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Ruth E Macpherson, Sarah Pratap, Helen Tyrrell, Mehrdad Khonsari, Shaun Wilson, Max Gibbons, Duncan Whitwell, Henk Giele, Paul Critchley, Lucy Cogswell, Sally Trent, Nick Athanasou, Kevin M Bradley, A Bassim Hassan
Background: The use of 18 F-FDG PET-CT (PET-CT) is widespread in many cancer types compared to sarcoma. We report a large retrospective audit of PET-CT in bone and soft tissue sarcoma with varied grade in a single multi-disciplinary centre. We also sought to answer three questions. Firstly, the correlation between sarcoma sub-type and grade with 18 FDG SUVmax, secondly, the practical uses of PET-CT in the clinical setting of staging (during initial diagnosis), restaging (new baseline prior to definitive intervention) and treatment response...
2018: Clinical Sarcoma Research
Debarghya China, Alfredo Illanes, Prabal Poudel, Michael Friebe, Pabitra Mitra, Debdoot Sheet
Ultrasound (US) is a widely used as a low-cost alternative to computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MRI) and primarily for preliminary imaging. Since speckle intensity in US images is inherently stochastic, readers are often challenged in their ability to identify the pathological regions in a volume of a large number of images. This paper introduces a generalized approach for volumetric segmentation of structures in US images and volumes. We employ an iterative random walks (IRW) solver, random forest (RF) learning model, and a gradient vector flow (GVF) based inter-frame belief propagation technique for achieving cross-frame volumetric segmentation...
August 15, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Tim Hilgenfeld, Alexander Juerchott, Ulrich Karl Deisenhofer, Johannes Krisam, Peter Rammelsberg, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Franz Sebastian Schwindling
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic value of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), intraoral radiography (IR), and dental magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) for detecting and classifying peri-implant bone defects at zirconia implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight zirconia implants were inserted in bovine ribs, 24 of which had standardized defects (1-wall, 2-wall, 3-wall, 4-wall) in two sizes (1 and 3 mm). CBCT, IR, and dMRI were performed and analyzed twice by four readers unaware of the nature of the defects...
August 15, 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Bhavika K Patel, Christina Ferraro, Heidi E Kosiorek, Vilert A Loving, Carl D'Orsi, Mary Newell, Richard J Gray
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess radiologists' choice of imaging modality for the evaluation of clinical symptoms of physiologic nipple discharge (e.g., bilateral discharge, multiple-duct orifices, and yellow, green, or white color) and pathologic nipple discharge (e.g., unilateral discharge, single-duct orifices, spontaneous and serous discharge, and clear or bloodstained color). MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online survey was sent to lead interpreting physicians at mammography facilities accredited by the American College of Radiology (ACR)...
August 14, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Carmela Visalli, Marco Cavallaro, Antonella Concerto, Domenico La Torre, Rosanna Di Salvo, Silvio Mazziotti, Ignazio Salamone
Traumatic injury to limb peripheral nerves represents an important cause of morbidity and disability. Timely diagnosis and treatment are crucial to optimizing outcomes. The initial evaluation requires a careful history, a thorough physical examination, and electrodiagnostic tests, which lead in most cases to a diagnostic suspicion, but fail to provide an extensive qualitative and quantitative assessment of the nerve damage. Ultrasonography (US) is a low-cost, non-invasive technique which allows for direct visualization of nerve internal structure...
August 13, 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Giancarlo Coghe, Giuseppe Fenu, Lorena Lorefice, Erica Zucca, Micaela Porta, Giuseppina Pilloni, Federica Corona, Jessica Frau, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Massimiliano Pau, Eleonora Cocco
INTRODUCTION: Cognitive motor interference (CMI) is performance impairment due to simultaneuous task execution and is measured using the dual task cost (DTC). No pathological feature of MS has to date been associated with CMI. AIM: To assess the relationship between brain volumes and CMI, as measured using the DTC, in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: A group of persons with MS (pwMS) and an age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) group underwent 3D gait analysis during using the dual task paradigm...
July 31, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
James K Rilling, Martijn P van den Heuvel
A connectome is a comprehensive map of neural connections of a species nervous system. While recent work has begun comparing connectomes across a wide breadth of species, we present here a more detailed and specific comparison of connectomes across the primate order. Long-range connections are thought to improve communication efficiency and thus brain function but are costly in terms of energy and space utilization. Methods for measuring connectivity in the brain include measuring white matter volume, histological cell counting, anatomical tract tracing, diffusion-weighted imaging and tractography, and functional connectivity in MRI...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Romain Perolat, Adrian Kastler, Benjamin Nicot, Jean-Michel Pellat, Florence Tahon, Arnaud Attye, Olivier Heck, Kamel Boubagra, Sylvie Grand, Alexandre Krainik
Low back pain (LBP) is the most common pain syndrome, and is an enormous burden and cost generator for society. Lumbar facet joints (FJ) constitute a common source of pain, accounting for 15-45% of LBP. Facet joint degenerative osteoarthritis is the most frequent form of facet joint pain. History and physical examination may suggest but not confirm facet joint syndrome. Although imaging (radiographs, MRI, CT, SPECT) for back pain syndrome is very commonly performed, there are no effective correlations between clinical symptoms and degenerative spinal changes...
August 8, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Aila Nica Bandong, Andrew Leaver, Martin Mackey, Rodney Ingram, Samantha Shearman, Christen Chan, Ian D Cameron, Niamh Moloney, Rebecca Mitchell, Eoin Doyle, Emma Leyten, Trudy Rebbeck
BACKGROUND: In Australia, the New South Wales (NSW) State Insurance Regulatory Authority has been continuously developing and implementing clinical practice guidelines to address the health and economic burden from whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Despite this, it is uncertain the extent to which the guidelines are followed. This study aimed to determine insurer and health professional compliance with recommendations of the 2014 NSW clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute WAD; and explore factors related to adherence...
August 8, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Laura Murray, Rebecca Waller, Luke W Hyde
Antisocial Behavior (AB) has a tremendous societal cost, motivating investigation of the mechanisms that cause individuals to engage and persist in AB. Recent theories of AB emphasize the role of reward-related neural processes in the etiology of severe and chronic forms of AB, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, no systematic reviews have evaluated the hypothesis that reward-related neural dysfunction is an etiologic factor in AB in adult samples. Moreover, it is unclear whether AB is linked to a hyper- or hyposensitive reward system and whether AB is related to neural sensitivity to losses...
August 6, 2018: Personality Disorders
Daniel Junker, Fabian Steinkohl, Veronika Fritz, Jasmin Bektic, Theodoros Tokas, Friedrich Aigner, Thomas R W Herrmann, Michael Rieger, Udo Nagele
PURPOSE: To investigate, if and how omitting gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCE) influences diagnostic accuracy and tumor detection rates of prostate MRI. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 236 patients were included. The results of biparametric (bpMRI) and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) were compared using the PI-RADS version 2 scoring system. The distribution of lesions to PIRADS score levels, tumor detection rates, diagnostic accuracy and RoC analysis were calculated and compared to the results of histopathological analysis or 5-year follow-up for benign findings...
August 4, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Mary-Louise C Greer
Pediatric cancer predisposition syndromes comprise a group of diseases characterized by specific tumors or a concomitance of tumors in infants, children and adolescents, suggesting a genetic cancer susceptibility condition. Most but not all have germline pathogenic variants on genetic testing. For some children with cancer predisposition syndromes, this diagnosis is based on their own or a family history of related neoplasms, or associated clinical manifestations. These tumors have variable incidence and age of onset...
August 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Suraj D Serai, Andrew T Trout, Alexander Miethke, Eric Diaz, Stavra A Xanthakos, Jonathan R Dillman
Chronic injury to the liver leads to inflammation and hepatocyte necrosis, which when untreated can lead to myofibroblast activation and fibrogenesis with deposition of fibrous tissue. Over time, liver fibrosis can accumulate and lead to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease with associated portal hypertension and liver failure. Detection and accurate measurement of the severity of liver fibrosis are important for assessing disease severity and progression, directing patient management, and establishing prognosis...
August 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Rajiv R Iyer, Noah Gorelick, Karen Carroll, Ari M Blitz, Sarah Beck, Caroline M Garrett, Audrey Monroe, Betty Tyler, Sean T Zuckerman, Jeffrey R Capadona, Horst A von Recum, Mark G Luciano
OBJECTIVE Ventricular shunt infection remains an issue leading to high patient morbidity and cost, warranting further investigation. The authors sought to create an animal model of shunt infection that could be used to evaluate possible catheter modifications and innovations. METHODS Three dogs underwent bilateral ventricular catheter implantation and inoculation with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus). In 2 experimental animals, the catheters were modified with a polymer containing chemical "pockets" loaded with vancomycin...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Chen-Chih Chung, Daniela A Pimentel Maldonado, Azizah J Jor'dan, Freddy J Alfaro, Vasileios-Arsenios Lioutas, Maria Zunilda Núñez, Vera Novak
Gait speed is an indicator of overall functional health and is correlated with survival in older adults. We prospectively evaluated the long-term association between cerebral vasoreactivity and gait speed during normal walking (NW) and dual-task walking (DTW) in older adults with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). 40 participants (aged 67.3 ± 8.8 years, 20 with T2DM) completed a 2-year prospective study consisting of MRI, blood sampling, and gait assessments. The whole brain vasoreactivity was quantified using continuous arterial spin labeling MRI...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Mohammed Azfar Siddiqui, Sara Sartaj, Syed Wajahat A Rizvi, Mohammad Jesan Khan, Iraj Alam Khan
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of whole-spine screening using short tau inversion recovery (STIR) or fat-suppressed T2W fast spin echo (FSE) sequences in patients with spinal tuberculosis (TB). OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: The identification of noncontiguous multiple-level spinal tuberculosis (NMLST), symptomatic or not, is important because of its management implications. Most centers do not perform routine whole-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the reported incidence of NMLST varies from 1...
August 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Jin Zhang, Li Feng, Ricardo Otazo, Sungheon Gene Kim
PURPOSE: To develop a rapid dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI method with high spatial and temporal resolution for small-animal imaging at 7 Tesla. METHODS: An ultra-short echo time (UTE) pulse sequence using a 3D golden-angle radial sampling was implemented to achieve isotropic spatial resolution with flexible temporal resolution. Continuously acquired radial spokes were grouped into subsets for image reconstruction using a multicoil compressed sensing approach (Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel; GRASP)...
July 29, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Jacob Tulipan, Pedro Beredjiklian, Jigar S Gandhi, Frederic Liss, Michael Rivlin
PURPOSE: Advanced noninvasive imaging of the upper extremity joints, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US) , has numerous applications in the evaluation of musculoskeletal pathology. Choice of modality is influenced by clinical and cost concerns, with US and CT traditionally considered less expensive than MRI. We analyzed the changes in Medicare reimbursement for these imaging modalities with the hypothesis that recent reimbursement decreases in MRI have made this modality more cost-competitive than other commonly used imaging modalities...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Hui Qiu, Junfeng Li
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been a prominent topic in recent years due to its unknown etiology and pathology, high prevalence rate, and the high cost of treatment. Due to its high resolution for soft tissue, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential noninvasive tool for the evaluation of the brain substrates underlying mental disorders. MRI enables characterization of brain morphology and function in MDD patients. Compared to healthy controls, MDD patients have structural changes in certain brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, precuneus, thalamus, and hippocampus...
July 26, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Olivia R Palmer, Maxim E Shaydakov, Joshua P Rainey, Daniel A Lawrence, Joan M Greve, José A Diaz
<AbstractText Label="Background" NlmCategory="UNASSIGNED">The electrolytic inferior vena cava model (EIM) is a murine venous thrombosis (VT) model that produces a non-occlusive thrombus. The thrombus forms in the direction of blood flow, as observed in patients. The EIM is valuable for investigations of therapeutics due to the presence of continuous blood flow. However, the equipment used to induce thrombosis in the original model description was expensive and has since been discontinued. Further, the fibrinolytic system had not been previously studied in the EIM...
April 2018: Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis
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