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Daisaku Shibata, Kaoru Ito, Hiroyuki Nagai, Taro Okahisa, Ayae Kinoshita, Eiji Aramaki
BACKGROUND: Idea density (ID), a natural language processing-based index, was developed to aid in the detection of dementia through the analysis of English narratives. However, it has not been applied to non-English languages due to the difficulties in translating grammatical concepts. In this study, we defined rules to count ideas in Japanese narratives based on a previous study and proposed a novel method to estimate ID in Japanese text using machine translation. MATERIALS: The study participants comprised 42 Japanese patients with dementia aged 69-98 years (mean: 84...
2018: PloS One
Yu Lysanets, O Bieliaieva, I Znamenska, N Nikolaieva, S Efendiieva, M Hutsol
The paper examines the narrative arrangement of the problem-oriented medical record (POMR) as an effective method of registering and assessing clinical data. The aim of the research is to examine the types of narrators and focalization, as well as the hierarchy and interaction of narrative levels in the analyzed discourse. The research has demonstrated the presence of several types of narrators within the analyzed discourse: (1) the omniscient hetero-extradiegetic narrator with transient internal focalization (the third-person narration, represented by the physician) and (2) homo-intradiegetic narration (patient's first-person narration) in the "Subjective Observation" section; (3) the "estranged" heterodiegetic narrator with external focalization (the "Objective Observation" part); (4) the "uncertain" type of narrator (the "Assessment" part); (5) and the imperative mode of narration (the "Plan" section)...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Shu Kobayashi, Yasuo Niki, Kengo Harato, Takeo Nagura, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto
BACKGROUND: Recently, poor patient satisfaction after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has gained attention mainly in osteoarthritis (OA) patients; however, satisfaction after TKA remains to be understood in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. This study aimed to examine satisfaction and function after RA TKA using patient-reported outcome measures and to compare the results with those of OA-TKA. METHODS: This study enrolled 534 TKAs of 501 patients consisting of 75 TKAs of 70 RA patients and 459 TKAs of 431 OA patients...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Asunción Hernando, Ignacio Diez-Vega, Marta Lopez Del Hierro, Nieves Martínez-Alsina, Raquel Diaz-Meco, Maria José Busto, Noa Lola Martiañez, Gustavo González-Cuevas
BACKGROUND: Society demands a university education grounded on ethical principles. Education in ethics values is responsibility of universities but will not be viable unless also adopted by directly responsible agents, the teachers who work with the students. For this reason, our primary research objective was to conduct an in-depth analysis of how Health Sciences students self-perceive the ethical dimension. METHODS: A mixed research methodology with two phases, qualitative and quantitative, allowed us to address our research question from two complementary viewpoints...
December 4, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Chloe M Barrera, Jennifer F Kawwass, Sheree L Boulet, Jennifer M Nelson, Cria G Perrine
BACKGROUND: About 15% of women aged 15-44 in the US experience infertility. Factors associated with infertility and fertility treatments may also be associated with lactation difficulties. Limited data exist examining the impact of infertility or mode of conception on breastfeeding outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to report breastfeeding outcomes (initiation and duration at 8 weeks) among women who conceived spontaneously compared to women who conceived using fertility treatments (assisted reproductive technology, intrauterine insemination, or fertility-enhancing drugs)...
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Sophia Holmlund, Joseph Ntaganira, Kristina Edvardsson, Pham Thi Lan, Jean Paul Semasaka Sengoma, Hussein Lesio Kidanto, Matilda Ngarina, Rhonda Small, Ingrid Mogren
OBJECTIVES: Implementation of ultrasound in antenatal care (ANC) in low-income countries has been shown to increase pregnant women's compliance with ANC visits, and facilitate detection of high-risk pregnancies. In Rwanda, as in other low-income countries, access to ultrasound has increased significantly, but lack of training is often a barrier to its use. The aim of this study was to investigate Rwandan health professionals' experiences and views of obstetric ultrasound in relation to clinical management, resources and skills...
2018: PloS One
Oriel FeldmanHall, Joseph E Dunsmoor
Because humans live in a dynamic and evolving social world, modeling the factors that guide social behavior has remained a challenge for psychology. In contrast, much progress has been made on understanding some of the more basic elements of human behavior, such as associative learning and memory, which has been successfully modeled in other species. Here we argue that applying an associative learning approach to social behavior can offer valuable insights into the human moral experience. We propose that the basic principles of associative learning-conserved across a range of species-can, in many situations, help to explain seemingly complex human behaviors, including altruistic, cooperative, and selfish acts...
December 4, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Mieszko Olczak, Magdalena Kwiatkowska, Justyna Niderla-Bielińska, Dominik Chutorański, Sylwia Tarka, Teresa Wierzba-Bobrowicz
The release of brain-originated peptides such as tau protein (MAPT), S-100β, neurofilament light chain (NFL), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been positively correlated with head injuries in clinical and basic research. In this study, we wanted to examine if selected CSF biomarkers (GFAP, NFL, and myelin basic protein - MBP) of head injury may be useful in post-mortem examination and diagnosis of forensic cases. The study was carried out using cases of head injury and cases of sudden death (cardiopulmonary failure, no injuries of the head as control group) provided by forensic pathologists at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
John D Fernstrom
The non-essential amino acid glutamate participates in numerous metabolic pathways in the body. It also performs important physiologic functions, which include a sensory role as one of the basic tastes (as monosodium glutamate [MSG]), and a role in neuronal function as the dominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Its pleasant taste (as MSG) has led to its inclusion as a flavoring agent in foods for centuries. Glutamate's neurotransmitter role was discovered only in the last 60 years...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Adi Nugroho, Robert W S Coulter, Vicki Erasmus, Pipiet A Laksmono, Tengku S Mihari, Jan Hendrik Richardus
Implementers of outreach program in Indonesia often provide formal training for their outreach workers (OWs) only at the startup. We believe continuous training can be provided by experienced OWs at any time if an appropriate training package is available. Using a one-group pre-test-post-test study design; we developed, implemented and evaluated an OW-informed training program aimed at increasing OWs' knowledge and skills for outreaching to men who have sex with men and transgender women. We analyzed longitudinal data from 75 OWs from 7 Indonesian cities using one-way within-subjects ANOVA to examine the effects of the training program on participants' knowledge and perceived skills over time Average overall knowledge among participants increased from pre-test to immediate post-test (P < 0...
December 1, 2018: Health Education Research
Jiagang Han, Zhenjun Wang, Yong Dai, Xiaorong Li, Qun Qian, Guiying Wang, Guanghui Wei, Weigen Zeng, Liangang Ma, Baocheng Zhao, Yanlei Wang, Kaiyan Yang, Zhao Ding, Xuhua Hu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior elective surgery following self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) for complete obstructive left hemicolon cancer. METHODS: This prospective, multicenter, open-labelled trial was approved by the Ethics Committee of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University(2016-ke-161-1) and registered in (NCT02972541). INCLUSION CRITERIA: (1)age between 18 and 75 years old;(2) adenocarcinoma confirmed by pathology;(3) left hemicolon cancer confirmed by clinical manifestations and imaging examinations with the distance to anal verge > 15 cm; (4) resectable cancer evaluated by imaging examination without distant metastasis; (5) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score ≤ 1 or Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) > 70, indicating tolerance of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and operation; (6) absence of chemotherapy or radiotherapy within past six months; (7) bone marrow system and hepatorenal function: hemoglobin ≥ 90 g/L, neutrophil ≥ 1...
November 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Wenyi Wang, Binghe Wang
SO2 is widely recognized as an air pollutant and is a known cause of acid rain. At a sufficiently high level, it also causes respiratory diseases. A much lesser known side of SO2 is its endogenous nature and possible physiological roles. There is mounting evidence that SO2 is produced during normal cellular metabolism and may possibly function as a signaling molecule in normal physiology. The latter aspect is still at the stage of being carefully examined as to the validity of classifying SO2 as a gasotransmitter with endogenous signaling roles...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Nikolay T Tzvetkov, Atanas G Atanasov
Background: Considering the enormous progress in the field of neuropharmacology and its global importance, as well as the lack of bibliometric studies examining this field as a whole, it is a high time to assess the prevailing topics and citation performances of its research works. Methods : Web of Science (WoS) was searched to identify relevant neuropharmacology articles, which were analyzed with reference to (1) publication year, (2) journal title, (3) total citation count, (4) authorship, (5) WoS category, and (6) manuscript type...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Kartika Palar, Mitchell D Wong, William E Cunningham
Competing priorities between subsistence needs and health care may interfere with HIV health. Longitudinal data from the Los Angeles-based HIV Outreach Initiative were analyzed to examine the association between competing subsistence needs and indicators of poor retention-in-care among hard-to-reach people with HIV. Sacrificing basic needs for health care in the previous six months was associated with a 1.55 times greater incidence of missed appointments (95% CI 1.17, 2.05), 2.32 times greater incidence of emergency department visits (95% CI 1...
2018: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Radoslaw Bomba, Witek Kwiatkowski, Antoni Sánchez-Ferrer, Roland Riek, Jason Greenwald
Interactions between biological membranes and disease-associated amyloids are well documented, and their prevalence suggests that an inherent affinity exists between these molecular assemblies. Our interest in the molecular origins of life have led us to investigate the nature of such interactions in the context of their molecular predecessors (i.e., vesicle-forming amphiphiles and small peptides). Under certain conditions, amyloidogenic peptides or fatty acids are each able to form ordered structures on their own; however, we report here on their cooperative assembly into novel, to our knowledge, highly ordered structures...
November 10, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Onikepe O Owolabi, Ann Biddlecom, Hannah S Whitehead
BACKGROUND: Abortion-related mortality is one of the main causes of maternal mortality worldwide. Laws often restrict the provision of safe abortion care, yet post-abortion care is a service that all countries have committed to provide to manage abortion complications. There is minimal evidence on the capacity of national health systems to provide post-abortion care. METHODS: We did a multicountry analysis of data from nationally representative Service Provision Assessment surveys done between 2007 to 2017 in ten countries across three regions (Bangladesh, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nepal, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda)...
November 29, 2018: Lancet Global Health
Hong Liang, Ann M Vuong, Changchun Xie, Glenys M Webster, Andreas Sjödin, Wei Yuan, Maohua Miao, Joseph M Braun, Kim N Dietrich, Kimberly Yolton, Bruce P Lanphear, Aimin Chen
BACKGROUND: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exist extensively in the environment and human beings. PBDE concentrations are higher in children than adults. A previous study found that prenatal PBDE exposure was associated with decreased reading skills in children; however, evidence is limited on the potential impact of childhood exposure to PBDEs. The study examined the association between childhood PBDE exposures and reading ability in children at ages 5 and 8 years. METHODS: The study included 230 children from an ongoing prospective pregnancy and birth cohort study, the Health Outcomes and Measures of Environment (HOME) Study, conducted in Cincinnati, Ohio...
November 28, 2018: Environment International
Jennyfer Wolf, Richard Johnston, Paul R Hunter, Bruce Gordon, Kate Medlicott, Annette Prüss-Ustün
OBJECTIVES: The impact on diarrhoea of sanitation interventions has been heterogeneous. We hypothesize that this is due to the level of prevailing faecal environmental contamination and propose a Faecal Contamination Index (FAECI) of selected WASH indicators (objective 1). Additionally, we provide estimates of the proportion of the population living in communities above certain sanitation coverage levels (objective 2). METHODS: Objective 1: Faecal contamination post-intervention was estimated from WASH intervention reports...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Mijanur Rahman, Jimmy T Efird, Julie E Byles
BACKGROUND: Women live longer than men and have an increased need for long-term care. The objective of this study was to identify patterns of aged care use among older Australian women and to examine how these patterns were associated with their demographic and health-related characteristics. METHODS: The sample consisted of 8768 women from the 1921-1926 birth cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), who had survived to age 75-80 years...
November 19, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
A S Montaser, Mohamed Rehan, Mehrez E El Nagar
Skin re-infection problems and its correlation with inflammation, causes rising wound temperature resulting wound healing impairment. In this current study, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel blended with thermosensitive sodium alginate-g-N-isopropyl acrylamide (SA-g-NIPAM) for producing thermosensitive hydrogel (PVA/SA-g-NIPAM) for controlled response to re-infected wounds. The thermosensitive SA-g-NIPAM was prepared using redox copolymerization with NIPAM. The fabricated (PVA/SA-g-NIPAM) grafted copolymer was investigated via FTIR technique...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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