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Salt sensitive hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730828/the-effect-of-hypertension-on-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-young-adult-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-and-dahl-rats
#1
A Pistikova, H Brozka, M Bencze, D Radostova, K Vales, A Stuchlik
The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few places in the brain where neurogenesis occurs in adulthood. Nowadays, an increasing number of children and young adults are affected by hypertension, one of the factors in the development of cerebrovascular diseases and age-related cognitive deficits. Since these cognitive deficits are often hippocampus-dependent, it is possible that hypertension exerts this effect via decreasing adult neurogenesis which has been shown to be essential for a range of cognitive tasks...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724611/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-kidney-function-and-hypertension
#2
Eamonn Mehaffey, Dewan Syed Abdul Majid
Hypertension is considered to be a low-grade inflammatory condition characterized by the presence of various pro-inflammatory cytokines. The inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a constituent of the pro-inflammatory environment that is associated with salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH) and related renal injury. Elevated angiotensin II (AngII) and other factors such as oxidative stress conditions promote TNF-α formation. Many recent studies have provided evidence that TNF-α exerts a direct renal action by regulating hemodynamic and excretory function in the kidney...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720331/a-novel-antihypertension-agent-sargachromenol-d-from-marine-brown-algae-sargassum-siliquastrum-exerts-dual-action-as-an-l-type-ca-2-channel-blocker-and-endothelin-a-b2-receptor-antagonist
#3
Byong-Gon Park, Woon-Seob Shin, Sangtae Oh, Gab-Man Park, Nam Ik Kim, Seokjoon Lee
We isolated the novel vasoactive marine natural products, (5E,10E)-14-hydroxy-2,6,10-trimethylpentadeca-5,10-dien-4-one (4) and sargachromenol D (5), from Sargassum siliquastrum collected from the coast of the East Sea in South Korea by using activity-guided HPLC purification. The compounds effectively dilated depolarization (50mMK(+))-induced basilar artery contraction with EC50 values of 3.52±0.42 and 1.62±0.63μM, respectively, but only sargachromenol D (5) showed a vasodilatory effect on endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced basilar artery contraction (EC50=9...
July 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719636/the-non-diuretic-hypotensive-effects-of-thiazides-are-enhanced-during-volume-depletion-states
#4
Saeed Alshahrani, Robert M Rapoport, Kamyar Zahedi, Min Jiang, Michelle Nieman, Sharon Barone, Andrea L Meredith, John N Lorenz, Jack Rubinstein, Manoocher Soleimani
Thiazide derivatives including Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) represent the most common treatment of mild to moderate hypertension. Thiazides initially enhance diuresis via inhibition of the kidney Na+-Cl- Cotransporter (NCC). However, chronic volume depletion and diuresis are minimal while lowered blood pressure (BP) is maintained on thiazides. Thus, a vasodilator action of thiazides is proposed, likely via Ca2+-activated K+ (BK) channels in vascular smooth muscles. This study ascertains the role of volume depletion induced by salt restriction or salt wasting in NCC KO mice on the non-diuretic hypotensive action of HCTZ...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716792/influence-of-family-history-on-the-willingness-of-outpatients-to-undergo-genetic-testing-for-salt-sensitive-hypertension-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Taro Takeshima, Masanobu Okayama, Ryusuke Ae, Masanori Harada, Eiji Kajii
OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether family medical history influences the willingness to undergo genetic testing. This study aimed to determine how family history affected the willingness to undergo genetic testing for salt-sensitive hypertension in patients with and without hypertension. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. SETTING: Six primary care clinics and hospitals in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive 1705 outpatients aged >20 years, 578 of whom had hypertension...
July 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710092/a-missense-mutation-in-the-extracellular-domain-of-%C3%AE-enac-causes-liddle-syndrome
#6
Mahdi Salih, Ivan Gautschi, Miguel X van Bemmelen, Michael Di Benedetto, Alice S Brooks, Dorien Lugtenberg, Laurent Schild, Ewout J Hoorn
Liddle syndrome is an autosomal dominant form of hypokalemic hypertension due to mutations in the β- or γ-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Here, we describe a family with Liddle syndrome due to a mutation in αENaC. The proband was referred because of resistant hypokalemic hypertension, suppressed renin and aldosterone, and no mutations in the genes encoding β- or γENaC. Exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous, nonconservative T>C single-nucleotide mutation in αENaC that substituted Cys479 with Arg (C479R)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704264/extravascular-renal-denervation-ameliorates-juvenile-hypertension-and-renal-damage-resulting-from-experimental-hyperleptinemia-in-rats
#7
Nynke R Oosterhuis, Ramon Fernandes, Nuria Maicas, Sung Eun Bae, Joaquim Pombo, Hendrik Gremmels, Lucilla Poston, Jaap A Joles, Anne-Maj Samuelsson
BACKGROUND: Material obesity in rodents is associated with neonatal hyperleptinemia and hypertension of sympathetic origin in adult offspring. Previously, we reported that experimentally induced hyperleptinemia in rat pups results in adulthood hypertension. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that experimental neonatal hyperleptinemia, through renal nerve activation, adversely affects adult renal function. METHOD: Sprague-Dawley male and female pups were treated with neonatal leptin (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or neonatal saline, twice daily from postnatal day 9-14...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701323/renal-denervation-attenuates-hypertension-but-not-salt-sensitivity-in-etb-receptor-deficient-rats
#8
Bryan K Becker, Amanda C Feagans, Daian Chen, Malgorzata Kasztan, Chunhua Jin, Joshua S Speed, Jennifer S Pollock, David M Pollock
Hypertension is a prevalent pathology that increases risk for numerous cardiovascular diseases. Because the etiology of hypertension varies across patients, specific and effective therapeutic approaches are needed. The role of renal sympathetic nerves is established in numerous forms of hypertension, but their contribution to salt-sensitivity and interaction with factors such as endothelin-1 are poorly understood. Rats deficient of functional ETB receptors (ETB-def) on all tissues except sympathetic nerves are hypertensive and exhibit salt-sensitive increases in blood pressure...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696249/haploinsufficiency-of-the-transcription-factor-ets-1-is-renoprotective-in-dahl-salt-sensitive-rats
#9
Wenguang Feng, Bo Chen, Dongqi Xing, Xingsheng Li, Huma Fatima, Edgar A Jaimes, Paul W Sanders
Studies using Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats identified specific quantitative trait loci that predispose animals to hypertension-associated albuminuria and kidney injury. We explored the hypothesis that kidney-specific expression of the transcription factor Ets-1, located within one of these loci on chromosome 8, mediates glomerular injury in SS hypertension. During the first week on a high-salt diet, SS rats and SS rats with only one functioning Ets-1 gene (ES rats) demonstrated similar increases in BP. However, serum creatinine concentration, albuminuria, and glomerular expression of ETS-1 and two ETS-1 targets, MCP-1 and MMP2, did not increase as substantially in ES rats as in SS rats...
July 10, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696224/increased-perfusion-pressure-drives-renal-t-cell-infiltration-in-the-dahl-salt-sensitive-rat
#10
Louise C Evans, Galina Petrova, Theresa Kurth, John D Bukowy, David L Mattson, Allen W Cowley
Renal T-cell infiltration is a key component of salt-sensitive hypertension in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Here, we use an electronic servo-control technique to determine the contribution of renal perfusion pressure to T-cell infiltration in the SS rat kidney. An aortic balloon occluder placed around the aorta between the renal arteries was used to maintain perfusion pressure to the left kidney at control levels, ≈128 mm Hg, during 7 days of salt-induced hypertension, whereas the right kidney was exposed to increased renal perfusion pressure that averaged 157±4 mm Hg by day 7 of high-salt diet...
July 10, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693025/infusion-of-valproic-acid-into-the-renal-medulla-activates-stem-cell-population-and-attenuates-salt-sensitive-hypertension-in-dahl-s-rats
#11
Zhengchao Wang, Qing Zhu, Weili Wang, Fan Yi, Pin-Lan Li, Krishna M Boini, Ningjun Li
BACKGROUND: Our previous study has detected a stem cell deficiency in the renal medulla in Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats. This study determined whether infusion of valproic acid (VA), an agent known to stimulate the stem cell function, attenuated salt-sensitive hypertension in Dahl S rats. METHODS: Uninephrectomized Dahl S rats were infused with vehicle or VA (50mg/kg/d) into the renal medulla and fed with a low (LS) or high salt diet (HS). Stem cell marker and number were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot...
July 11, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682116/potassium-supplementation-ameliorates-increased-plasma-homocysteine-induced-by-salt-loading-in-normotensive-salt-sensitive-subjects
#12
Zhaofei Wan, Keyu Ren, Wen Wen, Dong Zhou, Junhui Liu, Yan Fan, Yue Wu, Jianjun Mu, Zuyi Yuan, Feng Gao
The mechanism by which high-salt and low-potassium diet contributes to hypertension remains poorly understood. Plasma homocysteine (Hcys) is recognized as a primary mediator of blood pressure (BP) response to some diets. Therefore, the present study tried to investigate whether plasma Hcys and BP could be regulated by salt loading in normotensive salt-sensitive (SS) persons, and further explored whether potassium supplementation could reverse the effect. We enrolled 47 normotensive subjects, aged 29-65 years...
July 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680820/renal-sodium-handling-and-sodium-sensitivity
#13
REVIEW
Alissa A Frame, Richard D Wainford
The pathophysiology of hypertension, which affects over 1 billion individuals worldwide, involves the integration of the actions of multiple organ systems, including the kidney. The kidney, which governs sodium excretion via several mechanisms including pressure natriuresis and the actions of renal sodium transporters, is central to long term blood pressure regulation and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure. The impact of renal sodium handling and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure in health and hypertension is a critical public health issue owing to the excess of dietary salt consumed globally and the significant percentage of the global population exhibiting salt sensitivity...
June 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667055/increased-activity-of-the-orexin-system-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-contributes-to-salt-sensitive-hypertension
#14
Michael J Huber, Yuanyuan Fan, Enshe Jiang, Fengli Zhu, Robert A Larson, Jianqun Yan, Ningjun Li, Qing-Hui Chen, Zhiying Shan
The orexin system is involved in vasopressin (AVP) regulation and its over activation has been implicated in hypertension. However, its role in salt-sensitive hypertension (SSHTN) is unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that hyperactivity of the orexin system in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contributes to SSHTN via enhancing AVP signaling. Eight-week-old male Dahl salt sensitive (Dahl S) and age and sex matched Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were placed on a high salt (HS, 8% NaCl) or normal salt (NS, 0.4% NaCl) diet for 4 weeks...
June 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656379/physiology-and-pathophysiology-of-the-plasminogen-system-in-the-kidney
#15
REVIEW
Per Svenningsen, Gitte Rye Hinrichs, Rikke Zachar, Rikke Ydegaard, Boye L Jensen
The plasminogen system is important for fibrinolysis in addition to tissue remodeling and inflammation with significance for kidney disease. The system consists of the circulating zymogen plasminogen (Plg) and the tissue- and urokinase-type plasminogen activators, tPA and uPA, expressed in the glomeruli, endothelium and tubular epithelium, respectively, and the inhibitors α2-antiplasmin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-type1, PAI-1. Plasminogen is activated by surface receptors, some with renal expression: urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), plasminogen receptor KT (Plg-RKT), and tPA, most evident in the endothelium...
June 27, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648322/induction-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-antihypertensive-therapy-is-there-any-role-of-alpha-adducin-ace-and-irs-1-gene
#16
REVIEW
Sumeet Gupta, Vikas Jhawat
Hypertension and diabetes are related disorders that share common pathophysiological pathways and occur together. Although hypertension itself is a risk factor for developing diabetes, prolonged use of first-line antihypertensive therapy has also been reported to induce diabetes. Genetic polymorphism of genes affecting salt sensitivity and insulin resistance can have a role in antihypertensive therapy-induced diabetes. Polymorphism of the alpha adducin gene, angiotensin-converting enzyme gene, and insulin receptor substrate 1 gene has been found to be associated with new incident diabetes in hypertensive patients via salt sensitivity and insulin resistance...
May 2017: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635325/effect-of-salt-loading-on-baroreflex-sensitivity-in-reduced-renal-mass-hypertension
#17
Besim Özaykan, Eylem Taskin, Ali Magemizoğlu
BACKGROUND: High dietary salt, as well as renal mass reduction, is known to decrease baroreflex sensitivity in rats. However, the effect of high salt intake on baroreflex sensitivity is unknown in reduced renal mass (RRM) hypertension; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of salt loading on arterial baroreflex sensitivity and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in RRM hypertension. METHODS: Both RRM and sham-operated control (SO) rats were loaded with 0...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628530/effects-of-salt-loading-and-potassium-supplement-on-the-circadian-blood-pressure-profile-in-salt-sensitive-chinese-patients
#18
Tong-Shuai Guo, Yi Dai, Ke-Yu Ren, Jian-Jun Mu, Jie Ren, Dan Wang, Yang Wang, Chao Chu, Yan Li, Zu-Yi Yuan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Salt-sensitive (SS) patients more frequently showed a nondipper blood pressure pattern and were associated with more serious target organ damage than non-SS patients. We aimed to investigate whether potassium supplement can improve the blunted nocturnal blood pressure fall in SS patients exposed to a high-salt diet. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Approximately 49 normotensive and mildly hypertensive Chinese patients received a study protocol of a 3 days of baseline examination, 7 days of a low-salt diet (3 g NaCl/day), 7 days of a high-salt diet (18 g NaCl/day), and 7 days of a high-salt diet with a potassium supplement (18 g NaCl and 4...
June 16, 2017: Blood Pressure Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613240/an-isoform-of-nedd4-2-plays-a-pivotal-role-in-electrophysiological-cardiac-abnormalities
#19
Shintaro Minegishi, Tomoaki Ishigami, Hisho Kawamura, Tabito Kino, Lin Chen, Rie Nakashima-Sasaki, Hiroshi Doi, Kengo Azushima, Hiromichi Wakui, Yumi Chiba, Kouichi Tamura
We have previously shown that neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4-2 (Nedd4-2) isoforms with a C2 domain are closely related to ubiquitination of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), resulting in salt-sensitive hypertension by Nedd4-2 C2 targeting in mice. The sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 (SCN5A) gene encodes the α subunit of the human cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel (I Na), and the potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2 (KCNH2) gene encodes rapidly activating delayed rectifier K channels (I Kr)...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604611/eplerenone-resistant-salt-sensitive-hypertension-in-nedd4-2-c2-ko-mice
#20
Tabito Kino, Tomoaki Ishigami, Tsumugi Murata, Hiroshi Doi, Rie Nakashima-Sasaki, Lin Chen, Michiko Sugiyama, Kengo Azushima, Hiromichi Wakui, Shintaro Minegishi, Kouichi Tamura
The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) plays critical roles in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and is located in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN). We previously found that Nedd4-2 C2 knockout (KO) mice showed salt-sensitive hypertension with paradoxically enhanced ENaC gene expression in ASDN under high oral salt intake. Eplerenone (EPL), a selective aldosterone blocker, is a promising therapeutic option for resistant or/and salt-sensitive hypertension. We examined the effect of EPL on Nedd4-2 C2 KO mice with respect to blood pressure, metabolic parameters, and molecular level changes in ASDN under high oral salt intake...
June 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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