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Salt sensitive hypertension

Umme Salma, Taous Khan, Abdul Jabbar Shah
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eruca sativa Mill., (Brassicaceae) is a popular remedy for the treatment of hypertension in Pakistan. However, direct effect of the extract and its fractions on blood pressure and vascular tone are unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: This investigation was aimed to explore the pharmacological base for the traditional use of E. sativa in hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In-vivo blood pressure study was carried out using normotensive and high salt-induced hypertensive rats under anaesthesia...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Xiaoling Zhang, Alissa A Frame, Jonathan S Williams, Richard D Wainford
Salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) increases hypertension risk and associated adverse cardiovascular outcomes. At present, there are no validated rapid tests or diagnostic markers to identify salt sensitivity of BP in clinical practice. Based on our prior animal studies that report a role for brain Gαi2 proteins in the salt sensitivity of BP and evidence that GNAI2 (single-nucleotide polymorphism) SNPs associate with hypertension risk, we investigated the hypothesis that GNAI2 SNPs associate with salt sensitivity of BP in humans...
June 15, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Hiroki Matsuoka, Seiko Miyata, Nozomi Okumura, Takuya Watanabe, Katsunori Hashimoto, Miki Nagahara, Kazuko Kato, Sayaka Sobue, Kozue Takeda, Masatoshi Ichihara, Takashi Iwamoto, Akiko Noda
PURPOSE: Hypertension is an important risk factor for death resulting from stroke, myocardial infarction, and end-stage renal failure. Hydrogen (H2 ) gas protects against many diseases, including ischemia-reperfusion injury and stroke. The effects of H2 on hypertension and its related left ventricular (LV) function have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of H2 gas on hypertension and LV hypertrophy using echocardiography. METHODS: Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats were randomly divided into three groups: those fed an 8% NaCl diet until 12 weeks of age (8% NaCl group), those additionally treated with H2 gas (8% NaCl + H2 group), and control rats maintained on a diet containing 0...
June 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Mei Yuan, Mei-Na Ma, Ting-Yu Wang, Yan Feng, Pei Chen, Chao He, Sijie Liu, Yun-Xia Guo, Yue Wang, Yao Fan, Lu-Qi Wang, Xiao-Qiang E, Guo-Fen Qiao, Bai-Yan Li
AIM: Substance P (SP) causes vasodilation and blood pressure (BP) reduction. However, the involvement of tachykinin receptors (NKRs) within baroreflex afferent pathway in SP-mediated BP regulation is largely unknown. METHODS: Under control and hypertensive condition, NKRs' expressions were evaluated in nodose (NG) and nucleus of tractus solitary (NTS) of male, female, and ovariectomized (OVX) rats; BP was recorded after microinjection of SP and NKRs agonists into NG; Baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) was tested as well...
June 13, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Amrita V Pai, Taylor Maddox, Kathryn Sandberg
T-cell function in female animal models of hypertension is poorly understood since most research is conducted in males. Our findings in Dahl-salt-sensitive and Dahl salt-resistant rats support prior research showing sex-specific T-cell effects in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Further studies are needed to inform clinical studies in both sexes and to provide clues into immune mechanisms underlying susceptibility and resilience to developing hypertension and associated disease.
July 1, 2018: Physiology
Oleg Palygin, Oleh Pochynyuk, Alexander Staruschenko
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple clinical and translational evidence support benefits of high potassium diet; however, there many uncertainties underlying the molecular and cellular mechanisms determining effects of dietary potassium. Kir4.1 and Kir5.1 proteins form a functional heteromer (Kir4.1/Kir5.1), which is the primary inwardly rectifying potassium channel on the basolateral membrane of both distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and the collecting duct principal cells. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize latest advances in our understanding of the evolution, physiological relevance and mechanisms controlling these channels...
June 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
George Lindesay, Yvonnick Bézie, Christophe Ragonnet, Véronique Duchatelle, Chandima Dharmasena, Nicole Villeneuve, Christine Vayssettes-Courchay
Central artery stiffening is recognized as a cardiovascular risk. The effects of hypertension and aging have been shown in human and animal models but the effect of salt is still controversial. We studied the effect of a high-salt diet on aortic stiffness in salt-sensitive spontaneously hypersensitive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP). Distensibility, distension, and β-stiffness were measured at thoracic and abdominal aortic sites in the same rats, using echotracking recording of the aortic diameter coupled with blood pressure (BP), in SHRSP-salt (5% salted diet, 5 weeks), SHRSP, and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Vascular Research
Lei Huang, Aimei Wang, Yun Hao, Weihong Li, Chang Liu, Zhihang Yang, Feng Zheng, Ming-Sheng Zhou
Monocyte/macrophage recruitment is closely associated with the degree of hypertensive renal injury. We investigated the direct role of macrophages using liposome-encapsulated clodronate (LEC) to deplete monocytes/macrophages in hypertensive renal injury. C57BL/6 mice were treated with a pressor dose of angiotensin (Ang, 1.4 mg/kg/day) II plus LEC or the PBS-liposome for 2 weeks. Ang II mice developed hypertension, albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, and renal fibrosis. LEC treatment reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP), albuminuria, and protected against renal structural injury in Ang II mice...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mei-Ling Chen, Tzu-Pi Huang, Tai-Wei Chen, Hsin-Hua Chan, Bing-Fang Hwang
There have been few studies investigating interactions of G-protein beta3 subunit ( GNB3 ) C825T (rs5443) and dietary sodium intake on the risk of hypertension, i.e., BP salt sensitivity. The study aims to evaluate joint effects of GNB3 polymorphisms and sodium consumption on the development of hypertension. A cohort-based case-control study was conducted in 2014. There are 233 participants with newly diagnosed hypertension in the case group and 699 participants in the gender-matched control group. The primary outcome is the development of hypertension over a 10-year period...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tyler Soncrant, Dragana Komnenov, William H Beierwaltes, Haiping Chen, Min Wu, Noreen F Rossi
Consumption of food high in fructose is prevalent in modern diets. One week of moderately high fructose combined with high salt diet was shown to increase blood pressure and failed to suppress plasma renin activity (PRA). We tested the hypothesis that the hypertension and high PRA are consequences of elevated renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). In Protocol 1, we assessed RSNA by telemetry in conscious Sprague Dawley rats given 20% fructose or 20% glucose in drinking water on a 0.4% NaCl diet (NS) for one week then transitioned to a 4% (HS) NaCl diet...
May 30, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Rikke Zachar, Ammar Al-Mashhadi, Henrik Dimke, Per Svenningsen, Boye L Jensen, Mattias Carlström
Obstruction of urine flow at the level of the pelvo-ureteric junction (UPJO) and subsequent development of hydronephrosis is one of the most common congenital renal malformations. UPJO is associated with development of salt-sensitive hypertension, which is set by the obstructed kidney, and with a stimulated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in rodent models. This study aimed at investigating the hypothesis that i) in pediatric patients with UPJO the RAAS is activated prior to surgical relief of the obstruction; ii) in rats with UPJO the RAAS activation is reflected by increased abundance of renal aldosterone-stimulated Na+ transporters; and iii) the injured UPJO kidney allows aberrant filtration of plasminogen leading to proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel gamma subunit (γ-ENaC)...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Ionut Tudorancea, Thomas E Lohmeier, Barbara T Alexander, Dragos Pieptu, Dragomir N Serban, Radu Iliescu
Aim: Activation of the sympathetic nervous system is common in resistant hypertension (RHT) and also in chronic kidney disease (CKD), a prevalent condition among resistant hypertensives. However, renal nerve ablation lowers blood pressure (BP) only in some patients with RHT. The influence of loss of nephrons per se on the antihypertensive response to renal denervation (RDNx) is unclear and was the focus of this study. Methods: Systemic hemodynamics and sympathetically mediated low frequency oscillations of systolic BP were determined continuously from telemetrically acquired BP recordings in rats before and after surgical excision of ∼80% of renal mass and subsequent RDNx...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Kashinath G Metri, Balaram Pradhan, Amit Singh, H R Nagendra
Introduction: Hypertension (HTN) is an important public health concern and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Yoga is a form of mind-body medicine shown to be effective in controlling blood pressure (BP) and reduces cardiac risk factors in HTN. Integrated approach of Yoga therapy (IAYT) is a residential yoga-based lifestyle intervention proven to be beneficial in several health conditions. Aim: To study the efficacy of 1 week of residential IAYT intervention on cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients...
May 2018: International Journal of Yoga
Mani Maheshwari, Cesar A Romero, Sumit R Monu, Nitin Kumar, Tang-Dong Liao, Edward L Peterson, Oscar A Carretero
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a public health problem, associated with salt sensitive hypertension, kidney inflammation, and fibrosis. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a tetra peptide with anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. However, its effect on preventing kidney damage in obesity is unknown. We hypothesized that Zucker obese (ZO) rats on a high-salt (HS) diet develop renal damage, inflammation, fibrosis, and this is prevented with Ac-SDKP treatment. METHODS: Zucker lean (ZL) and ZO rats (8 weeks old) were treated with Ac-SDKP (1...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Sanket Patel, Tahir Hussain
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2 R) and receptor Mas (MasR) are part of the "protective arm" of the renin angiotensin system. Gene and pharmacological manipulation studies reveal that AT2 R and MasR are involved in natriuretic, vasodilatory, and anti-inflammatory responses and in lowering blood pressure in various animal models under normal and pathological conditions such as salt-sensitive hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. The scope of this review is to discuss co-localization and heterodimerization as potential molecular mechanisms of AT2 R- and MasR-mediated functions including antihypertensive activities...
May 1, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Jia-Wen Hu, Yang Wang, Chao Chu, KeKe Wang, Yu Yan, Wenling Zheng, Qiong Ma, Jian-Jun Mu
Pentraxin-3 is a sensitive marker of inflammation that plays dual roles, pathogenic and cardioprotective, in the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Inflammation is intimately involved in salt-induced hypertension. We investigated the responses of pentraxin-3 to sodium and potassium supplementation to elucidate the potential role of pentraxin-3 in salt-induced hypertension. A total of 48 participants from northwest China were enrolled. All participants were maintained on a 3-day normal diet, which was sequentially followed by a 7-day low-sodium diet, a 7-day high-sodium diet, and a 7-day high-sodium plus potassium diet...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Mohammad Zaki Shukri, Jia Wei Tan, Worapaka Manosroi, Luminita H Pojoga, Alicia Rivera, Jonathan S Williams, Ellen W Seely, Gail K Adler, Iris Z Jaffe, Richard H Karas, Gordon H Williams, Jose R Romero
The relationship between biological sex and aldosterone on blood pressure (BP) is unclear. We hypothesized that sex would modify the interaction between aldosterone and vascular responses to salt intake and angiotensin II (AngII). To test this hypothesis, in 1592 subjects from the well-controlled Hypertensive Pathotype cohort, we compared responses of women and men to chronic (BP and aldosterone levels in response to dietary salt) and acute (BP, renal plasma flow, and aldosterone responses to AngII infusion) manipulations...
June 2018: Hypertension
S C Ray, B Patel, D L Irsik, J Sun, H Ocasio, G R Crislip, C H Jin, J K Chen, B Baban, A J Polichnowski, P M O'Connor
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) slows the decline in kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet the mechanisms mediating this effect remain unclear. The Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rat develops hypertension and progressive renal injury when fed a high salt diet; however, the effect of alkali loading on kidney injury has never been investigated in this model. We hypothesized that 'NaHCO3 protects from the development of renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats via luminal alkalization which limits the formation of tubular casts, which are a prominent pathological feature in this model...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Jenny V Tobin, Daniel P Zimmer, Courtney Shea, Peter Germano, Sylvie G Bernier, Guang Liu, Kim Long, Joy Miyashiro, Sheila Ranganath, Sarah Jacobson, Kim Tang, G-Yoon Jamie Im, James Sheppeck, Joel D Moore, Kristine Sykes, James Wakefield, Renee Sarno, Ali R Banijamali, Albert T Profy, G Todd Milne, Mark G Currie, Jaime L Masferrer
Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a key signal-transduction enzyme, increases the conversion of guanosine-5'-triphosphate to cGMP upon binding of nitric oxide (NO). Endothelial dysfunction and/or reduced NO signaling have been implicated in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis and complications of diabetes and have been associated with other disease states and aging. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulators are small-molecule drugs that bind sGC and enhance NO-mediated cGMP signaling. The pharmacological characterization of IW-1973 [1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(((5-fluoro-2-(1-(2-fluorobenzyl)-5-(isoxazol-3-yl)-1 H -pyrazol-3-yl) pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)methyl)propan-2-ol], a novel clinical-stage sGC stimulator under clinical investigation for treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and diabetic nephropathy, is described...
June 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Guo-Hong Yang, Xin Zhou, Wen-Jie Ji, Jun-Xiang Liu, Jing Sun, Rui Shi, Tie-Min Jiang, Yu-Ming Li
Evidence has shown that long-term sodium reduction can not only reduce blood pressure, but also provide cardiovascular benefits. To date, there is little evidence related to the effects of salt reduction on isolated systolic hypertension (ISH).A total of 126 hypertensive patients were divided into an ISH group (n = 51) and a non-ISH (NISH) group (n = 75). The members of each group were then randomly assigned to low sodium salt (LSSalt) or normal salt (NSalt) diets for 6 months. Their blood pressure was measured every 2 months...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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