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Osteopenia treatments

John Nguyen, Hilary Weidner, Lora M Schell, Linda Sequeira, Ryan Kabrick, Saurabh Dharmadhikari, Harold Coombs, Randall L Duncan, Liyun Wang, Anja Nohe
Background: Osteoporosis is a silent disease caused by low bone mineral density that results in bone fractures in 1 out of 2 women and 1 in 4 men over the age of 50. Although several treatments for osteopenia and osteoporosis are available, they have severe side effects and new treatments are desperately needed. Current treatments usually target osteoclasts and inhibit their activity or differentiation. Treatments that decrease osteoclast differentiation and activity but enhance osteogenesis and osteoblast activity are not available...
2018: Journal of bone research
Kuan-Yu Chen, Ching-Hsun Wang, Te-Yu Lin, Chan-Yuan Chang, Chang-Lin Liu, Yu-Chun Hsiao, Ching-Ching Hung, Ning-Chi Wang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: HIV-infected patients have a high prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD), but BMD changes remain unclear. This cross-sectional retrospective observational study aimed to characterize the prevalence and associated factors of low BMD in HIV patients. METHODS: Between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016, all patients aged 20 years or greater who sought for HIV care were included. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable analyses of the association with HIV disease status, treatment and anthropometric parameters were performed...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
W-J Wang, W-Z Fu, J-W He, C Wang, Z-L Zhang
The aim of this study was to explore the allelic association between SOST polymorphisms and the variance of clinical effects of alendronate in postmenopausal Chinese women with osteoporosis or osteopenia. In the study, 500 postmenopausal women in Shanghai area with osteoporosis or osteopenia were included. All participants were treated with weekly oral alendronate 70 mg, daily calcium 600 mg and vitamin D 125 IU for 12 months. Nine tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SOST gene were genotyped...
October 5, 2018: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Mathew Cyriac, Justin Kyhos, Uchechi Iweala, Danny Lee, Matthew Mantell, Warren Yu, Joseph R O'Brien
Background: Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) has been well established as an effective surgical intervention for chronic back pain due to osteoporotic vertebral collapse. Historically, ALIF has consisted of an anterior approach to disc height restoration with a subsequent posterior pedicle screw fixation. Although the applications of cement augmentation with posterior fixation have been previously reported, treatment of patients with both isthmic spondylolisthesis and decreased bone mineral density using a stand-alone ALIF is controversial because of concerns for decreased fusion rates and increased subsidence risk, respectively...
June 2018: International Journal of Spine Surgery
Maryam Karimi Fard, Ashraf Aminorroaya, Ali Kachuei, Mohammad Reza Salamat, Moluk Hadi Alijanvand, Sima Aminorroaya Yamini, Mansoor Karimifar, Awat Feizi, Massoud Amini
AIMS: Postmenopausal women receive bisphosphonates for osteoporosis treatment. The effect of these medications on developing diabetes mellitus (DM) in prediabetic patients is yet to be investigated. We aimed to determine the effect of alendronate on plasma glucose, insulin indices of postmenopausal women with prediabetes and osteopenia. METHODS: This triple-blind randomized controlled clinical trial included 60 postmenopausal women, aged 45-60 years. All patients were vitamin D sufficient...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Keertik Fulzele, Christopher Dedic, Forest Lai, Mary Bouxsein, Sutada Lotinun, Roland Baron, Paola Divieti Pajevic
The stimulatory subunit of G-protein, Gsα, acts as a secondary messenger of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that primarily activates cAMP-induced signaling. GPCRs, such as the parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR), are critical regulators of bone formation as shown by number of genetic manipulation studies targeting early osteoblast lineage cells. In this study, we have examined the role of Gsα in osteocytes, the terminally differentiated and most abundant cells of the osteoblast lineage. Mice lacking the stimulatory subunit of G-proteins (Gsα) in osteocytes (DMP1-GsαKO) have significant decrease of both trabecular and cortical bone, as assessed by μCT...
September 25, 2018: Bone
Wei Wang, Guo-Dong Zhao, Ying-Jie Cui, Min-Qi Li, Zhao-Peng Liu
Two novel 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 derivatives containing a α,α-difluorocyclopentanone (3) or α,α-difluorocyclohexanone (4) moiety at the CD-ring side chains were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their biological properties on restoring bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX) rats with established osteopenia. The synthesis of compounds 3 and 4 utilized the Wittig-Horner coupling to build up the vitamin D conjugated triene system, followed by the introduction of the cycloketone fragments at the side chain, and subsequent α,α-difluorination of the ketone by the treatment of the derived silyl enol ether with Selectfluor, as the key synthetic steps...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
She-Ji Weng, Zhong-Jie Xie, Zong-Yi Wu, De-Yi Yan, Jia-Hao Tang, Zi-Jian Shen, Hang Li, Bing-Li Bai, Viraj Boodhun, Xiang Da Eric Dong, Lei Yang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining human parathyroid hormone (1-34) (PTH1-34 ; PTH) and menaquinone-4 (MK-4) on calvarial bone defect repair in osteopenic rats. METHODS: Fourteen week olds were subject to craniotomy for the establishment of osteopenic animal models fed through a chronically low-protein diet. After that, critical calvarial defect model was established and all rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham, MK-4, PTH, and PTH + MK-4...
September 22, 2018: Endocrine
Sabashini K Ramchand, Ego Seeman
The prevalence of fragility fractures increases as longevity increases the proportion of the elderly in the community. Until recently, the majority of studies have targeted women with osteoporosis defined as a bone mineral density (BMD) T score of < -2.5 SD, despite evidence that the population burden of fractures arises from women with osteopenia. Antiresorptive agents reduce vertebral and hip fracture risk by ~50 percent during 3 years but efficacy against non-vertebral fractures, 80% of all fractures in the community, is reported in few studies, and of those, the risk reduction is only 20-30%...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Gisele M Martins, Marília B C G Teixeira, Marcos V Silva, Bianca Neofiti-Papi, Manuela Miranda-Rodrigues, Patricia C Brum, Cecilia H A Gouveia
Evidence shows that sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation inhibits bone formation and activates bone resorption leading to bone loss. Because thyroid hormone (TH) interacts with the SNS to control several physiological processes, we raised the hypothesis that this interaction also controls bone remodeling. We have previously shown that mice with double-gene inactivation of α2A- and -adrenoceptors (α2A/2C-AR-/- ) present high bone mass (HBM) phenotype and resistance to thyrotoxicosis-induced osteopenia, which supports a TH-SNS interaction to control bone mass and suggests that it involves α2-AR signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Antonio Martinez-Lopez, Gonzalo Blasco-Morente, Maria Sierra Giron-Prieto, Miguel Angel Arrabal-Polo, Maria Luque-Valenzuela, Juan de Dios Luna-Del Castillo, Jesus Tercedor-Sanchez, Salvador Arias-Santiago
Background/Purpose: Psoriasis is a multisystem disease which has been related to vitamin-D deficiency through chronic inflammation. This psoriasis-related inflammatory state and vitamin-D deficiency may induce bone mineral density loss. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship of psoriasis with bone mineral density, by comparing psoriatic patients with healthy controls and patients with osteopenia/osteoporosis. Methods: A total of 185 subjects were studied; 58 psoriatic patients who had not been under systemic or biological treatment were included...
September 17, 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Huanguang Xie, Qingqing Wang, Xinyue Zhang, Te Wang, Wei Hu, Theasha Manicum, Hua Chen, Liaojun Sun
Diabetic osteoporosis is a complication of diabetes mellitus, and can result in an increased incidence of bone fractures and a delay in fracture healing. Berberine is one of the most widely distributed isoquinoline alkaloid in plants and possesses antioxidant properties. These properties can reduce the high glucose mediated in the dysfunction of human bone marrow stem cells. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the apparent beneficial effect of berberine on bone characteristics in streptozotocin plus HFD-induced diabetic rats...
September 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Donatella Granchi, Renata Caudarella, Claudio Ripamonti, Paolo Spinnato, Alberto Bazzocchi, Annamaria Massa, Nicola Baldini
The relationship involving acid-base imbalance, mineral metabolism and bone health status has previously been reported but the efficacy of the alkalizing supplementation in targeting acid overload and preventing bone loss has not yet been fully elucidated. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the hypothesis that potassium citrate (K citrate) modifies bone turnover in women with postmenopausal osteopenia was tested. Three hundred and ten women were screened; 40 women met the inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to the treatment or the placebo group...
September 12, 2018: Nutrients
Maximilian Reinhold, Christian Knop, Christian Kneitz, Alexander Disch
Study Design: Review of literature and case series. Objectives: Update and review of current treatment concepts for spine fractures in patients with ankylosing spinal disorders. Methods: Case presentation and description of a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for unstable spinal injuries with an underlying ankylosing spinal disorder (ASD) of the cervical and thoracolumbar spine. Results: Nondisplaced fractures can be missed easily using conventional X-rays...
September 2018: Global Spine Journal
M Langeveld, C E M Hollak
Inborn errors of metabolism encompass a wide spectrum of disorders, frequently affecting bone. The most important metabolic disorders that primarily influence calcium or phosphate balance, resulting in skeletal pathology, are hypophosphatemic rickets and hypophosphatasia. Conditions involving bone marrow or affecting skeletal growth and development are mainly the lysosomal storage disorders, in particular the mucopolysaccharidoses. In these disorders skeletal abnormalities are often the presenting symptom and early recognition and intervention improves outcome in many of these diseases...
September 12, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Frederique M F Cornelis, Silvia Monteagudo, Laura-An K A Guns, Wouter den Hollander, Rob G H H Nelissen, Lies Storms, Tine Peeters, Ilse Jonkers, Ingrid Meulenbelt, Rik J Lories
Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disorder with increasing global prevalence due to aging of the population. Current therapy is limited to symptom relief, yet there is no cure. Its multifactorial etiology includes oxidative stress and overproduction of reactive oxygen species, but the regulation of these processes in the joint is insufficiently understood. We report that ANP32A protects the cartilage against oxidative stress, preventing osteoarthritis development and disease progression. ANP32A is down-regulated in human and mouse osteoarthritic cartilage...
September 12, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Eglantine Hamouni, Corinne Armari, Clémentine Dupuis, Claudine Giroux-Lathuile, Audrey Petit, Dominique Plantaz, Dalila Adjaoud, Amandine Rubio
Beta thalassemia major (βTM) is the most common inherited hemoglobinopathy. Management essentially focuses on preventing and treating complications. Conventional treatment is based on a regular blood transfusion program, and chelation therapy. Management essentially focuses on preventing and treating complications. Severe complications of βTM are very rarely seen in children in Europe. In the context of the migrant crisis, pediatricians will be confronted with the challenge of managing severe complicated βTM...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Janet Finlayson, Leyla De Amicis, Stephen Gallacher, Robin Munro, Jennifer Crockett, Jon Godwin, Wendy Feeney, Dawn A Skelton
BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disabilities are a high risk population for developing osteoporosis and fragility fractures, yet they experience barriers to accessing dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone mineral density (BMD) screening and fracture assessment. Reasonable adjustments are a statutory requirement in the UK, but there is a paucity of evidence-based examples to assist their identification, implementation and evaluation. METHOD: Thirty adults with intellectual disabilities underwent DXA BMD screening and fracture risk assessment...
September 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Toshifumi Sugatani
The high cardiovascular mortality associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is caused in part by the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) syndrome. The CKD-MBD consists of skeletal, vascular and cardiac pathology caused by metabolic derangements produced by kidney disease. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis resulting from the skeletal component of the CKD-MBD, renal osteodystrophy (ROD), in patients with CKD exceeds that of the general population and is a major public health concern. That CKD is associated with compromised bone health is widely accepted, yet the mechanisms underlying impaired bone metabolism in CKD are not fully understood...
August 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hironori Tanabe, Yoichi Aota, Yasuteru Yamaguchi, Kanichiro Kaneko, Sousuke Imai, Masaki Takahashi, Masataka Taguri, Tomoyuki Saito
Recent studies have shown an association between osteopenia and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and implied that osteopenia plays a causative role in AIS development. This study aimed to determine if minodronate (MIN) treatment could prevent curve progression by increasing bone mass in a thoracic restraint (TR) mouse model, which develops causes the development of thoracic scoliosis similar to human AIS. A total of 100 young female C57BL6J mice were divided into four groups: (1) control with vehicle (CON/VEH; n = 20), (2) control with MIN (CON/MIN; n = 20), (3) TR with vehicle (TR/VEH; n = 30), or (4) TR with MIN (TR/MIN; n = 30)...
2018: PloS One
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