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Pan-Pan Xie, Fang Ye, Ji-Fei Ye
The diagnosis of osteochondral lesions of the talus can be based on the patients' symptoms, medical history, MRI, detailed physical examination and arthroscopy. Its treatment includes conservative treatment and surgical treatment. Conservative treatment includes rest, partial-weight bearing, plaster immobilization, wear the orthopedic support, take the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and so on. Conservative treatment is less risky and effective for mild injuries. Surgical treatment includes debridement, marrow stimulation, internal fixation and cartilage transplantation, autologous chondrocyte transplantation, articular cavity injection biological additions, ultrasonic and electromagnetic stimulation technology, tissue engineering technology, etc...
September 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Jose Dolz, Xiaopan Xu, Jérôme Rony, Jing Yuan, Yang Liu, Eric Granger, Christian Desrosiers, Xi Zhang, Ismail Ben Ayed, Hongbing Lu
PURPOSE: Precise segmentation of bladder walls and tumor regions is an essential step towards non-invasive identification of tumor stage and grade, which is critical for treatment decision and prognosis of patients with bladder cancer (BC). However, the automatic delineation of bladder walls and tumor in magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a challenging task, due to important bladder shape variations, strong intensity inhomogeneity in urine and very high variability across population, particularly on tumors appearance...
October 17, 2018: Medical Physics
Katerina Deike-Hofmann, Franziska Koenig, Daniel Paech, Constantin Dreher, Stefan Delorme, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Sebastian Bickelhaupt
Oncologic imaging focused on the detection of breast cancer is of increasing importance, with over 1.7 million new cases detected each year worldwide. MRI of the breast has been described to be one of the most sensitive imaging modalities in breast cancer detection; however, clinical use is limited due to high costs. In the past, the objective and clinical routine of oncologic imaging was to provide one extended imaging protocol covering all potential needs and clinical implications regardless of the specific clinical indication or question...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
John Ibrahim, Imran Mir, Lina Chalak
The aim is to review the evidence about the utility of term-equivalent age (TEA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes for preterm neonates. Preterm birth accounts for ~12% of all deliveries in the United States and is the leading cause of neurologic disabilities in children. From the neonatologist perspective, it is critically important to identify preterm infants at risk of subsequent neurodevelopmental disability who may benefit from early intervention services. However "the choose wisely campaign" also emphasizes the need to have ongoing cost/benefit discussions regarding care of preterm newborns to avoid waste that comes from subjecting infants to procedures that do not help...
October 12, 2018: Pediatric Research
Peter J Rayner, Philip Norcott, Kate M Appleby, Wissam Iali, Richard O John, Sam J Hart, Adrian C Whitwood, Simon B Duckett
Iridium N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes catalyse the para-hydrogen-induced hyperpolarization process, Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange (SABRE). This process transfers the latent magnetism of para-hydrogen into a substrate, without changing its chemical identity, to dramatically improve its nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detectability. By synthesizing and examining over 30 NHC containing complexes, here we rationalize the key characteristics of efficient SABRE catalysis prior to using appropriate catalyst-substrate combinations to quantify the substrate's NMR detectability...
October 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Rosa De Micco, Antonio Russo, Alessandro Tessitore
Among modern neuroimaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely available, non-invasive, and cost-effective method to detect structural and functional abnormalities related to neurodegenerative disorders. In the last decades, MRI have been widely implemented to support PD diagnosis as well as to provide further insights into motor and non-motor symptoms pathophysiology, complications and treatment-related effects. Different aspects of the brain morphology and function may be derived from a single scan, by applying different analytic approaches...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
John H Y Moi, Uyen Phan, Adam de Gruchy, Danny Liew, Tanya I Yuen, John E Cunningham, Ian P Wicks
OBJECTIVES: To report on the design, implementation and evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of the Back pain Assessment Clinic (BAC) model. DESIGN: BAC is a new, community-based specialist service for assessing and managing neck and low back pain (LBP). The BAC pilot was supported by a Victorian Department of Health and Human Services grant and was evaluated using the Victorian Innovation Reform Impact Assessment Framework (VIRIAF). Data were obtained by auditing BAC activity (22 July 2014 to 30 June 2015) and conducting surveys and interviews of patients, stakeholders and referrers...
October 10, 2018: BMJ Open
YunKyoung Ko, Seong Dae Yun, Suk-Min Hong, Yonghyun Ha, Chang-Hoon Choi, N Jon Shah, Jörg Felder
PURPOSE: Functional MRI (fMRI) is a well-established method used to investigate localised brain activation by virtue of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) effect. It often relies on visual presentations using beam projectors, liquid crystal display (LCD) screens, and goggle systems. In this study, we designed an MR compatible, low-cost display unit based on organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) and demonstrated its performance. METHODS: A 3.8" dual OLED module and an MIPI-to-HDMI converter board were used...
2018: PloS One
Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Xi Xue, Soterios Gyftopoulos, Danny C Kim, Gregory N Nicola
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess downstream costs associated with pancreatic cysts incidentally detected at MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred patients with an incidental pancreatic cyst detected at MRI were identified. Downstream events (imaging, office visits, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, or chemotherapy) were identified from the electronic medical record. Radiologists' recommendations and ordering physician management were classified relative to the American College of Radiology (ACR) incidental findings committee recommendations...
October 9, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Aleksandr Istomin, Amro Masarwah, Marja Pitkänen, Sarianna Joukainen, Anna Sutela, Ritva Vanninen, Mazen Sudah
PURPOSE: To evaluate the malignancy rate and diagnostic performance of galactography in patients with pathological nipple discharge (PND) after negative clinical breast examination, mammography and ultrasound. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all galactograms obtained between January 2006 and December 2014 in women with PND. Galactographic findings were classified into 6 groups according to a modified Galactogram Image Classification system (GICS) to comply with the breast imaging reporting and data system classification...
2018: PloS One
Stine B Runge, Nicolaj L Christensen, Kim Jensen, Ib E Jensen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the need for general anesthesia (GA) in MRI in children aged 4-6 years, using a multi-faceted concept, Children Centered Care (CCC), compared to a standard setup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study of 81 children, we developed and tested a multi-faceted concept, CCC, for MRI in children aged 4-6 without GA, comparing it to a standard setup. The CCC included: 1) an interactive app, 2) a trained pediatric team, 3) a children's lounge with a toy-scanner, and 4) a child-friendly multimedia environment in the MRI room...
October 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Kartik S Jhaveri, Stephan A R Kannengiesser, Richard Ward, Kevin Kuo, Marshall S Sussman
BACKGROUND: FerriScan is the method-of-choice for noninvasive liver iron concentration (LIC) quantification. However, it has a number of drawbacks including cost and expediency. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To characterize an R2*-based MRI technique that may potentially be used as an alternative to FerriScan. This was accomplished through the derivation of a calibration curve that characterized the relationship between FerriScan-derived LIC and R2*. The nature and source of uncertainty in this curve were investigated...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Sebastian M Dettmer, Uwe Schweigkofler, Reinhard Hoffmann
Ruptures of the extensor mechanism of the knee joint are rare but disabling injuries. Injuries occur on the basis of degeneration or acute trauma. The understanding of anatomy and biomechanical function plays an essential role for choosing the right diagnostic methods and initiating successful treatment. Besides clinical examination ultrasound is a cost efficient primary diagnostic measure. Additional MRI can be beneficial for partial tears or chronic ruptures. Non-operative treatment is suitable for minor partial ruptures with sustained function...
October 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Zahra Abedini, Ali Akbari Sari, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Ebrahim Jaafaripooyan
BACKGROUND: Low-income and middle-income countries have a lot of problems in providing the financial, human, and capital resources for advanced medical imaging technologies (AMITs). Proper distribution of such expensive equipment might increase access to these services and enhance the quality and efficiency of health care. The present study aimed to identify the factors affecting the diffusion of AMITs including CT and MRI in Iran. METHODS: This is a qualitative research conducted in 2017...
October 5, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Yaohui Wang, Qiuliang Wang, Lei Guo, Zhifeng Chen, Chaoqun Niu, Feng Liu
In planar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, gradient coils are usually placed within a very limited space owing to the physical constraints of the small gap size (pole-pole) distance of the permanent magnet. Typically, the unshielded or partially shielded design scheme is adopted to generate required magnetic fields with reduced system costs. However, non-fully shielded coils can induce large eddy currents on the surrounding metal structures, including magnet poles, that significantly impact the imaging performance...
September 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
Colin Vaz, Vikram Ramanarayanan, Shrikanth Narayanan
We present a method for speech enhancement of data collected in extremely noisy environments, such as those obtained during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We propose an algorithm based on dictionary learning to perform this enhancement. We use complex nonnegative matrix factorization with intra-source additivity (CMF-WISA) to learn dictionaries of the noise and speech+noise portions of the data and use these to factor the noisy spectrum into estimated speech and noise components. We augment the CMF-WISA cost function with spectral and temporal regularization terms to improve the noise modeling...
May 2018: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
Ahmed E Helal, Heba Abouzahra, Ahmed Abdelaziz Fayed, Tarek Rayan, Mahmoud Abbassy
Healthcare spending has become a grave concern to national budgets worldwide, and to a greater extent in low-income countries. Brain tumors are a serious disease that affects a significant percentage of the population, and thus proper allocation of healthcare provisions for these patients to achieve acceptable outcomes is a must. The authors reviewed patients undergoing craniotomy for tumor resection at their institution for the preceding 3 months. All the methods used for preoperative planning, intraoperative management, and postoperative care of these patients were documented...
October 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
Marie-Claude Renaud, Tien Le
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence relating to the epidemiology of endometrial cancer and its diagnostic workups. OPTIONS: Women with possible endometrial cancer can undergo an endometrial evaluation by office biopsy, hysteroscopy, or dilatation and curettage. To assist in treatment planning, pelvic ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI may be considered. OUTCOMES: The identification of optimal diagnostic tests to evaluate patients with possible endometrial cancer...
September 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Grischa Bratke, Robert Rau, Kilian Weiss, Christoph Kabbasch, Krishnan Sircar, John N Morelli, Thorsten Persigehl, David Maintz, Daniel Giese, Stefan Haneder
BACKGROUND: Decreasing MRI scan time is a key factor to increase patient comfort and compliance as well as the productivity of MRI scanners. PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: Compressed sensing (CS) should significantly accelerate 3D scans. This study evaluated the clinical application and cost effectiveness of accelerated 3D T2 sequences of the lumbar spine. STUDY TYPE: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational. POPULATION: Twenty healthy volunteers and 10 patients...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Nicholas Seppala, Rashin Fallah Rastegar, Lara Richmond, Carrie Betel, Kalesha Hack, Mia Skarpathiotakis, Roberta Jong, Rebecca Thornhill, Belinda Curpen
BACKGROUND: In Canada, breast MRI has traditionally been reserved for evaluation of disease extent in patients with known breast malignancy. More recently, MRI has been emerging as an instrument for breast screening. However, its utilization is limited by increased relative cost and increased reader time. In this study, we evaluate a rapid MRI protocol for breast cancer screening within a breast screening population. METHODS: A series of 100 MRI studies performed in a high-risk breast cancer population were selected, ensuring a mix of malignant and benign pathology and normal cases...
September 27, 2018: Breast Journal
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