjia Zhou, Xuyang Ren, Wenyue Zhan, Zongjiu Sun, Haiyan Zhao, Yao Yang, Mingxiang Liang, Wim Van den Ende
The inulin-type fructans in Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers exhibit different degrees of polymerization and are critical for germination. We aimed to characterize the sugar metabolism dynamics in the tubers without bud eyes or shoots (T) and BE/S of indoor- and field-grown Jerusalem artichokes during germination. Ht1-FEH II and Ht1-FEH III (1-fructan exohydrolases II and III, inulin-degrading enzymes) expression increased 5 days after planting indoors, whereas Ht1-FEH II expression increased 72 days after planting in the field in T and BE/S...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Junfeng Hou, Xin Huang, Wan Sun, Chenyang Du, Chenyang Wang, Yingxin Xie, Ying Ma, Dongyun Ma
In order to understand the effects of sugar metabolism on drought resistance in wheat, two wheat cultivars with different levels of drought resistance were used in this study. We investigated the accumulation pattern of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and expression profiles of twelve fructan metabolism-related genes in peduncle (PED), penultimate (PEN), and lower internode (LOW) stem tissues under drought stress. LH7, a higher drought-resistance cultivar, contained a higher stem dry weight and higher content of WSC in PED, PEN, and LOW tissues, while XN979, a lower drought-resistance cultivar, contained lower values...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Octavio Alvarado-Reveles, Silvia Fernández-Michel, Rafael Jiménez-Flores, Cristina Cueto-Wong, Luz Vázquez-Moreno, Gabriela Ramos-Clamont Montfort
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L. rhamnosus GG) cells were encapsulated in buttermilk proteins by spray drying, alone (E), or with Agave tequilana fructans (CEF). Buttermilk proteins acted as a thermo-protector for the probiotic cells undergoing the spray-dried process. The addition of Agave fructans in CEF microcapsules significantly enhanced storage stability and survival to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions, compared to E capsules. After 14 days storage at - 20 °C, the number of living cells in CEF microcapsules was in the order of 7...
October 1, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Gerardo Espinosa-Velázquez, Ana Mayela Ramos-de-la-Peña, Julio Montanez, Juan Carlos Contreras-Esquivel
Functional food has been highly demanded lately because of its benefits in counteracting diseases. Fucoidan and agave fructan are ingredients that enhance the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut (prebiotics). This mixture has great potential to develop innovative products but it has never been explored before. Because of fucoidan is more expensive than agave fructan, the innovative proposed mixture is vulnerable to adulteration. This research was aimed to assess the accuracy of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR) coupled with chemometrics to identify and predict concentration of both polysaccharides in powder mixtures (0-100%)...
April 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Markus C L Boger, Alicia Lammerts van Bueren, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
Probiotic gut bacteria employ specific metabolic pathways to degrade dietary carbohydrates, beyond capabilities of their human host. Here we report how individual commercial probiotic strains degrade prebiotic (inulin type) fructans. First a structural analysis of the commercial fructose-oligosaccharides/inulin samples used was performed. These β (2-1) fructans differ in termination by either a glucose (GF) or a fructose residue (FF), with a broad variation in degree of polymerization (DP). Growth of individual probiotic bacteria on short-chain (sc)Inulin (Frutafit® CLR), a β (2-1) fructan (DP2-40), was studied...
August 31, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Nore Struyf, Hannah Vandewiele, Beatriz Herrera-Malaver, Joran Verspreet, Kevin J Verstrepen, Christophe M Courtin
There is evidence that a diet low in Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides And Polyols (FODMAPs) alleviates symptoms in approx. 70% of the patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Through fructans, wheat containing products are a major source of FODMAPs in the western diet. Although fructans are partially degraded during dough fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase, wheat bread contains notable fructan levels. In this study, it was shown that Kluyveromyces marxianus strain CBS6014 can degrade more than 90% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal during bread making, which can be attributed to its high inulinase activity...
December 2018: Food Microbiology
P Priyanka, S Gayam, J T Kupec
Background: Nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a recently defined clinical entity characterized by intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms associated with gluten ingestion in individuals in whom celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA) has been excluded. Despite its name and definition, gluten has been shown to precipitate symptoms in only 16-30% of these patients. In addition to gluten, other components of wheat, including fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs), alpha-amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) and wheat germ agglutinin have been implicated in the causation of the symptoms of NCGS, with FODMAPs garnering the most attention...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Wim Van den Ende
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Onur Kirtel, Carmen Menéndez, Maxime Versluys, Wim Van den Ende, Lázaro Hernández, Ebru Toksoy Öner
Fructans, homopolymers of fructose produced by fructosyltransferases (FTs), are emerging as intriguing components in halophiles since they are thought to be associated with osmotic stress tolerance and overall fitness of microorganisms and plants under high-salinity conditions. Here, we report on the full characterization of the first halophilic FT, a levansucrase from Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6T (HsLsc; EC The encoding gene (lsc) was cloned into a vector with a 6xHis Tag at its C-terminus, then expressed in Escherichia coli...
August 17, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Gabriel Keeble-Gagnère, Philippe Rigault, Josquin Tibbits, Raj Pasam, Matthew Hayden, Kerrie Forrest, Zeev Frenkel, Abraham Korol, B Emma Huang, Colin Cavanagh, Jen Taylor, Michael Abrouk, Andrew Sharpe, David Konkin, Pierre Sourdille, Benoît Darrier, Frédéric Choulet, Aurélien Bernard, Simone Rochfort, Adam Dimech, Nathan Watson-Haigh, Ute Baumann, Paul Eckermann, Delphine Fleury, Angela Juhasz, Sébastien Boisvert, Marc-Alexandre Nolin, Jaroslav Doležel, Hana Šimková, Helena Toegelová, Jan Šafář, Ming-Cheng Luo, Francisco Câmara, Matthias Pfeifer, Don Isdale, Johan Nyström-Persson, Iwgsc, Dal-Hoe Koo, Matthew Tinning, Dangqun Cui, Zhengang Ru, Rudi Appels
BACKGROUND: Numerous scaffold-level sequences for wheat are now being released and, in this context, we report on a strategy for improving the overall assembly to a level comparable to that of the human genome. RESULTS: Using chromosome 7A of wheat as a model, sequence-finished megabase-scale sections of this chromosome were established by combining a new independent assembly using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map, BAC pool paired-end sequencing, chromosome-arm-specific mate-pair sequencing and Bionano optical mapping with the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium RefSeq v1...
August 17, 2018: Genome Biology
R S Sandoval-González, H Jiménez-Islas, J L Navarrete-Bolaños
Saccharomyces paradoxus, a native microorganism of the aguamiel, was used successfully for endoinulinase synthesis for agave fructooligasaccharide (FOS) production. We optimized the fermentation parameters to maximize the enzyme synthesis, and we performed enzyme kinetics studies to achieve agave fructans hydrolysis. The results showed that under constant operating conditions (pH 7.7, 40 °C, 175 rpm of agitation, and 0.005 VVM of aeration) results in the production of an enzymatic extract with 49.57 mg/L...
October 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Asad Maroufi, Mansour Karimi, Khosro Mehdikhanlou, Marc De Loose
Chicory capable of synthesizing long-chain inulin is of great interest. During the growing season, the sucrose-sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) activity is vital for production of long-chain inulin in chicory. With the purpose to increase inulin chain length, we employed Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method. Transgenic chicory plants ( Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum ) cv. 'Melci' has been developed to overexpress sucrose-sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Celeste Alexander, Tzu-Wen L Cross, Saravanan Devendran, Franka Neumer, Stephan Theis, Jason M Ridlon, Jan S Suchodolski, Maria R C de Godoy, Kelly S Swanson
Because obesity is associated with many co-morbidities, including diabetes mellitus, this study evaluated the second-meal effect of a commercial prebiotic, inulin-type fructans, and the effects of the prebiotic on faecal microbiota, metabolites and bile acids (BA). Nine overweight beagles were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design to test a non-prebiotic control (cellulose) against a low (equivalent to 0·5 % diet) and high dose (equivalent to 1·0 % diet) of prebiotic over 14-d treatments. All dogs were fed the same diet twice daily, with treatments provided orally via gelatin capsules before meals...
September 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Lucy Harper, Justine Bold
Aim: To explore the motivation for gluten avoidance in the absence of coeliac disease (CD) and ascertain what symptoms are triggered by gluten and what beliefs/reasons influence this decision. Background: Links between physical/psychological symptoms and gluten in CD are well known but less is known about those who self-select a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the absence of CD. Methods: An empirical study using responses to an anonymous on-line questionnaire...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Alexia F P Lépine, Nicole de Wit, Els Oosterink, Harry Wichers, Jurriaan Mes, Paul de Vos
Scope: Salmonellosis is a prevalent food-borne illness that causes diarrhea in over 130 million humans yearly and can lead to death. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to antibiotics as many salmonellae are now multidrug resistant. As such, specific beneficial bacteria and dietary fibers can be an alternative as they may prevent Salmonella Typhimurium (STM) infection and spreading by strengthening intestinal barrier function. Methods and Results: We tested whether immune active long-chain inulin-type fructans and/or L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hanna Fjeldheim Dale, Jessica R Biesiekierski, Gülen Arslan Lied
The spectrum of gluten-related disorders includes coeliac disease (CD), wheat allergy (WA) and the suggested entity of non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). An increasing number of the world's population are avoiding gluten due to the assumption of health benefits and self-diagnosed gastrointestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms. Unlike CD and WA, NCGS is a relatively new entity with an unknown prevalence and mechanisms, complicated by recent literature suggesting that gluten is not the only food component that may trigger symptoms experienced by this group of patients...
July 16, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
M C Tamayo-Ordóñez, B A Ayil-Gutiérrez, Y J Tamayo-Ordóñez, L C Rodríguez-Zapata, M Monforte-González, E A De la Cruz-Arguijo, M J García-Castillo, L F Sánchez-Teyer
Several of the over 200 known species of Agave L. are currently used for production of distilled beverages and biopolymers. The plants live in a wide range of stressful environments as a result of their resistance to abiotic stress (drought, salinity, and extreme temperature) and pathogens, which gives the genus potential for germplasm conservation and biotechnological applications that may minimize economic losses as a result of the global climate change. However, the limited knowledge in the genus of genome structure and organization hampers development of potential improved biotechnological applications by means of genetic manipulation and biocatalysis...
July 16, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Maria Elena Ortiz-Soto, Julia Ertl, Jürgen Mut, Juliane Adelmann, Thien Anh Le, Junwen Shan, Jörg Teßmar, Andreas Schlosser, Bernd Engels, Jürgen Seibel
Carbohydrate processing enzymes are sophisticated tools of living systems that have evolved to execute specific reactions on sugars. Here we present for the first time the site-selective chemical modification of exposed tyrosine residues in SacB, a levansucrase from Bacillus megaterium ( Bm -LS) for enzyme engineering purposes via an ene-type reaction. Bm -LS is unable to sustain the synthesis of high molecular weight (HMW) levan (a fructose polymer) due to protein-oligosaccharide dissociation events occurring at an early stage during polymer elongation...
June 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Souha Tohme, Gül Gülenay Hacıosmanoğlu, Mehmet Sayip Eroğlu, Ceyda Kasavi, Seval Genç, Zehra Semra Can, Ebru Toksoy Oner
Levan is a fructan type polysaccharide that has long been considered as an industrially important biopolymer however its limited availability is mainly due to the bottlenecks associated with its large-scale production. To overcome such bottlenecks in the commercialization of this very promising polysaccharide, co-production of levan with polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by halophilic Halomonas smyrnensis cultures has been proposed in this study for the first time. After in silico and in vitro assessment of PHA accumulation, fermentation profiles for levan and PHA concentrations were obtained in the presence of sucrose and glucose and the PHA granules observed by TEM were found to be poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) after detailed structural characterization by GC-MS, DSC, FTIR and NMR...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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