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Gina Lova Sari, Yulinah Trihadiningrum, Dwiyanti Agustina Wulandari, Ellina Sitepu Pandebesie, I D A A Warmadewanthi
Biodecomposition of organic solid waste during composting process produces compost humic acid-like (cHAL), which is classified as biobased surfactant. The present study aimed to characterize the properties of cHAL substance which was formed during the composting process of crude oil contaminated soil, in terms of surface tension decline (ΔST) and emulsification activity (EA), and evaluate the ability to solubilize hydrocarbons. Crude oil contaminated soil from a public oilfield in Wonocolo Sub-district, Bojonegoro, Indonesia, was composted under aerobic condition with varied biodegradable waste (yard waste and rumen residue) in separate reactors...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Klamerus-Iwan Anna, Gloor Emanuel, Sadowska-Rociek Anna, Ewa Błońska, Jarosław Lasota, Sylwia Łagan
The canopy water storage capacity (S) is an important parameter for the hydrological cycle in forests. One factor which influences the S is leaf texture, which in turn is thought to be affected by the contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In order to improve our understanding of S we simulated rainfall and measured the S of coniferous species growing under various conditions. The contents of 18 PAHs were measured in the needles. The species chosen were: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L...
August 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
P S Khillare, V K Sattawan, D S Jyethi
One of the methods of sludge disposal in cities is its use as an amendment in adjoining agricultural soil. Contaminants in sludge can, however, nullify the benefits. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants, if present, can pose health risks by virtue of their carcinogenic potential and persistence in soil. The present study deals with profile analysis of PAHs in digested sewage sludge of a megacity, Delhi. Mean concentration of the sum of sixteen PAHs in the sludge from five sewage treatment plants (STPs) was 20...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Technology
Michael R Buchmeiser
The concepts of functional precision polymers and the latest accomplishments in their synthesis are summarized. Synthetic concepts based on chain growth polymerization are compared to iterative synthetic approaches. Here, the term "functional precision polymers" refers to polymers that are not solely hydrocarbon-based but contain functional groups and are characterized by a highly ordered primary structure. If insertion polymerization is used for their synthesis, olefin metathesis-based polymerization techniques, that is, ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization, and the regio- and stereoselective cyclopolymerization of α,ω-diynes are almost exclusively applied...
August 17, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Min-Hye Lee, Minji Kang, Hyung-Gu Jeong, Jong-Jin Park, Kyoungtae Hwang, Dong-Yu Kim
Newly synthesized donor-acceptor (D-A) type of conjugated copolymer (PCTV-BTzF) with semi-fluorinated alkyl side chains, which has good solubility in common organic solvents, is described. Unlike polymers with hydrocarbon-based alkyl side chains, semi-fluorocabonated polymer leads to intriguing results. First, the self-organization behavior of the semi-fluoroalkyl side chains by the self-aggregate propensity between hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon induces patterned microstructural morphology in polymer films; second, it dominates the molecular orientation of polymers with planar back structure...
August 17, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Md Masud Parvez Arnob, Hung Nguyen, Zhu Han, Wei-Chuan Shih
A hyperspectral imaging system based on compressed sensing has been developed to image in the 0.9-2.5 μm shortwave infrared wavelengths. With a programmable digital micromirror device utilized as spatial light modulator, we have successfully performed spectrally resolved image reconstruction with a 256-element InGaAs linear array detector without traditional raster scanning or a push-broom mechanism by a compressed sensing (CS) single-pixel camera approach. The chemical sensitivity of the imaging sensor to near-infrared (NIR) overtone signatures of hydrocarbons was demonstrated using hydrocarbon and ink patterns on glass, showing spectral selectivity for the chemical components...
June 20, 2018: Applied Optics
Alessio Riccobono, Rachel R Parker, Adrian C Whitwood, John M Slattery, Duncan W Bruce, Ivana Pibiri, Andrea Pace
A novel scaffold for the construction of self-organised ionic liquids and ionic liquid crystals bearing both perfluorocarbon and hydrocarbon moieties has been developed. The phase behaviour and physical properties of these materials can be tuned as a function of chain length and fluorine content and significant structural elaboration is possible, giving a highly flexible system.
August 17, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Mónica Garcés-Ruiz, Carolina Senés-Guerrero, Stéphane Declerck, Sylvie Cranenbrouck
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are worldwide distributed plant symbionts. However, their occurrence in hydrocarbon-polluted environments is less investigated, although specific communities may be present with possible interest for remediation strategies. Here, we investigated the AMF community composition associated with the roots of diverse plant species naturally recolonizing a weathered crude oil pond in the Amazon region of Ecuador. Next generation 454 GS-Junior sequencing of an 800 bp LSU rRNA gene PCR amplicon was used...
August 16, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Hussain Al-Thaiban, Nada Al-Tamimi, Murad Helaleh
A simple and fast method for the determination of PAHs in smoked meat samples was described. The QuEChERS (Z-Sep) procedure was used for sample preparation. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer with electron ionization (EI) was used to separate and detect the PAHs. All 16 common PAHs were analyzed successfully. Matrix-matched calibration was applied. Spiked samples were performed at 1 ng/g ( n =10) and 10 ng/g ( n =10) for two days. Overall recoveries of PAHs were within 74 to 117%, with RSDs within 1.15 to 37...
2018: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Caterina Ledda, Carla Loreto, Massimo Bracci, Claudia Lombardo, Gaetano Romano, Diana Cinà, Nicola Mucci, Sergio Castorina, Venerando Rapisarda
Background: Emissions from vehicles are composed of heterogeneous mixtures of hazardous substances; several pollutants such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are amongst the most dangerous substances detected in urban monitoring. A cohort of traffic policemen usually occupationally exposed to PAHs present in the urban environment were examined in order to assess the mutagenicity and DNA capacity repair. Methods: Seventy-two urban traffic policemen working in Catania's metropolitan area were enrolled in the study...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
Jeremy R Chen See, Nikea Ulrich, Hephzibah Nwanosike, Christopher J McLimans, Vasily Tokarev, Justin R Wright, Maria F Campa, Christopher J Grant, Terry C Hazen, Jonathan M Niles, Daniel Ressler, Regina Lamendella
Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) extraction, also known as hydraulic fracturing, is becoming more prevalent with the increasing use and demand for natural gas; however, the full extent of its environmental impacts is still unknown. Here we measured physicochemical properties and bacterial community composition of sediment samples taken from twenty-eight streams within the Marcellus shale formation in northeastern Pennsylvania differentially impacted by hydraulic fracturing activities. Fourteen of the streams were classified as UOG+, and thirteen were classified as UOG- based on the presence of UOG extraction in their respective watersheds...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sowbiya Muneer, Jeong Hyun Lee
CO2 boilers/direct heating systems used in greenhouses often lead to incomplete combustion, which results in the formation of hazardous gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitroxide (NOX ) and other hydrocarbons. In this study, strawberry plants that were grown on rockwool cubes were transferred to airtight bottles and treated with CO, NOX , CH4 and C3 H8 gases for 1-48 hours. Oxidative damage due to hazardous gases was observed, as indicated by H2 O2 and [Formula: see text] determination. Photosynthetic pigments were reduced, and stomatal guard cells were damaged and remained closed compared to the control...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Di Zhou, Jing Zeng, Qifeng Fu, Die Gao, Kailian Zhang, Xiujun Ren, Kai Zhou, Zhining Xia, Lujun Wang
In this work, a novel dendritic stationary phase was synthesized by the repeated grafting of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) and dopamine (DA) on the surface of silica for performing mixed-mode high-performance liquid chromatography (MHPLC). Elemental analysis (EA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) showed the successful preparation of the dendritic stationary phase. The prepared stationary phase showed the retention mechanisms of reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) under different mobile phase conditions...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Hiba Ben Othman, Élodie Lanouguère, Patrice Got, Asma Sakka Hlaili, Christophe Leboulanger
The toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mixtures was evaluated on natural phytoplankton communities sampled from lagoons of Bizerte (South-western Mediterranean Sea) and Thau (North-western Mediterranean Sea). PAHs induced short-term dose and ecosystem-dependant decreases in photosynthetic potential. Chlorophyll a was negatively affected by increasing PAHs concentrations, together with dramatic changes in phytoplankton community composition. Size classes were strongly affected in the Bizerte compare to the Thau lagoon, with a decrease in nano- and microphytoplankton densities compare to picophytoplankton...
October 2018: Chemosphere
Aiguo Wang, Hua Song
Maximizing the production of aromatic hydrocarbons from lignin conversion by coupling methane activation without solvent was investigated over Zn-Ga modified zeolite catalyst. The co-loading of Zn and Ga greatly improves lignin conversion, arene yield along with BTEX (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) selectivity, which gives 37.4 wt% yield of aromatic hydrocarbons with 62.2 wt% selectivity towards BTEX at 400 °C and 3.0 MPa. Methane presence has a negligible impact on lignin conversion, but improves arene yield and BTEX selectivity...
August 11, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Benjamin Hindersmann, Christine Achten
Urban soils in mining and industrial regions like the Ruhr Area are characterized by admixtures of anthropogenic substrates, e. g. tailings, coals, ashes, debris or scoria. These soils often show elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are commonly attributed to non-point pyrogenic carbon sources like soot and particulate matter. An emission source of PAHs into urban soils in these regions, that surprisingly is still largely neglected, are the millions of tons of tailings from underground coal mining that have been used as material for road construction, terrain leveling, river channeling and support of embankments...
August 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ephrath Solel, Sebastian Kozuch
Pentafulvalene is a symmetrical unsaturated hydrocarbon built from two five-membered rings connected by an exocyclic double bond, where each ring is one electron short of being a 6π-electron aromatic system. Here we show computationally that by selectively introducing electron withdrawing and donating substituents we can design pentafulvalene derivatives that exhibit tunable aromaticity properties. Pentafulvalene can be shaped into a species with connected aromatic-antiaromatic rings, which can also achieve π-bond shifting by carbon tunneling...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Purnachandran Ramakrishnan, Ramesh Kasimani, Mohamed Shameer Peer
The primary objective of this work was to enhance the performance and emission of the computerized variable compression ratio (VCR) diesel engine fuelled with pentanol/Calophyllum inophyllum (CI)/diesel fuel blends. Based on the prerequisite for the current research, response surface methodology (RSM), an optimization technique, was adopted for the process parameters compression ratio (CR), load and fuel blends, and the optimized responses like brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx ), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2 ), hydrocarbon (HC), and smoke were revealed with the help of Derringer's desirability approach...
August 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Salah A Sheweita, Ainour A Almasmari, Sabah G El-Banna
Tramadol is an analgesic used to treat moderate to severe pain caused by cancer, osteoarthritis, and other musculoskeletal diseases. Cytochrome P450 system metabolizes tramadol and induces oxidative stress in different organs. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the changes in the activities and the protein expressions of CYPs isozymes (2E1, 3A4, 2B1/2), antioxidants status, free radicals levels after pretreatment of rats with Curcumin and/or Gallic as single- and/or repeated-doses before administration of tramadol...
2018: PloS One
Natalia Pozdnyakova, Dietmar Schlosser, Ekaterina Dubrovskaya, Svetlana Balandina, Elena Sigida, Vyacheslav Grinev, Olga Turkovskaya
The ability of the litter-decomposing basidiomycete Stropharia rugosoannulata DSM 11372 to degrade a wide range of structurally different environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: phenanthrene, anthracene, fluorene, pyrene, and fluoranthene), synthetic anthraquinone dyes containing condensed aromatic rings, environmentally relevant alkylphenol and oxyethylated alkylphenol representatives, and oil was demonstrated within the present study. 9,10-Anthraquinone, phenanthrene-9,10-quinone, and 9-fluorenone were identified as products of anthracene, phenanthrene, and fluorene degradation, respectively...
August 14, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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