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Salt sensitive hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243056/association-between-urinary-sodium-and-potassium-excretion-and-blood-pressure-and-inflammation-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
Daniel Carranza-Leon, Rany Octaria, Michelle J Ormseth, Annette Oeser, Joseph F Solus, Yahua Zhang, Chimalum R Okafor, Jens Titze, C Michael Stein, Cecilia P Chung
Hypertension is highly prevalent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In other populations, high sodium (Na+) and low potassium (K+) intake are associated with an increased risk of hypertension, and in animal models, a high salt intake exacerbated arthritis. Patients with RA have many comorbidities associated with salt sensitivity, but their salt intake and its relationship to blood pressure and inflammation is unknown. Using the Kawasaki formula, Na+ and K+ urinary excretion (reflecting intake) was estimated in 166 patients with RA and 92 controls, frequency matched for age, sex, and race...
December 14, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222878/non-communicable-diseases-food-and-nutrition-in-vietnam-from-1975-to-2015-the-burden-and-national-response
#2
Tuan T Nguyen, Minh V Hoang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This review manuscript examines the burden and national response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), food and nutrition security in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We extracted data from peer-reviewed manuscripts and reports of nationally representative surveys and related policies in Vietnam. RESULTS: In 2010, NCDs accounted for 318,000 deaths (72% of total deaths), 6.7 million years of life lost, and 14 million disability-adjusted life years in Vietnam...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182730/genetic-variation-in-slc8a1-gene-involved-in-blood-pressure-responses-to-acute-salt-loading
#3
Kuo Liu, Zheng Liu, Han Qi, Bin Liu, Jingjing Wu, Yezhou Liu, Jie Zhang, Han Cao, Yuxiang Yan, Yan He, Ling Zhang
BACKGROUND: Salt sensitivity of blood pressure (SSBP) increases the risk of cardiovascular complications, and the heritability of SSBP is about 50% in Chinese population. However, studies identifying genes involved in BP responses to acute sodium loading and diuresis shrinkage are still limited. METHOD: A total of 342 essential hypertensives from Beijing were recruited in our study. A modified Sullivan's acute oral saline load and diuresis shrinkage test was conducted to each individual...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179201/alteration-of-tight-junction-protein-expression-in-dahl-salt-sensitive-rat-kidney
#4
Chor Ho Jo, Sua Kim, Il Hwan Oh, Joon-Sung Park, Gheun-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Altered pressure natriuresis is an important mechanism of hypertension, but it remains elusive at the molecular level. We hypothesized that in the kidney, tight junctions (TJs) may have a role in pressure natriuresis because paracellular NaCl transport affects interstitial hydrostatic pressure. METHODS: To assess the association of salt-sensitive hypertension with altered renal TJ protein expression, Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) and salt-resistant (SR) rats were put on an 8% NaCl-containing rodent diet for 4 weeks...
November 27, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169714/-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome
#5
O Boyer, V Baudouin, E Bérard, C Dossier, V Audard, V Guigonis, I Vrillon
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is defined by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, with resulting hyperlipidemia and edema. The most common cause of NS in children is idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), also called nephrosis. Its annual incidence has been estimated to 1-4 per 100,000 children and varies with age, race, and geography. Many agents or conditions have been reported to be associated with INS such as infectious diseases, drugs, allergy, vaccinations, and malignancies. The disease may occur during the 1st year of life, but it usually starts between the ages of 2 and 7 years...
December 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144825/salt-hypertension-and-immunity
#6
A Justin Rucker, Nathan P Rudemiller, Steven D Crowley
The link between inappropriate salt retention in the kidney and hypertension is well recognized. However, growing evidence suggests that the immune system can play surprising roles in sodium homeostasis, such that the study of inflammatory cells and their secreted effectors has provided important insights into salt sensitivity. As part of the innate immune system, myeloid cells have diverse roles in blood pressure regulation, ranging from prohypertensive actions in the kidney, vasculature, and brain, to effects in the skin that attenuate blood pressure elevation...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143823/salt-responsive-gut-commensal-modulates-th17-axis-and-disease
#7
Nicola Wilck, Mariana G Matus, Sean M Kearney, Scott W Olesen, Kristoffer Forslund, Hendrik Bartolomaeus, Stefanie Haase, Anja Mähler, András Balogh, Lajos Markó, Olga Vvedenskaya, Friedrich H Kleiner, Dmitry Tsvetkov, Lars Klug, Paul I Costea, Shinichi Sunagawa, Lisa Maier, Natalia Rakova, Valentin Schatz, Patrick Neubert, Christian Frätzer, Alexander Krannich, Maik Gollasch, Diana A Grohme, Beatriz F Côrte-Real, Roman G Gerlach, Marijana Basic, Athanasios Typas, Chuan Wu, Jens M Titze, Jonathan Jantsch, Michael Boschmann, Ralf Dechend, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Stefan Kempa, Peer Bork, Ralf A Linker, Eric J Alm, Dominik N Müller
A Western lifestyle with high salt consumption can lead to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. High salt may additionally drive autoimmunity by inducing T helper 17 (TH17) cells, which can also contribute to hypertension. Induction of TH17 cells depends on gut microbiota; however, the effect of salt on the gut microbiome is unknown. Here we show that high salt intake affects the gut microbiome in mice, particularly by depleting Lactobacillus murinus. Consequently, treatment of mice with L. murinus prevented salt-induced aggravation of actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and salt-sensitive hypertension by modulating TH17 cells...
November 15, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140729/gene-expression-and-gene-associations-during-the-development-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-the-dahl-salt-sensitive-model-of-hypertension
#8
Jeffrey Yim, Hyokeun Cho, Simon W Rabkin
Gene expression and associations were examined in a model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a condition with minimal effective treatment. Genes with at least two studies showing significant changes in Dahl rat with heart failure were examined by meta-analysis. Significantly increased in expression were iNOS, p47phox, ADM, ANP, OPN, ACE, MCP-1, GP91PHOX, ICAM-1, TGF-β1, CTGF, ET-1, p22phox, ETB, BNP, ETA, MMP13, Col1a1, MMP2, TIMP1, Col3a1, Il-1β, β-MHC, ECE1, MMP14, AGT, and MMP9...
November 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138984/11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases-and-hypertension-in-the-metabolic-syndrome
#9
REVIEW
Matthew A Bailey
The metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of risk factors-visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and salt-sensitive hypertension-that increases mortality related to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of these concurrent comorbidities is ~ 25-30% worldwide, and metabolic syndrome therefore presents a significant global public health burden. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that glucocorticoid excess is a key causal feature of metabolic syndrome...
November 14, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133363/prevalence-of-hypertensive-phenotypes-after-preeclampsia-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Agnès Ditisheim, Grégoire Wuerzner, Belen Ponte, Yvan Vial, Olivier Irion, Michel Burnier, Michel Boulvain, Antoinette Pechère-Bertschi
Preeclampsia is associated with increased cardiovascular and renal risk. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to characterize the early postpartum blood pressure (BP) profile after preeclampsia. We enrolled 115 women with preeclampsia and 41 women with a normal pregnancy in a prospective cohort study. At 6 to 12 week postpartum, we assessed the prevalence of different hypertensive phenotypes using 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), as well as the risk of salt sensitivity and the variability of BP derived from ABPM parameters...
November 13, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132172/can-screening-and-confirmatory-testing-in-the-management-of-patients-with-primary-aldosteronism-be-improved
#11
Michael Stowasser, Ashraf Ahmed, Zeng Guo, Martin Wolley, Jacobus Ungerer, Brett McWhinney, Marko Poglitsch, Richard Gordon
Widespread application of the plasma aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) as a screening test has led to the recognition that primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common specifically treatable and potentially curable form of hypertension, accounting for 5-10% of patients. Maximal detection requires accurate diagnostic approaches and awareness and control of factors that confound results, including most antihypertensives, posture, time of day, dietary salt, and plasma potassium. Recent studies have revealed potential for false positives in patients on beta-adrenoceptor blockers, and, when direct renin concentration (but not plasma renin activity) is used to measure renin, in women during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or receiving estrogen-containing contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy...
November 13, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129584/high-salt-loading-induces-urinary-storage-dysfunction-via-upregulation-of-epithelial-sodium-channel-alpha-in-the-bladder-epithelium-in-dahl-salt-sensitive-rats
#12
Seiji Yamamoto, Yuji Hotta, Kotomi Maeda, Tomoya Kataoka, Yasuhiro Maeda, Takashi Hamakawa, Yasuhiro Shibata, Shoichi Sasaki, Shinya Ugawa, Takahiro Yasui, Kazunori Kimura
We aimed to investigate whether high salt intake affects bladder function via epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by using Dahl salt-resistant (DR) and salt-sensitive (DS) rats. Bladder weight of DR + high-salt diet (HS, 8% NaCl) and DS + HS groups were significantly higher than those of DR + normal-salt diet (NS, 0.3% NaCl) and DS + NS groups after one week treatment. We thereafter used only DR + HS and DS + HS group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in DS + HS group than in DR + HS group after the treatment period...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128399/nitric-oxide-production-by-glomerular-podocytes
#13
Oleg Palygin, Daria V Ilatovskaya, Vladislav Levchenko, Bradley T Endres, Aron M Geurts, Alexander Staruschenko
Nitric Oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator and vital signaling molecule, has been shown to contribute to the regulation of glomerular ultrafiltration. However, whether changes in NO occur in podocytes during the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension has not yet been thoroughly examined. We showed here that podocytes produce NO, and further hypothesized that hypertensive animals would exhibit reduced NO production in these cells in response to various paracrine factors, which might contribute to the damage of glomeruli filtration barrier and development of proteinuria...
November 8, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118017/role-of-immune-factors-in-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension-and-renal-damage-in-dahl-salt-sensitive-rats
#14
Brittany Wade, Galina Petrova, David L Mattson
The present study assessed the importance of immunity in AngII (5 ng/kg/min, iv)-mediated hypertension in Dahl Salt Sensitive (SS) rats and SS rats deficient in T- and B-lymphocytes (SS (Rag1-/-)) fed a 0.4% NaCl diet. Baseline mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was not different between groups. AngII infusion significantly increased MAP in both groups; though MAP increased more rapidly in SS, and the maximal MAP achieved in SS (190±3 mmHg) was significantly greater than that in SS(Rag1-/-) (177±3 mmHg) after 12 days...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113921/antihypertensive-responses-of-vasoactive-androgens-in-an-in-vivo-experimental-model-of-preeclampsia
#15
Mercedes Perusquía, Andrea E Hanson, Claudia M Meza, Cris Kubli, Nieves Herrera, John N Stallone
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TES) and its 5-reduced metabolites induce a nongenomic vasorelaxation in several vascular beds of mammals; similarly these hormones produce systemic hypotensive and antihypertensive responses in normotensive and hypertensive male rats. Thus, it was hypothesized that the antihypertensive response of androgens, whose levels are elevated during gestation, protect against gestational hypertension. An animal model of preeclampsia was induced in female Wistar rats using DOCA-salt-treated pregnant (PT) and normal pregnant (NP) rats...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110801/enhanced-electrical-field-stimulated-nitrergic-and-purinergic-vasoreactivity-in-distal-vs-proximal-internal-pudendal-arteries
#16
Michael R Odom, Elena S Pak, David A Brown, Johanna L Hannan
BACKGROUND: The internal pudendal arteries (IPAs) supply blood to the penis and are highly susceptible to vascular remodeling in rodent models of diabetes, hypertension, aging, and chronic kidney disease, thus contributing to erectile dysfunction. Interestingly, vascular remodeling primarily occurs in the distal and not in the proximal IPA, suggesting distinct local physiologic signaling differences within the IPA. AIM: To examine the role of purinergic signaling and neurotransmitter release by electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the regulation of proximal and distal IPA vascular tone...
November 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098651/excess-body-weight-insulin-resistance-and-isolated-systolic-hypertension-potential-pathophysiological-links
#17
Lanfranco D'Elia, Pasquale Strazzullo
Isolated systolic hypertension, the most common form of hypertension in the elderly, but also detectable among young and middle-aged subjects, is independently associated with higher risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Among various pathophysiological changes associated with aging, excess body weight and insulin resistance may predispose to this type of hypertension. Overweight or frank obesity and their frequent companion insulin resistance could mediate the development of isolated systolic hypertension through increase in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, in the sympathetic tone and in salt-sensitivity, all in turn leading to endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness and increase in blood pressure...
November 2, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089370/enjoyment-of-spicy-flavor-enhances-central-salty-taste-perception-and-reduces-salt-intake-and-blood-pressure
#18
Qiang Li, Yuanting Cui, Rongbing Jin, Hongmei Lang, Hao Yu, Fang Sun, Chengkang He, Tianyi Ma, Yingsha Li, Xunmei Zhou, Daoyan Liu, Hongbo Jia, Xiaowei Chen, Zhiming Zhu
High salt intake is a major risk factor for hypertension and is associated with cardiovascular events. Most countries exhibit a traditionally high salt intake; thus, identification of an optimal strategy for salt reduction at the population level may have a major impact on public health. In this multicenter, random-order, double-blind observational and interventional study, subjects with a high spice preference had a lower salt intake and blood pressure than subjects who disliked spicy food. The enjoyment of spicy flavor enhanced salt sensitivity and reduced salt preference...
October 31, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069584/dendritic-cell-amiloride-sensitive-channels-mediate-sodium-induced-inflammation-and-hypertension
#19
Natalia R Barbaro, Jason D Foss, Dmytro O Kryshtal, Nikita Tsyba, Shivani Kumaresan, Liang Xiao, Raymond L Mernaugh, Hana A Itani, Roxana Loperena, Wei Chen, Sergey Dikalov, Jens M Titze, Bjorn C Knollmann, David G Harrison, Annet Kirabo
Sodium accumulates in the interstitium and promotes inflammation through poorly defined mechanisms. We describe a pathway by which sodium enters dendritic cells (DCs) through amiloride-sensitive channels including the alpha and gamma subunits of the epithelial sodium channel and the sodium hydrogen exchanger 1. This leads to calcium influx via the sodium calcium exchanger, activation of protein kinase C (PKC), phosphorylation of p47(phox), and association of p47(phox) with gp91(phox). The assembled NADPH oxidase produces superoxide with subsequent formation of immunogenic isolevuglandin (IsoLG)-protein adducts...
October 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066461/inactivation-of-spak-kinase-reduces-body-weight-gain-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet-by-improving-energy-expenditure-and-insulin-sensitivity
#20
Ivan Torre-Villalvazo, Luz Graciela Cervantes-Perez, Lilia G Noriega, Jose V Jimenez, Norma Uribe, Maria Chavez-Canales, Claudia Tovar-Palacio, Braulio A Marfil-Garza, Nimbe Torres, Norma A Bobadilla, Armando R Tovar, Gerardo Gamba
The STE20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich protein kinase (SPAK) controls the activity of the electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters (SLC12 family) and thus physiological processes such as modulation of cell volume, intracellular chloride concentration [Cl-]i and transepithelial salt transport. Modulation of SPAK kinase activity may have an impact on hypertension and obesity as STK39, the gene encoding SPAK has been suggested as a hypertension and obesity susceptibility gene. In fact, the absence of SPAK activity in mice in which the activating threonine in the T-loop was substituted by alanine (SPAK-KI mice) is associated with decreased blood pressure; however its consequences in metabolism have not been explored...
October 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
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