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Coiled Coil

Masahiro Hosogai, Toshinori Matsushige, Koji Shimonaga, Tomohiro Kawasumi, Kaoru Kurisu, Shigeyuki Sakamoto
BACKGROUND: and Purpose: The optimal treatment strategy for ruptured intracranial dissecting aneurysms involving essential vessels remains controversial. The aim of this study was to review the safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment at our center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 11 ruptured intracranial dissecting aneurysms involving branching arteries or arising from a major intracranial vessel without tolerance of parental artery occlusion were treated consecutively using endovascular techniques from January 2013 through December 2017...
August 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Isak W Tengesdal, David Kitzenberg, Suzhao Li, Melanie S Nyuydzefe, Wei Chen, Jonathan M Weiss, Jingya Zhang, Samuel D Waksal, Alexandra Zanin-Zhorov, Charles A Dinarello
Reducing the activities of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 is an effective treatment strategy for several chronic autoimmune disorders. Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinase 2 (ROCK2) is a member of the serine-threonine protein kinase family that regulates IL-17 secretion in T cells via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent mechanism. We reported here that the selective ROCK2 inhibitor KD025 significantly reduced in vitro production of IL-17 in unfractionated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with the dectin-1 agonist Candida albicans (C...
August 11, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Ashley E Cole, Fatmah M Hani, Brian W Allen, Paul C Kline, Elliot Altman
The isolation and characterization of 42 unique nonfunctional missense mutants in the bacterial cytosolic β-galactosidase and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase enzymes allowed us to examine some of the basic general trends regarding protein structure and function. A total of 6 out of the 42, or 14.29% of the missense mutants were in α-helices, 17 out of the 42, or 40.48%, of the missense mutants were in β-sheets and 19 out of the 42, or 45.24% of the missense mutants were in unstructured coil, turn or loop regions...
August 10, 2018: Protein Journal
Jennifer Tübing, Bettina Gigla, Valerie Cathérine Brandt, Julius Verrel, Anne Weissbach, Christian Beste, Alexander Münchau, Tobias Bäumer
The important role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in the generation of tics and urges in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is underscored by an increased SMA-motor cortex (M1) connectivity. However, whether plasticity is also altered in SMA-M1 pathways is unclear. We explored whether SMA-M1 plasticity is altered in patients with Tourette syndrome. 15 patients with GTS (mean age of 33.4 years, SD = 9.9) and 19 age and sex matched healthy controls were investigated with a paired association stimulation (PAS) protocol using three transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils stimulating both M1 and the SMA...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shusaku Nagano
Rod-like liquid-crystalline (LC) mesogens preferentially adopt a homeotropic orientation by excluded volume effects at the free surface in side-chain LC (SCLC) polymer films. The homeotropic orientation is not advantageous for in-plane LC alignment processes. Surface segregation of polymers is the phenomenon in which one component with a low surface free energy covers the surface in a two or more polymer mixture or block copolymer film. In SCLC block copolymer films, the surface segregation structure induces a random planar orientation due to the formation of a microphase-separated interface parallel to the substrate via the covering of one of the segregated polymer block...
August 10, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Orane Lorton, Jean-Noël Hyacinthe, Stéphane Desgranges, Laura Gui, Antoine Klauser, Zarko Celicanin, Lindsey A Crowe, François Lazeyras, Eric Allémann, Nicolas Taulier, Christiane Contino-Pépin, Rares Salomir
OBJECTIVE: Perfluorocarbon nano- and micron-sized emulsions are a new field of investigation in cancer treatment due to their ability to be used as imaging contrast agents, or as delivery vectors for pharmaceuticals. They also demonstrated capability to enhance the efficiency of high intensity focused ultrasound thermo-therapy. In the context of new biomedical applications we investigated perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) theranostic droplets using 19 F NMR. Each droplet contains biocompatible fluorinated surfactants composed of a polar Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane head unit and hydrophobic perfluorinated tail (abbreviated as F-TAC)...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Charlotte D Vacogne, Chunxiang Wei, Klaus Tauer, Helmut Schlaad
Helical structures are ubiquitous in biological materials and often serve a structural purpose. Bio-inspired helical materials can be challenging to synthesize and rarely reach the degree of hierarchy of their natural counterparts. Here we report the first example of particles synthesized by direct emulsification of polypeptides found to display spiral morphologies in the dry state. The polypeptides were α-helical homo- and copolypeptides of benzyl glutamate and allylglycine. The chirality of the spirals was controlled by the chirality of the α-helices...
August 10, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Alexandra E Butler, David Kirakossian, Tatyana Gurlo, Fuying Gao, Giovanni Coppola, Peter C Butler
The pancreatic duct gland (PDG) compartment has been proposed as a potential stem cell niche based on its coiled tubular structure embedded in mesenchyme, its proliferation and expansion in response to pancreatic injury, and the fact that it contains endocrine and exocrine epithelial cells. Little is known of the molecular signature of the PDG compartment in either a quiescent state or the potentially activated state during beta cell stress characteristic of diabetes. To address this, we performed RNA sequencing on RNA obtained from PDGs of wild type versus pre-diabetic HIP rats, a model of type 2 diabetes...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Nicolas Garraud, Rohan Dhavalikar, Mythreyi Unni, Shehaab Savliwala, Carlos Rinaldi, David P Arnold
This paper presents the design, construction, and testing of a magnetic particle relaxometer (MPR) to assess magnetic nanoparticle response to dynamic magnetic fields while subjected to a bias field. The designed MPR can characterize magnetic particles for use as tracers in magnetic particle imaging (MPI), with the variation of an applied bias field emulating the scan of the MPI field free point. The system applies a high-frequency time-varying excitation field (up to 45 mT at 30 kHz), while slowly ramping a bias field (± 100 mT in 1 s)...
August 10, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Mathias Davids, Bastien Guérin, Axel Vom Endt, Lothar R Schad, Lawrence L Wald
PURPOSE: As gradient performance increases, peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is becoming a significant constraint for fast MRI. Despite its impact, PNS is not directly included in the coil design process. Instead, the PNS characteristics of a gradient are assessed on healthy subjects after prototype construction. We attempt to develop a tool to inform coil design by predicting the PNS thresholds and activation locations in the human body using electromagnetic field simulations coupled to a neurodynamic model...
August 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Filipe Almeida, Maria P Luís, Inês Serrano Pereira, Sara V Pais, Luís Jaime Mota
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen causing mainly ocular and genital infections of significant clinical and public health impact. C. trachomatis multiplies intracellularly in a membrane bound vacuole, known as inclusion. Both extracellularly and from within the inclusion, C. trachomatis uses a type III secretion system to deliver several effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells. A large proportion of these effectors, the inclusion membrane (Inc) proteins, are exposed to the host cell cytosol but possess a characteristic hydrophobic domain mediating their insertion in the inclusion membrane...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Takuya Sasaki, Yuichiro Shirota, Satoshi Kodama, Naohiko Togashi, Yusuke Sugiyama, Shin-Ichi Tokushige, Satomi Inomata-Terada, Yasuo Terao, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Tatsushi Toda, Masashi Hamada
BACKGROUND: Paired associative stimulation (PAS) induces long-term potentiation (LTP)-like effects when interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between electrical peripheral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to M1 are approximately 21-25 ms (PASLTP ). It was previously reported that two forms of motor learning (i.e., mode-free and model-based learning) can be differentially modulated by PASLTP depending on the different synaptic inputs to corticospinal neurons (CSNs), which relate to posterior-to-anterior (PA) or anterior-to-posterior (AP) currents induced by TMS (PA or AP inputs, respectively)...
July 31, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Hamidreza Saber, Aaron Desai, Mohan Palla, Wazim Mohamed, Navid Seraji-Bozorgzad, Muhammed Ibrahim
OBJECTIVES: Cilostazol, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 3, may reduce symptomatic vasospasm and improve outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage considering its anti-platelet and vasodilatory effects. We aimed to analyze the effects of cilostazol on symptomatic vasospasm and clinical outcome among patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase databases to identify 1) prospective randomized trials, and 2) retrospective trials, between May 2009 and May 2017, that investigated the effect of cilostazol in patients with aneurysmal aSAH...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Yuan Liu, Shan Huang, Yang Liu, Chunshui He
Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is a minimally invasive alternative to conventional open surgical reconstruction for the treatment of thoracic aortic dissection. However, the possibility of a type I endoleak may contribute to false lumen enlargement and rupture. Here, we present a case of successful treatment of type I endoleak after TEVAR and endograft extension for a complicated descending thoracic aortic dissection that was embolized by coils via a false lumen channel through the distal entry tear...
August 6, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Franziska Thomas, Wolf Mathis Rink
Coiled Coils (CCs) are well-understood protein folding motifs. They appear in a variety of oligomer states and as homo- and heteromeric assemblies. This versatility and the general accessibility by de novo design makes them ideal building blocks for synthetic biology. This minireview highlights the efforts being made in designing small peptide catalysts or reaction templates based on the CC scaffold. First reports describe autocatalysis or mediation of peptide ligation based on CC recognition. Over the years, the designs became more advanced, catalyzing ester hydrolysis, acyl transfer and redox reactions with in part enzyme-like reactivity...
August 9, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jianyang Wu, Qiao Shi, Zhisen Zhang, Hong-Hui Wu, Chao Wang, Fulong Ning, Senbo Xiao, Jianying He, Zhiliang Zhang
Entwining-induced robust natural biosystems show superior mechanical performances over their counterparts. However, the role played by topological entwinement in the mechanical properties of artificial nanohelixes remains unknown. Here, the tensile characteristics of nano-entwined carbon nanocoil (ECNC) metamaterials are explored by atomistic simulations. The simulation results show that ECNCs exhibit heterogeneous pre-stress distribution along the spiral surfaces. The predicted stretching stress-strain responses correlate with the topological nano-entwining and dimensionality...
August 9, 2018: Nanoscale
Sanela Rankovic, Ruben Ramalho, Christopher Aiken, Itay Rousso
The RNA genome of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is enclosed in a cone-shaped capsid shell that disassembles following cell entry via a process known as uncoating. During HIV-1 infection, the capsid is important for reverse transcription and entry of the virus into the target cell nucleus. The small molecule PF74 inhibits HIV-1 infection at early stages by binding to the capsid and perturbing uncoating. However, the mechanism by which PF74 alters capsid stability and reduces viral infection is presently unknown...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Virology
Xin Wang, Rongyan Mao, Weiwei Chen
BACKGROUND ox-LDL-induced injury of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) is strongly associated with cerebral vascular diseases such as cerebral arterial atherosclerosis. ROCK inhibitor was proved to be anti-apoptotic and has been used in treating cerebral vascular diseases. Research on the neuroprotective effects of a novel ROCK inhibitor, FSD-C10, is still limited. The present study investigated the anti-apoptotic effect and underlying molecular mechanism of FSD-C10 in ox-LDL-mediated apoptosis of BMECs...
August 8, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Si-Kao Guo, Xiao-Xuan Shi, Peng-Ye Wang, Ping Xie
Kinesin-1 is a homodimeric motor protein that can move along microtubule filaments by hydrolyzing ATP with a high processivity. How the two motor domains are coordinated to achieve such high processivity is not clear. To address this issue, we computationally studied the run length of the dimer with our proposed model. The computational data quantitatively reproduced the puzzling experimental data, including the dramatically asymmetric character of the run length with respect to the direction of external load acting on the coiled-coil stalk, the enhancement of the run length by addition of phosphate, and the contrary features of the run length for different types of kinesin-1 with extensions of their neck linkers compared with those without extension of the neck linker...
August 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Mihir Patel, Christopher Molvar
Gastric variceal hemorrhage is a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension with a poorer prognosis compared with esophageal variceal hemorrhage. The presence of an infradiaphragmatic portosystemic shunt, often a gastrorenal shunt, allows for treatment with retrograde transvenous obliteration (RTO). RTO is an evolving treatment strategy, which includes balloon-assisted RTO, plug-assisted RTO, and coil-assisted RTO, for both gastric variceal hemorrhage and hepatic encephalopathy. RTO techniques are less invasive than transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation, with the benefit of improved hepatic function, but at the expense of increased portal pressure...
August 2018: Seminars in Interventional Radiology
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