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Ling Mo, Jing Zheng, Ting Wang, Yun-Gang Shi, Biao-Juan Chen, Bin Liu, Yan-Hua Ma, Min Li, Li Zhuo, She-Jun Chen
Emerging and legacy hydrophobic pollutants, including halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), organophosphorus FRs (OPFRs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in coastal sediments of Hainan Island, southern China, where little information is known about their contamination. The HFRs were dominated by decabrominated diphenyl ethers (median = 1.32 ng/g) and novel decabromodiphenyl ethane (1.87 ng/g). HFR and PAH concentrations had similar spatial distributions, with higher levels in the river and near the estuary...
October 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Chelsea A O'Driscoll, Leah A Owens, Erica J Hoffmann, Madeline E Gallo, Amin Afrazi, Mei Han, John H Fechner, James J Schauer, Christopher A Bradfield, Joshua D Mezrich
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune diseases have increased in incidence and prevalence worldwide. While genetic predispositions play a role, environmental factors are a major contributor. Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture composed of metals, nitrates, sulfates and diverse adsorbed organic compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. Exposure to atmospheric PM aggravates autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus, among others...
October 1, 2018: Environmental Research
Luna Ge, Yazhou Cui, Kai Cheng, Jinxiang Han
Isopsoralen (IPRN), one of the main effective ingredients in Psoralea corylifolia Linn, has a variety of biological effects, including antiosteoporotic effects. In vivo studies show that IPRN can increase bone strength and trabecular bone microstructure in a sex hormone deficiency-induced osteoporosis model. However, the mechanism underlying this osteogenic potential has not been investigated in detail. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of IPRN-induced osteogenesis in MC3T3-E1 cells...
October 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Anas Aguelmous, Loubna El Fels, Salah Souabi, Mohamed Zamama, Abdelaziz Yasri, Ahmed Lebrihi, Mohamed Hafidi
In this investigation, petroleum sludge landfilling was carried out in order to assess the biodegradation degree and the final product quality. The microbial analysis showed a good microorganism proliferation which reinforces the biodegradation process. The total mesophilic and thermophilic microflora evaluated symmetrically as they increased at the intermediate stage and decreased at the final. The C/N and NH4 + /NO3 - ratios decreased while the polymerization degree increased at the end of the landfilling process...
October 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Arnon Grafit, Dan Muller, Sarit Kimchi, Yaniv Y Avissar
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been established as a very powerful alternative to traditional extraction methods since its introduction in the early 1990s. The heart of the SPME device is an expensive thin and very delicate fused-silica fiber, coated with a thin polymer film. When extracted, the fiber may bend and break. Due to the fragility of the SPME fiber, a fiber protector device is proposed. The protector is easily assembled on the SPME device and can easily be removed by unscrewing for sampling to the injector...
September 17, 2018: Forensic Science International
Nirmal K Roy, Melissa DellaTorre, Allison Candelmo, R Christopher Chambers, Ehren Habeck, Isaac Wirgin
Sturgeon species are imperiled world-wide by a variety of anthropogenic stressors including chemical contaminants. Atlantic sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus, and shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, are largely sympatric acipenserids whose young life-stages are often exposed to high levels of benthic-borne PCBs and PCDD/Fs in large estuaries along the Atlantic Coast of North America. In previous laboratory studies, we demonstrated that both sturgeon species are sensitive to early life-stage toxicities from exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of coplanar PCBs and TCDD...
September 29, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Nicolò Mauro, Giulia Di Prima, Paola Varvarà, Mariano Licciardi, Gennara Cavallaro, Gaetano Giammona
Chitosan oligosaccharide (C) was functionalized with L-arginine (A) and short hydrocarbon chains (C8 ) to design an amphiphilic copolymer, henceforth CAC8 , leading to microparticles consisting of an arginine-decorated hydrophilic shell and inner hydrophobic domains allowing the encapsulation of high amount hydrophobic drugs such as sorafenib tosylate (> 10 % w/w). L-arginine side chains were selected in order to impart the final microparticles enhanced transcorneal penetration properties, thus overcoming the typical biological barriers which hamper the absorption of drugs upon topical ocular administration...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Nithya Mary Joseph, Nateshwar Yogindra Elphick, Sasha Mohammad, Johannes H Bauer
Many insect behaviors, including foraging, aggression, mating or group behavior, are tightly regulated by pheromones. Recently, it has been shown that pheromones may influence extreme longevity in the honeybee Apis mellifera, while changes in pheromone profile have been observed during ageing in Drosophila melanogaster. These data suggest a potential link between the pheromone system, behavior and longevity in insects. Here, we investigate this potential link by examining changes in behavior and longevity in fruit flies with altered pheromone profiles...
October 9, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Qing Jiang, Tao Tao, Hoa Phan, Yi Han, Tullimilli Y Gopalakrishna, Tun Seng Herng, Guangwu Li, Liu Yuan, Jun Ding, Chunyan Chi
Non-alternant, non-benzenoid π-conjugated polycyclic hydrocarbons (PHs) are expected to exhibit very different electronic properties from all-benzenoid PHs. Herein, we report the synthesis and physical properties of four derivatives (1a-b, 2a-b) of two azulene-fused s-indacene isomers, the diazuleno[2,1-a:2',1'-g]-s-indacene (DAI-1) and diazuleno[2,1-a:1',2'-h]-s-indacene (DAI-2). The backbone of both isomers contains 28 πe and is a 7-5-5-6-5-5-7 fused ring system. X-ray crystallographic analysis, NMR spectra, and theoretical calculations (ACID, NICS) reveal a structure with two aromatic azulene units fused with a central anti-aromatic s-indacene moiety...
October 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Agnieszka Koszucka, Adriana Nowak
Heterocyclic aromatic amines, acrylamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, furan, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrosamines, acrolein, chloropropanols and chloroesters are generated toxicants formed in some foodstuffs, mainly starchy and protein-rich food during thermal treatment such as frying, roasting and baking. The formation of these chemical compounds is associated with development of aromas, colors and flavors. One of the challenges facing the food industry today is to minimize these toxicants without adversely affecting the positive attributes of thermal processing...
October 12, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Jiacheng Lan, Yuchuan Sun, Daoxian Yuan
The concentration and fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in a karst underground river system in southwest China. Groundwater, particles, and sediments from underground river, topsoil, and surface water were monitored, allowing establishment of a conceptual model of PAH transport at the watershed scale. The results showed that PAHs could be transported from the surface to the subsurface through two migration pathways, which were slow-flowing water in the karst fissure and fast-flowing water in conduits...
October 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Qin Yang, Tianyi Luo, Jianghong Yang, Huaguo Chen
The purpose of this study was to investigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulation in leaves of different plant species growing in the neighborhood of coal-fired power plant (CPP) and to identify potential bioindicators for PAHs pollution monitoring. The study was performed in 8 sites in the surrounding areas of CPP. PAHs concentrations in leaves of 21 plant species growing within 1 km of CPP ranged from 0.043 to 4.52 µg g-1 . A higher mean concentration of PAHs was found in leaves of perennial herbs and shrubs compared with annual herbs and trees...
October 11, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
L M Vieira, J Rizzi, E V do Couto, D C Souza, P A L Ferreira, R Figueira, S Froehner
In the present study, the environmental changes over the past 100 years in the Cambé River watershed in Southern Brazil were investigated. For this, a sediment core was collected to examine the distribution of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and ecotoxicological markers. The core corresponds from 1914 to 2012, which was obtained by the decay of 210 Pb. Changes in the study area also were examined by: Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and enrichment factor (EF), sediment quality guidelines (SGQs), and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in Poeciliopsis lucida hepatocellular carcinoma (PLHC-1) cells line...
October 11, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Guojiao Wu, Uttam Chakraborty, Axel Jacobi von Wangelin
Hydrofunctionalizations of unsaturated hydrocarbons are key strategies for the synthesis of functionalized building blocks. Here, we report highly versatile cobalt-catalyzed hydrosilylations of alkynes that operate with minute amounts of the inexpensive, bench-stable pre-catalyst Co(OAc)2·4H2O under mild conditions (0.1-1 mol%, THF, r.t., 1 h). Near-perfect regiocontrol/stereocontrol was induced by the choice of the ligand: bidentate phosphines afforded (E)-β-vinylsilanes; α-vinylsilanes formed with bipyridine ligands...
October 12, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Marcelo Maciel Pereira, Elisa Silva Gomes, Alessandra Vieira Silva, Ana Belen Pinar, Marc-Georg Willinger, Sangaraju Shanmugam, Céline Chizallet, Guillaume Laugel, Pit Losch, Benoît Louis
A family of Al-rich ZSM-5 zeolites with Si/Al = 8 ± 0.5 was prepared according to a biomass-mediated supramolecular approach. A combination of advanced characterisation techniques and periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations unraveled the purity and stability of un-expected Al-enriched ZSM-5 structures, hence allowing to cross the frontier of Si/Al lower limit. In addition, these Al-rich ZSM-5 zeolites demonstrated high catalytic activity in n -hexane cracking and methanol conversion into hydrocarbons, being in line with the presence of numerous Brønsted acid sites...
August 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Sara Marchetti, Eleonora Longhin, Rossella Bengalli, Pasquale Avino, Luca Stabile, Giorgio Buonanno, Anita Colombo, Marina Camatini, Paride Mantecca
Biomass combustion significantly contributes to indoor and outdoor air pollution and to the adverse health effects observed in the exposed populations. Besides, the contribution to toxicity of the particles derived from combustion of different biomass sources (pellet, wood, charcoal), as well as their biological mode of action, are still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigate the toxicological properties of PM10 particles emitted indoor from a stove fueled with different biomasses. PM10 was sampled by gravimetric methods and particles were chemically analyzed for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and elemental content...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jin Zhang, Ruifei Li, Xiaoying Zhang, Yun Bai, Pan Cao, Pei Hua
This study focuses on the source apportionments of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road dust (RD) with four size fractions through three receptor models of principal component analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR), positive matrix factorization (PMF) and Unmix. The concentrations of total PAHs range from 0.45 to 2.03μgg-1 . Results show that the concentrations of PAHs increased with a decreasing size fraction. Similar potential sources to PAHs in RD were extracted by three models with a little difference in numbers and percent load contributions of each identified sources...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Rosa Elvira Correa Pabón, Carlos Roberto de Souza Filho, Wilson José de Oliveira
Accidental releases of hazardous waste related to the extraction, refining, and transport of oil and gas are inevitable. Petroleum facilities and intrinsic pipelines present environmental pollution risks, threatening both human health and ecosystems. Research has been undertaken to enhance the conventional methods for monitoring hazardous waste problems and to improve time-consuming and cost-effective ways for leak detection and remediation process. In this study, both diffuse and imaging (hyperspectral) reflectance spectroscopy are used for detection and characterization of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination in latosols...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jiacheng Yang, Patrick Roth, Christopher R Ruehl, Martin M Shafer, Dagmara S Antkiewicz, Thomas D Durbin, David Cocker, Akua Asa-Awuku, Georgios Karavalakis
We assessed the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate emissions from four light-duty gasoline direct injection vehicles when operated over the LA92 driving cycle. Our results showed that particle mass and number emissions increased markedly during accelerations. For three of the four vehicles tested, particulate matter (PM) mass and particle number emissions were markedly higher during cold-start and the first few accelerations following the cold-start period than during the hot running and hot-start segments of the LA92 cycle...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Joshua A Cullen, Christopher D Marshall, David Hala
Tissue-based burdens of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were integrated with ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme activity in bull (Carcharhinus leucas), blacktip (Carcharhinus limbatus), and bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) sharks from Galveston Bay, TX. The potential toxicity of these burdens was evaluated by calculation of toxic equivalents (TEQs). Concentrations of total PAHs (∑PAHs) were significantly greater in blacktip and bonnethead sharks than bull sharks in liver, but did not exhibit differences in muscle among species...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
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