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Alan Cervantes Farrell, Xiao Meng, Dingkun Ren, Hyunseok Kim, Pradeep Senanayake, Nick Y Hsieh, Zixuan Rong, Ting-Yuan Chang, Khalifa Mohammad Azizur-Rahman, Diana L Huffaker
Single photon detection at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths is critical for light detection and ranging (LiDAR) systems used in imaging technologies such as autonomous vehicle trackers and atmospheric remote sensing. Portable, high-performance LiDAR relies on silicon-based single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) due to their extremely low dark count rate (DCR) and afterpulsing probability, but their operation wavelengths are typically limited up to 905 nm. Although InGaAs-InP SPADs offer an alternative platform to extend the operation wavelengths to eye-safe ranges, their high DCR and afterpulsing severely limit their commercial applications...
December 5, 2018: Nano Letters
Daan J van de Velde, Johan H M Frijns, Mieke Beers, Vincent J van Heuven, Claartje C Levelt, Jeroen Briaire, Niels O Schiller
Purpose: Relative to normally hearing (NH) peers, the speech of children with cochlear implants (CIs) has been found to have deviations such as a high fundamental frequency, elevated jitter and shimmer, and inadequate intonation. However, two important dimensions of prosody (temporal and spectral) have not been systematically investigated. Given that, in general, the resolution in CI hearing is best for the temporal dimension and worst for the spectral dimension, we expected this hierarchy to be reflected in the amount of CI speech's deviation from NH speech...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Martine Van Puyvelde, Xavier Neyt, Francis McGlone, Nathalie Pattyn
People rely on speech for communication, both in a personal and professional context, and often under different conditions of physical, cognitive and/or emotional load. Since vocalization is entirely integrated within both our central (CNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS), a mounting number of studies have examined the relationship between voice output and the impact of stress. In the current paper, we will outline the different stages of voice output, i.e., breathing, phonation and resonance in relation to a neurovisceral integrated perspective on stress and human performance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Pasquale Bottalico, Juliana Codino, Lady Catherine Cantor-Cutiva, Katherine Marks, Charles J Nudelman, Jean Skeffington, Rahul Shrivastav, Maria Cristina Jackson-Menaldi, Eric J Hunter, Adam D Rubin
INTRODUCTION: Computer analysis of voice recordings is an integral part of the evaluation and management of voice disorders. In many practices, voice samples are taken in rooms that are not sound attenuated and/or sound-proofed; further, the technology used is rarely consistent. This will likely affect the recordings, and therefore, their analyses. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to compare various acoustic outcome measures taken from samples recorded in a sound-proofed booth to those recorded in more common clinic environments...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Shigeyuki Miyajima, Masahiro Yabuno, Shigehito Miki, Taro Yamashita, Hirotaka Terai
We propose and demonstrate a 64-channel event-driven encoder based on single-flux quantum (SFQ) circuits for application to a multi-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SSPD) system. Multi-pixel SSPD systems were developed to improve maximum count rates and realize ultra-sensitive imaging systems. An intelligent signal processor is required, which we designed based on SFQ circuits. We were able to obtain an address based on the reserve timing information for the photon detection that occurs in the SSPD, as well as read the time-tagged address information for the SSPDs through the SFQ encoder...
October 29, 2018: Optics Express
Dagang Jiang, Yishuai Yuan, Yuanjian Lin, Ting Lyu, Bin Zhu, Yan Yao
The mean irradiance profile has been widely applied in performance analysis and atmospheric channel research for free space optical communication; however, the modeling method and a closed-form expression of the mean irradiance profile under random jitter have rarely been discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this work presents a modeling method and a closed-form expression for a mean irradiance profile under random jitter through the ensemble average principle for the first time. We find that, with an increase in random jitter variance, the mean irradiance profile varied from an approximately Gaussian profile to a flat-topped profile to a hollow profile...
October 15, 2018: Optics Express
San-Fu Wang, Yu-Wei Chang, Chun-Yen Tang
The paper presents a novel dual-band six-phase voltage-control oscillator. The voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with a single-ended delay cell architecture has a lower power consumption, a smaller chip area, and a larger output swing than one with a differential delay cell architecture. However, the conventional even-phase outputs ring-type VCO cannot be implemented using single-ended delay cells. In other words, the VCO with single-ended delay cells meets most of the requirements of a sensor circuit system, except even-phase outputs function...
November 19, 2018: Sensors
Zhichao Dong, Aimin Jiang, Yanfeng Dai, Jianwei Xue
A space-qualified fast steering mirror (SQ-FSM) was designed, built, and tested at the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences for an image stabilization system of space astronomical telescopes, which is used for the tip-tilt correction of small jitter of the satellite platform; this achieved image stability in a closed-loop manner. Its design primarily faces four challenges involving (1) sustaining the specified sine and random vibration without launch lock, as well as shock response spectrum experiments; (2) surface form error of a clear aperture of ϕ120  mm less than 1/50λ root mean square (RMS, λ=632...
November 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Bin Li, Qiang Zhou, Ruiming Zhang, Junyi Li, Heng Zhou, Hao Li, Yun Ling, Yunxiang Wang, Guangwei Deng, You Wang, Lin Shi, Kun Qiu, Haizhi Song
Optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) is a widely employed instrument for monitoring the property of fiber links. Traditional OTDR always suffers from the trade-off between its spatial resolution and the sensitivity of light detection. Therefore, it cannot be applied in critical applications, such as in aviation, where OTDR with a high spatial resolution of several centimeters is required. In this paper, we develop a cost-effective photon-counting OTDR based on our homemade gain-switching pulsed laser at 850 nm...
October 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Tolga Kırgezen, Ahmet Volkan Sünter, Özgür Yiğit, Ela Araz Server, Ebru Aytekin, Nezihe Akar, Nil Sayıner Çağlar
OBJECTIVES: To reveal and to compare the voice pathologies and the detectable laryngeal findings in different phases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. METHODS: Sixty-seven consecutive patients with RA, followed up at our Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Clinic, were included in the study. Disease activity indices of patients were calculated with Disease Activity Score-28 Index. With Voice Handicap Index (VHI), patients answered 30 questions of functional, physical, and emotional aspects...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Siyu Chen, Yanzhang Wang, Jun Lin
Residence time difference (RTD) fluxgate sensor is a potential device to measure the DC or low-frequency magnetic field in the time domain. Nevertheless, jitter noise and magnetic noise severely affect the detection result. A novel post-processing algorithm for jitter noise reduction of RTD fluxgate output strategy based on the single-frequency time difference (SFTD) method is proposed in this study to boost the performance of the RTD system. This algorithm extracts the signal that has a fixed frequency and preserves its time-domain information via a time⁻frequency transformation method...
November 16, 2018: Sensors
Daniel Rolles, Rebecca Boll, Benjamin Erk, Dimitrios Rompotis, Bastian Manschwetus
This protocol describes key steps in performing and analyzing femtosecond pump-probe experiments that combine a femtosecond optical laser with a free-electron laser. This includes methods to establish the spatial and temporal overlap between the optical and free-electron laser pulses during the experiment, as well as important aspects of the data analysis, such as corrections for arrival time jitter, which are necessary to obtain high-quality pump-probe data sets with the best possible temporal resolution. These methods are demonstrated for an exemplary experiment performed at the FLASH (Free-electron LASer Hamburg) free-electron laser in order to study ultrafast photochemistry in gas-phase molecules by means of velocity map ion imaging...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kirsten R Panton, Johanna C Badcock, J Edwin Dickinson, David R Badcock
Contour integration is impaired in schizophrenia patients, even at the first episode, but little is known about visual integration abilities prior to illness onset. To examine this issue, we compared undergraduate students high and low in schizotypal personality traits, reflecting putative liability to psychosis, on two psychophysical tasks assessing local and global stages of the integration process. The Radial Frequency Jittered Orientation Tolerance (RFJOT) task measures tolerance to orientation noise at the local signal level, when judging global stimulus orientation, whilst the Radial Frequency Integration Task (RFIT) measures the ability to globally integrate the local signals that have been extracted during shape discrimination...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
H Long, J Zhu
Objective: The aim of this study is to perform a meta-analysis of vocal changes after vocal cord steroid injection (VFSI) in the treatment of benign lesions. Method: Pubmed, Embase, CNKI and Wanfang database were searched using the keywords. A total of 7 articles were characterized based on our keyword search. The chi-square-based I² statistic test was employed to assess the between-study heterogeneity. Additionally, random effects models were used to calculate mean differences with 95% confidence intervals...
October 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
J M Gordon, D J Schlossberg, M J Eckart, P S Datte, C E Durand, G P Grim, E P Hartouni, R Hatarik, A S Moore
The temporal response of a microchannel plate photomultiplier tube used in the suite of neutron time of flight (nToF) diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility has been characterized to reduce uncertainty in, and understanding of, shot parameters obtained from nTOF data. A short pulse laser, neutral density glass filters, and electrical attenuators were used to gather statistically significant samples of photodetector impulse response functions (IRF) in rapid succession. Individual components have been absolutely calibrated to minimize systematic uncertainties...
October 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
B J Little
The development of high speed imaging detectors is crucial for high-temperature plasma characterization and optimization. These detectors must perform within many strict parameters, such as precise timing, high spatial resolution, low noise, high gain, and fast gating. We present test results on a picosecond gated optical intensifier that aims to meet these requirements. The detector was developed by Kentech and is part of a packaged Sydor solution of 1-8 detectors, designed for use in plasma diagnostics. It has low jitter (SD 4 ps) and gate widths less than 80 ps...
October 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
C M Huntington, J M McNaney, E Gumbrell, A Krygier, C Wehrenberg, H-S Park
We have tested a set of x-ray sources for use as probes of highly attenuating, laser-driven experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Unlike traditional x-ray sources that optimize for a characteristic atomic transition (often the n = 2 → n = 1 transition in ionized, He-like atoms), the design presented here maximizes the total photon flux by optimizing for intense, broadband Bremsstrahlung radiation. Three experiments were performed with identical targets, including a uranium x-ray source foil and a tungsten substrate with a narrow (25 μ m wide) collimating slit to produce a quasi-1D x-ray source...
October 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Miguel Oliveira Santos, Michael Swash, Mamede de Carvalho
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if monopolar (MN) and concentric (CN) electrodes are equivalent for volitional contraction jitter estimation in orbicularis oculi (OO), and to study the effect of selecting a specific high-pass filter. METHODS: We studied neuromuscular jitter in OO on both sides in 100 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of ocular myasthenia gravis (MG). We used either MN (50 patients) or CN (50 patients) electrodes in individual patients, according to a randomised protocol, with a 1kH high pass filter on one side and a 3kH filter on the other...
October 26, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Jeffery Hill, Matthew Stull, Brian Stettler, Robbie Paulsen, Kimberly Hart, Erin McDonough
Background: Delivering quality lectures is a critical skill for residents seeking careers in academia yet no validated tools for assessing resident lecture skills exist. Objectives: The authors sought to develop and validate a lecture assessment tool. Methods: Using a nominal group technique, the authors derived a behaviorally anchored assessment tool. Baseline characteristics of resident lecturers including prior lecturing experience and perceived comfort with lecturing were collected...
October 2018: AEM education and training
Nain Bahadur Mahato, Deepak Regmi, Meera Bista, Pema Sherpa
INTRODUCTION: The term 'voice' is the acoustic energy generated from the vocal tract that are characterized by their dependence on vocal fold vibratory pattern. Teachers as professional voice users are afflicted with dysphonia and are discouraged with their jobs and seek alternative employment. Loud speaking and voice straining may lead to vocal fatigue and vocal fold tissue damage. The objective of the study is to assess the quality of voice of school teachers before and after teaching practice...
March 2018: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
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