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Osteopenia treatments

Kari Wagner, Scott Wagner, Apryl Susi, Gregory Gorman, Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of prematurity on fracture by age 5, controlling for medications and comorbidities of prematurity. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cohort study of infants born in Military Treatment Facilities in 2009-2010 with ≥5 years of follow-up care. Gestational age, low birth weight, comorbidities of prematurity (osteopenia, necrotizing enterocolitis, chronic lung disease, and cholestasis) and fractures were identified by International Classification of Disease, 9th Edition, codes...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Carlos J Padilla Colón, Irma L Molina-Vicenty, María Frontera-Rodríguez, Alejandra García-Ferré, Bernabejoel Ponce Rivera, Gerardo Cintrón-Vélez, Sebastián Frontera-Rodríguez
Aging is the result of different functional changes leading to a substantial reduction of all human capabilities. A variety of anatomical and physiological changes occur with advancing age. These changes are more evident in the elderly population. There are various methods to measure muscle and bone mass loss, but the dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is considered one of the most efficient. The elderly population (65 years and older) has been increasing throughout the years. Loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and loss bone mass (osteopenia or osteoporosis) with advancing age, when untreated, represent a major public health problem for the elderly population and may result in loss of independence in later life...
2018: Journal of Biomedicine
Fernando Mendoza-Moreno, Manuel Díez-Alonso, Enrique Ovejero-Merino, Ana Sánchez-Gollarte, Ricardo Alvarado-Hurtado, Belén Matías-García, Ángel Rodríguez-Pascual, Carlos Medina-Reinoso, Tomás Ratia-Jiménez, Francisco Hernández-Merlo, Javier Granell-Vicent
AIM: To analyze the effect of the surgery in bone mineral density (BMD) and to study the value of preoperative clinical and analytical factors as predictors of bone increase. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective observational study. Postmenopausal women who were operated for primary hyperparathyroidism were included. A bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and femoral neck and analytical determinations (parathyroid hormone [PTH], alkaline phosphatase, albumin, phosphate, creatinine, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3, creatinine clearance, and calciuria) were performed previous to the intervention and after 12 months from surgery...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Judith F Baumhauer, Timothy Daniels, Mark Glazebrook
Synthetic cartilage implant surgery is an excellent option for the patient with great toe arthritis and good alignment of the toe who wishes to retain first metatarsophalangeal motion and obtain 90% improved pain relief and function. Patients with osteoporosis, osteopenia, or bone defects from surgery or disease may not maintain the implant position due to poor bone quality, resulting in less than desired outcomes. Despite this being a straightforward surgery, patients need to be aware that the pain relief may not begin until 3+ months after surgery because this procedure does require bone resection and implant placement...
January 2019: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
Katarzyna J Jerzak, Jacques Raphael, Danielle N Desautels, Phillip S Blanchette, Ivan Tyono, Kathleen I Pritchard
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) play an important role in the adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, but they are associated with bone loss and increased fracture risk. Although several guidelines for the management of osteoporosis and osteopenia exist, their algorithms do not account for the use of AIs. In this article, we describe the role of bone-targeted therapies, specifically for managing early breast cancer, by reviewing their bone-specific and cancer-specific benefits.
November 15, 2018: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 593 in vol. 6, PMID: 21206758.].
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Nan Li, Yan Jiang, Shuli He, Zhen Zhao, Jing Sun, Mei Li, Ou Wang, Xiaoping Xing, Weibo Xia
This study aimed to explore the therapeutic efficacy and safety of alfacalcidol among Chinese postmenopausal women (age >65 years) with osteoporosis or osteopenia.A total of 62 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia (>65 years) were recruited from urban residential community of Beijing. The patients daily took oral calcium and alfacalcidol (Alpha D3, 1 μg) for 9 months. Safety and efficacy assessments were performed at baseline and regular intervals. Alfacalcidol was adjusted to a daily dose of 0...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Katherine Wu, Erin Bauer, Gihyun Myung, Meika A Fang
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that results from the deficient activity of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase and leads to increased levels of homogentisic acid (HGA) and its oxidized product benzoquinone acetic acid (BQA). Both HGA and BQA form polymerized deposits that lead to a bluish-black discoloration of the cartilage as well as degeneration, inflammation, and calcification of the tendons, ligaments, intervertebral discs, and large joints and increased bone resorption. A brittle and fragmented cartilage forms and leads to aberrant loading of the subchondral bone...
November 16, 2018: European Journal of Rheumatology
L Pécheux, P Forget, C Geurten, L Rausin, R Nicolescu, C Hoyoux
Bone pain associated with bone marrow infiltration is often present at diagnosis of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It sometimes signs the presence of pathological fracture, lytic lesions, arthritis, or osteitis associated to ALL that can delay the diagnosis. During treatment, bone complications (pain, osteopenia, fracture, avascular necrosis, ...) are also reported. In order to describe bone involvement (BI) of pediatric LLA, we reviewed the records of 104 patients followed in our unit. The overall incidence of BI was 67 %...
November 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
Poongkodi Karunakaran, Chandrasekaran Maharajan, Rajasekaran Chockalingam, Premkumar Asokumar, Kamaleswaran Koramadai Karuppusamy, Vijay Sadasivam
BACKGROUND: Although hyperthyroidism is associated with high turnover osteopenia and its recovery after treatment, the extent of recovery with different forms of therapy remains controversial. This prospective study evaluated the bone mineral density in thyrotoxic subjects undergoing total thyroidectomy and 131 I radioactive iodine therapy. METHODS: Newly diagnosed subjects with hyperthyroidism undergoing total thyroidectomy (group 1; n = 127) and 131 I radioactive iodine therapy (group 2; n = 30) were evaluated for bone mineral density by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at the time of diagnosis (point A), on achieving euthyroidism with antithyroid drugs (point B), and 6 months after definitive treatment (point C)...
November 8, 2018: Surgery
Yingzhen Wang, Jianqiang Kou, Haining Zhang, Changyao Wang, Haiyan Li, Yuanzhong Ren, Yongtao Zhang
Periarticular osteopenia is the most specific hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the synovium has been found to participate in the pathogenic process of RA. This study examined whether and how RAS regulates periarticular osteopenia in RA. The synovial tissues from patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA) were prepared. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either saline, bovine type II collagen (CII) to induce arthritis (CIA), or CII combined with perindopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)...
December 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Daniel A Wollin, Adam G Kaplan, Glenn M Preminger, Pietro Manuel Ferraro, Antonio Nouvenne, Andrea Tasca, Emanuele Croppi, Giovanni Gambaro, Ita P Heilberg
Considering the variation in metabolic evaluation and medical management of kidney stone disease, this consensus review was created to discuss the metabolic activity of nephrolithiasis, define the difference between single and recurrent stone formers, and develop a schema for metabolic and radiologic follow-up. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify studies of metabolic evaluation and follow-up of patients with nephrolithiasis. Both single and recurrent stone formers share many similarities in metabolic profiles...
October 2018: Asian Journal of Urology
Pei Zhang, Hui Xi, Ruihong Yan
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of postoperative thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression (TSHS) on bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese postmenopausal women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Patients and methods: A total of 225 postmenopausal women with DTC who had received TSHS were included in the study. Postmenopausal women with postoperative DTC undergoing thyroid residual ablation or metastasis treatment between 2009 and 2015 were enrolled and followed up for 2 years...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Burhan Fatih Kocyigit, Ahmet Akyol
Objective: Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease that mainly affects the axial spine. Osteopenia and osteoporosis are the main complications of AS. Vitamin D has functions on the immune system. In this study, we aimed to compare vitamin D levels and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) values between AS patients and controls. Methods: A total of 68 patients with axial AS and 34 healthy controls were enrolled in this study conducted between March 2018 and May 2018...
September 2018: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Giacomina Brunetti, Gabriele D'Amato, Mariangela Chiarito, Apollonia Tullo, Graziana Colaianni, Silvia Colucci, Maria Grano, Maria Felicia Faienza
BACKGROUND: Bone remodeling is a lifelong process due to the balanced activity of osteoclasts (OCs), the bone-reabsorbing cells, and osteoblasts (OBs), and the bone-forming cells. This equilibrium is regulated by numerous cytokines, but it has been largely demonstrated that the RANK/RANKL/osteoprotegerin and Wnt/β-catenin pathways play a key role in the control of osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, respectively. The pro-osteoblastogenic activity of the Wnt/β-catenin can be inhibited by sclerostin and Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1)...
October 20, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Manabu Akagawa, Naohisa Miyakoshi, Yuji Kasukawa, Yuichi Ono, Yusuke Yuasa, Itsuki Nagahata, Chiaki Sato, Hiroyuki Tsuchie, Hiroyuki Nagasawa, Michio Hongo, Yoichi Shimada
Diabetes mellitus causes secondary osteoporosis and muscle atrophy. The ability of alfacalcidol (ALF) and exercise (Exe) to inhibit osteoporosis and muscle atrophy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model rats was examined. Twenty-week-old Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats were randomized to ALF (orally 0.1 μg/kg/day), Exe (treadmill exercise at 10 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week), Comb (ALF and Exe), and Cont (T2DM control treated with vehicle and no exercise) groups (n = 8-10 per group). Sedentary Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats were used as a non-hyperphagic control...
2018: PloS One
Guangtao Fu, Shixun Li, Nengtai Ouyang, Junyan Wu, Changchuan Li, Wei Liu, Junxiong Qiu, Peng Peng, Ling Qin, Yue Ding
Aseptic loosening due to wear particle-induced osteolysis is the main cause of arthroplasty failure and the influence of postmenopausal osteoporosis and anti-osteoporosis treatment on Titanium (Ti) particle-induced osteolysis remains unclear. 66 C57BL/6J female mice were used in this study. Ovariectomy (OVX) was performed to induce osteopenia mice and confirmed by micro-CT. The Ti particle-induced mouse calvaria osteolysis model was established subsequently and both OVX and Sham-OVX mice were divided into four groups, respectively: Ti (-) group, Ti group, Ti + zoledronic acid (ZOL) group (50ug/kg, local administration, single dose) and Ti + teriparatide (TPTD) group (40ug/kg/d, subcutaneous injection*14d)...
September 2018: Artificial Organs
Camilla Bergh, Ann-Charlott Söderpalm, Helena Brisby
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis implies an increased risk of complications after orthopedic surgery. For the mostly elderly group of patients undergoing lumbar spinal stenosis surgery (LSS), it is important to include skeletal health evaluation in the preoperative planning. The aim of this study was to assess spine and femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD) in LSS patients and to evaluate whether the World Health Organization (WHO) fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) can identify patients with reduced BMD levels in the spine...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
John Nguyen, Hilary Weidner, Lora M Schell, Linda Sequeira, Ryan Kabrick, Saurabh Dharmadhikari, Harold Coombs, Randall L Duncan, Liyun Wang, Anja Nohe
Background: Osteoporosis is a silent disease caused by low bone mineral density that results in bone fractures in 1 out of 2 women and 1 in 4 men over the age of 50. Although several treatments for osteopenia and osteoporosis are available, they have severe side effects and new treatments are desperately needed. Current treatments usually target osteoclasts and inhibit their activity or differentiation. Treatments that decrease osteoclast differentiation and activity but enhance osteogenesis and osteoblast activity are not available...
2018: Journal of bone research
Kuan-Yu Chen, Ching-Hsun Wang, Te-Yu Lin, Chan-Yuan Chang, Chang-Lin Liu, Yu-Chun Hsiao, Ching-Ching Hung, Ning-Chi Wang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: HIV-infected patients have a high prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD), but BMD changes remain unclear. This cross-sectional retrospective observational study aimed to characterize the prevalence and associated factors of low BMD in HIV patients. METHODS: Between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016, all patients aged 20 years or greater who sought for HIV care were included. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable analyses of the association with HIV disease status, treatment and anthropometric parameters were performed...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
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