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Salt sensitive hypertension

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922176/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-reduces-inflammation-fibrosis-and-preserves-diastolic-function-in-a-rat-model-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#1
Grazia Esposito, Donato Cappetta, Rosa Russo, Alessia Rivellino, Loreta Pia Ciuffreda, Fiorentina Roviezzo, Elena Piegari, L Liberato Berrino, Francesco Rossi, Antonella De Angelis, Konrad Urbanek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a systemic syndrome driven by co-morbidities and its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Several studies suggesting that dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) might be involved in the pathophysiology of heart failure prompted experimental and clinical investigations of DPP4 inhibitors on cardiovascular system. The aim of our study was to determine whether DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin (SITA) affects the progression of HFpEF independently from the effects on glycaemia...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920129/chronic-inhibition-of-renal-outer-medullary-potassium-channel-not-only-prevented-but-also-reversed-development-of-hypertension-and-end-organ-damage-in-dahl-salt-sensitive-rats
#2
Xiaoyan Zhou, Michael J Forrest, Wanda Sharif-Rodriguez, Gail Forrest, Daphne Szeto, Olga Urosevic-Price, Yonghua Zhu, Andra S Stevenson, Yuchen Zhou, Sloan Stribling, Maya Dajee, Shawn P Walsh, Alexander Pasternak, Kathleen A Sullivan
The renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel mediates potassium recycling and facilitates sodium reabsorption through the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter in the loop of Henle and potassium secretion at the cortical collecting duct. Evidence from the phenotype of humans and rodents with functional ROMK deficiency supports the contention that selective ROMK inhibitors (ROMKi) will represent a novel diuretic with potential of therapeutic benefit for hypertension. ROMKi have recently been synthesized by Merck & Co, Inc...
December 5, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906747/update-on-angiotensin-at2-receptors
#3
Robert M Carey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review updates major new findings and concepts introduced during the past year on the role of angiotensin II (Ang II) subtype 2 receptors (AT2Rs) in the control of blood pressure and renal function. RECENT FINDINGS: AT2R activation prevents sodium (Na) retention and lowers blood pressure in the Ang II infusion model of experimental hypertension and prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in the obese Zucker rat model of obesity and the metabolic syndrome...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903222/sustained-elabela-gene-therapy-in-high-salt-induced-hypertensive-rats
#4
Claire A Schreiber, Sara J Holditch, Alex Generous, Yasuhiro Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Elabela (ELA) is a recently identified apelin receptor agonist essential for cardiac development, but its biology and therapeutic potential are unclear. In humans ELA transcripts are detected in embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, kidney, heart and blood vessels. ELA through the apelin receptor promotes angiogenesis in vitro, relaxes murine aortic blood vessels and attenuates high blood pressure in vivo. The apelin receptor when bound to its original ligand, apelin, exerts peripheral vasodilatory and positive inotropic effects, conferring cardioprotection in vivo...
November 21, 2016: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895193/organum-vasculosum-of-the-lamina-terminalis-detects-nacl-to-elevate-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure
#5
Brian J Kinsman, Sarah S Simmonds, Kirsteen N Browning, Sean D Stocker
High-salt diet elevates NaCl concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid to increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in salt-sensitive hypertension. The organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) resides along the rostral wall of the third ventricle, lacks a complete blood-brain barrier, and plays a pivotal role in body fluid homeostasis. Therefore, the present study used a multifaceted approach to examine whether OVLT neurons of Sprague-Dawley rats are intrinsically sensitive to changes in extracellular NaCl concentrations and mediate the sympathoexcitatory responses to central NaCl loading...
November 28, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884238/the-pressure-of-aging
#6
REVIEW
Majd AlGhatrif, Mingyi Wang, Olga V Fedorova, Alexei Y Bagrov, Edward G Lakatta
Significant hemodynamic changes ensue with aging, leading to an ever-growing epidemic of hypertension. Alterations in central arterial properties play a major role in these hemodynamic changes. These alterations are characterized by an initial decline in aortic distensibility and an increase of diastolic blood pressure, followed by a sharp increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV), and an increase in pulse pressure (PP) beyond the sixth decade. However, the trajectories of PWV and PP diverge with advancing age...
January 2017: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862163/the-effects-of-high-sodium-intake-on-systemic-blood-pressure-and-vascular-responses-in-spontaneously-diabetic-wbn-kob-lepr-fa-fa-rats
#7
Yoshiichi Takagi, Haruno Kadowaki, Ikumi Kobayashi, Kaoru Ito, Katsuaki Ito, Mitsuyuki Shirai, Fumitoshi Asai
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension has markedly increased worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a high-salt intake on the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and vascular responses in WBN/Kob-Lepr(fa/fa) (WBKDF) rats, a new spontaneous animal model of T2DM. Male WBKDF rats and age-matched Wistar rats at 6 weeks of age were each divided into two groups and fed either a normal-sodium (0.26%, NS) diet or high-sodium (8%, HS) diet for 14 weeks: 1) Wistar rats on NS diet (Wistar-NS); 2) Wistar rats on HS diet (Wistar-HS); 3) WBKDF rats on NS diet (WBKDF-NS); 4) WBKDF rats on HS diets (WBKDF-HS)...
November 15, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849566/effects-of-sacubitril-valsartan-lcz696-on-natriuresis-diuresis-blood-pressures-and-nt-probnp-in-salt-sensitive-hypertension
#8
Tzung-Dau Wang, Ru-San Tan, Hae-Young Lee, Sang-Hyun Ihm, Moo-Yong Rhee, Brian Tomlinson, Parasar Pal, Fan Yang, Elizabeth Hirschhorn, Margaret F Prescott, Markus Hinder, Thomas H Langenickel
: Salt-sensitive hypertension (SSH) is characterized by impaired sodium excretion and subnormal vasodilatory response to salt loading. Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) was hypothesized to increase natriuresis and diuresis and result in superior blood pressure control compared with valsartan in Asian patients with SSH. In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 72 patients with SSH received sacubitril/valsartan 400 mg and valsartan 320 mg once daily for 4 weeks each. SSH was diagnosed if the mean arterial pressure increased by ≥10% when patients switched from low (50 mmol/d) to high (320 mmol/d) sodium diet...
November 14, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815929/challenges-in-the-management-of-hypertension-in-older-populations
#9
Lisa Pont, Tariq Alhawassi
The prevalence of hypertension increases with age making it a significant health concern for older persons. Aging involves a range of physiological changes such as increases in arterial stiffness, widening pulse pressure, changes in renin and aldosterone levels, decreases in renal salt excretion, declining in renal function, changes in the autonomic nervous system sensitivity and function and changes to endothelial function all of which may not only affect blood pressure but may also affect individual response to pharmacotherapy used to manage hypertension and prevent end organ damage and other complications associated with poor blood pressure control...
November 5, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815594/wnk-signalling-pathways-in-blood-pressure-regulation
#10
REVIEW
Meena Murthy, Thimo Kurz, Kevin M O'Shaughnessy
Hypertension (high blood pressure) is a major public health problem affecting more than a billion people worldwide with complications, including stroke, heart failure and kidney failure. The regulation of blood pressure is multifactorial reflecting genetic susceptibility, in utero environment and external factors such as obesity and salt intake. In keeping with Arthur Guyton's hypothesis, the kidney plays a key role in blood pressure control and data from clinical studies; physiology and genetics have shown that hypertension is driven a failure of the kidney to excrete excess salt at normal levels of blood pressure...
November 4, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814606/regulation-and-function-of-renal-medullary-cyclooxygenase-2-during-high-salt-loading
#11
Tianxin Yang, Mi Liu
Prostaglandins (PGs) are important autocrine/paracrine regulators that contribute to sodium balance and blood pressure control. Along the nephron, the highest amount of PGE2 is found in the distal nephron, an important site for fine-tuning of urinary sodium and water excretion. Cylooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is abundantly expressed in the renal medulla and its expression along with urinary PGE2 excretion is highly induced by chronic salt loading. Factors involved in high salt-induced COX-2 expression in the renal medulla include the hypertonicity, fluid shear stress (FSS), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha)...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782736/effects-of-high-and-low-sodium-diet-on-blood-pressure-and-heart-rate-in-mice-lacking-the-functional-grainyhead-like-1-gene
#12
A Walkowska, M Pawlak, S M Jane, E Kompanowska-Jezierska, T Wilanowski
Hypertension is a major health problem throughout the world because of its high prevalence and its association with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Two independent studies discovered a locus conferring susceptibility to essential hypertension on chromosome 2, in the 2p25 region, but the causative gene remains unknown. Grainyhead-like 1 (GRHL1) is one of the genes located in this region. Our experiments determined that the Grhl1-null mice, when fed standard diet, have the same blood pressure as their wild type littermate controls...
October 26, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780818/gastrin-stimulates-renal-dopamine-production-by-increasing-the-renal-tubular-uptake-of-l-dopa
#13
Xiaoliang Jiang, Yanrong Zhang, Yu Yang, Jian Yang, Laureano D Asico, Wei Chen, Robin A Felder, Ines Armanado, Pedro A Jose, Zhiwei Yang
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that is involved in the regulation of sodium balance and blood pressure. Dopamine, which is also involved in the regulation of sodium balance and blood pressure, directly or indirectly interacts with other blood pressure regulating hormones, including gastrin. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of the interaction between gastrin and dopamine and tested the hypothesis that gastrin produced in the kidney increases renal dopamine production to keep blood pressure within the normal range...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775022/proteomic-and-phosphoproteomic-analysis-of-renal-cortex-in-a-salt-load-rat-model-of-advanced-kidney-damage
#14
Shaoling Jiang, Hanchang He, Lishan Tan, Liangliang Wang, Zhengxiu Su, Yufeng Liu, Hongguo Zhu, Menghuan Zhang, Fan Fan Hou, Aiqing Li
Salt plays an essential role in the progression of chronic kidney disease and hypertension. However, the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of salt-induced kidney damage remain largely unknown. Here, Sprague-Dawley rats, that underwent 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx, a model of advanced kidney damage) or sham operation, were treated for 2 weeks with a normal or high-salt diet. We employed aTiO2 enrichment, iTRAQ labeling and liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry strategy for proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling of the renal cortex...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770524/assosiation-of-endogenous-cardiotonic-steroids-with-salt-sensitivity-of-blood-pressure-in-georgian-population
#15
N Kantaria, I Pantsulaia, I Andronikashvili, G Simonia
This investigation differentiates types of essential hypertension in a Georgian population as well as describes endogenous cardiotonic steroids in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant subjects. This case control study included 185 subjects: 94 cases with stage 1 essential hypertension (JNC7) naïve to antihypertensive treatment, and 91 controls. A salt-sensitivity test was used to dichotomize case and control groups into salt-sensitive and salt-resistant subgroups. Blood and urine samples were obtained to categorize participants as consuming high and low salt diets...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770523/possible-mechanism-of-development-of-salt-sensitive-essential-hypertension
#16
N Kantaria, I Pantsulaia, I Andronikashvili, G Simonia
It has been known that salt-sensitivity of blood pressure is defined genetically as well as can be developed secondary to either decreased renal function or by influence of other environmental factors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible mechanism for the development of salt-sensitive essential hypertension in the population of Georgia. The Case-Control study included 185 subjects, 94 cases with Essential Hypertension stage I (JNC7) without prior antihypertensive treatment, and 91 controls. Salt-sensitivity test was used to divide both case and control groups into salt-sensitive (n=112) and salt-resistant (n=73) subgroups...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760997/mineralocorticoid-receptor-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-chronic-kidney-disease-and-hypertension
#17
Shigeru Shibata, Kenichi Ishizawa, Shunya Uchida
The kidney has a central role in long-term control of blood pressure, and decreased kidney function is a common but difficult-to-treat cause of hypertension. Conversely, elevated blood pressure contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease. Steroid hormone aldosterone and its receptor mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) contribute to hypertension by increasing renal salt reabsorption and promote kidney dysfunction through direct effects on renal parenchymal cells. Accumulating data indicate that various mechanisms affect aldosterone-MR signaling...
October 20, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757935/impact-of-salt-intake-on-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-hypertension
#18
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754289/br-08-1-high-sodium-intake-reduction-in-diabetes-with-hypertension
#19
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754277/ed-09-2-the-role-of-the-vascular-wall-in-sodium-homeostasis
#20
Liffert Vogt
Excessive sodium intake is associated with both hypertension and an increased risk of cardiovascular events, presumably because of an increase in extracellular volume. The extent to which sodium intake affects extracellular volume and BP varies considerably among individuals, discriminating subjects who are salt-sensitive from those who are salt-resistant. Recent experiments have shown that, other than regulation by the kidney, sodium homeostasis is also regulated by negatively charged glycosaminoglycans in the skin interstitium, where sodium is bound to glycosaminoglycans without commensurate effects on extracellular volume...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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