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Preventative care

Howard Kilbride, Hugo Escobar, Anne Holmes, Kelli Teson, William Truog
OBJECTIVE:  The goal was to determine if inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) for 3 weeks during neonatal care of high-risk preterm infants was associated with improved pulmonary function and exercise capacity or altered exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels in later childhood. STUDY DESIGN:  Thirty-four very preterm children previously enrolled in a randomized, neonatal trial of iNO to prevent chronic lung disease, were assessed in follow-up at 7 to 9 years of age, including pulmonary function testing (PFT), exercise testing, and measurement of FeNO...
August 19, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Anand Wagh, Ajay Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Healthcare-associated infections put a tremendous burden on health services around. In the last few decades, there has been a tremendous advancement in foetal and maternal care, and it has led to premature babies born as early as 25 weeks of gestation being nursed and cared for in neonatal and paediatric intensive care units. However, these children can pick up a number of uncommon and rare hospital-acquired infections including central nervous system (CNS) infections. METHODS: The authors have given their own insight as to the prevention of healthcare-associated infections in paediatric intensive care settings and reviewed the current literature on the topic...
August 18, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
J A Bauermeister, K E Muessig, S LeGrand, D D Flores, S K Choi, W Dong, G Sallabank, L B Hightow-Weidman
HIV and sexuality stigma impede HIV prevention and care efforts. (HMP) is an interactive mobile phone- and web-based HIV prevention and care intervention for young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM; ages 18-30) in the United States. HMP included three forums where participants could share their experiences. In this study, we explored whether engaging in stigma-related discussions was associated with changes in YBMSM's stigma-related scores throughout the trial. YBMSM (ages 18-30; N = 238) participating in HMP completed surveys at baseline, and 3 and 6 month follow-ups that included a series of scales focused on HIV and sexuality (internalized homophobia; sexual prejudice) stigma...
August 18, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Barry D Wright, Cindy Cooper, Alexander J Scott, Lucy Tindall, Shehzad Ali, Penny Bee, Katie Biggs, Trilby Breckman, Thompson E Davis Iii, Lina Gega, Rebecca Julie Hargate, Ellen Lee, Karina Lovell, David Marshall, Dean McMillan, M Dawn Teare, Jonathan Wilson
INTRODUCTION: Specific phobias (intense, enduring fears of an object or situation that lead to avoidance and severe distress) are highly prevalent among children and young people. Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a well-established, effective intervention, but it can be time consuming and costly because it is routinely delivered over multiple sessions during several months. Alternative methods of treating severe and debilitating phobias in children are needed, like one-session treatment (OST), to reduce time and cost, and to prevent therapeutic drift and help children recover quickly...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Danika Tremain, Megan Freund, Paula Wye, Jenny Bowman, Luke Wolfenden, Adrian Dunlop, Kate Bartlem, Christophe Lecathelinais, John Wiggers
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential effectiveness of a practice change intervention in increasing preventive care provision in community-based substance use treatment services. In addition, client and clinician acceptability of care were examined. DESIGN: A pre-post trial conducted from May 2012 to May 2014. SETTING: Public community-based substance use treatment services (n=15) in one health district in New South Wales (NSW), Australia...
August 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Chien-Chou Su, Ya Mei Bai, Ming-Hui Chou, Jung-Der Wang, Yen Kuang Yang
BACKGROUND: Disturbance of functionality is one of the core features of schizophrenia, and has deleterious effects on a patient's employment, increased healthcare costs, and a large societal burden. Thus, if a patient's disability status could be predicted, and interventions needed identified in advance, poor outcomes could be prevented. To achieve this aim, we developed a method by which to assess dynamic changes of dysfunction and estimate the lifetime duration of disability in patients with schizophrenia, as a proxy for assessing their specialized healthcare needs...
August 16, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Jessica H Mirman, Emma S Goodman, Elizabeth Friedrich, Carol A Ford
INTRODUCTION: The aims of the current pilot study were to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the Talking with Teens about Traffic Safety Program. The program consists of a clinic-based health coaching session with parents of adolescents at their annual well-child visit to promote parent-teen communication about teen driver safety including: a Parent Handbook that is designed to serve as a primer on teen driver safety and facilitate parent-teen communication on a variety of teen driver topics; an interactive practice driving toolset; and an endorsement of the materials by the primary care provider...
September 2018: Journal of Safety Research
Kenichi Takechi, Sakiko Kitamura, Ichiro Shimizu, Toshihiro Yorozuya
BACKGROUND: Decreased perfusion in the lower extremities is one of the several adverse effects of placing patients in a lithotomy or Trendelenburg position during surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of patient positioning in lower limb perfusion patients undergoing robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). METHODS: This observation study comprised 30 consenting males with American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status classes I and II (age range, ≥20 to < 80 years)...
August 18, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
M B K C Dayasiri, S F Jayamanne, C Y Jayasinghe
BACKGROUND: The burden of poisoning among children is largely underexplored in rural Sri Lanka. This study describes the patterns of demographic characteristics, poison related factors, clinical management and outcome following acute poisoning among children (9 months- 12 years) in rural Sri Lanka. METHOD: This hospital based multi-center study included Anuradhapura Teaching hospital, Polonnaruwa District General hospital, and 34 regional hospitals within Regional Director of Health Services in North Central province of Sri Lanka...
August 18, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Tam Truong Donnelly, Jassim Mohd Al Suwaidi, Awad Al-Qahtani, Nidal Asaad, Rajvir Singh
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Among cardiovascular patients, depression is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. Understanding how depression is conceptualized from cardiovascular patients' perspective can help with prevention, early detection, and treatment for depression. This might reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and save health care costs. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study in the Gulf region exploring depression among Arab cardiovascular patients...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Srdjan Ljubisavljevic, Jasna Zidverc Trajkovic
Cluster headache (CH) is characterized by attacks of severe, strictly unilateral pain that is orbital, supraorbital, temporal, or any combination of these, lasts 15-180 min, and occurs from once every other day to eight times a day. The pain is associated with ipsilateral conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, forehead and facial sweating, miosis, ptosis and/or eyelid edema, and/or with restlessness or agitation. The understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind CH is far from complete, but CH is considered to be a neurovascular and chronobiologic headache disorder, with a pivotal role played by the central brain mechanisms...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Antonella Minutolo, Marina Potestà, Angelo Gismondi, Stefano Pirrò, Marco Cirilli, Fabiano Gattabria, Andrea Galgani, Libera Sessa, Maurizio Mattei, Antonella Canini, Rosario Muleo, Vittorio Colizzi, Carla Montesano
Functional foods include compounds with nutritional and health properties. The human diet could play a stronger role in cancer prevention. Only a few studies have described the presence of plant small RNA, in humans who were fed with plant foods, which demonstrated the ability of these molecules to modulate consumer's genes and evidenced the existence of a plant-animal regulation. Through in silico prediction, Olea europaea small RNAs (sRs), which had been previously reported as miRNAs, were identified, each with functional homology to hsa-miR34a...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Janneke Francisca Maria Scheerman, Pepijn van Empelen, Cor van Loveren, Berno van Meijel
BACKGROUND: The insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances increases the risk of dental caries, particularly in adolescents. Caries can be prevented through good oral health behavior. To support adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances and for promoting oral health behavior, we developed a theory- and evidence-based mHealth program, the WhiteTeeth app. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our paper was to describe the systematic development and content of the WhiteTeeth app...
August 17, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Olga Frank, Carmen Kerker-Specker
Errors associated with the labelling of laboratory specimens repeatedly occur in health facilities and are often described in Critical Incident Reporting Systems (CIRS). The analysis of these error reports and the complexity of the specimen collection process pose major challenges for responsible health care professionals. To examine which errors occur in the labelling of laboratory specimens, and what leads to their detection, the error reports of 42 Swiss hospitals within the Critical Incident Reporting & Reaching NETwork (CIRRNET) were systematically analysed...
August 14, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
Adam T Hryniewicki, Claire Wang, Rebecca A Shatsky, Christopher J Coyne
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a novel class of drugs used in cancer immunotherapy that are becoming more commonly used among advanced-stage cancers. Unfortunately, these therapies are sometimes associated with often subtle, potentially fatal immune-related adverse events (irAEs). OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of relevant primary research and clinical guidelines in oncology, pharmacology, and other literature, and synthesized this information to address the needs of the emergency physician in the acute management of irAEs...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Awoke Kebede, Hadgu Gerensea, Freweyni Amare, Yared Tesfay, Girmay Teklay
OBJECTIVE: Anemia is a widespread health problem among pregnant women causing maternal/infant morbidity and mortality mainly in low-income countries. Understanding of the magnitude of anemia and related socio-demographic variables in a specific setting would help scale-up preventive and therapeutic measures in a locality. So that this study focuses on the magnitude of anemia and its associated factor among pregnant women attending antenatal care in public hospitals of shire town and using institution based cross-sectional study design on 480 randomly selected study subjects...
August 17, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Hiroyuki Naruse, Junnichi Ishii, Hiroshi Takahashi, Fumihiko Kitagawa, Hideto Nishimura, Hideki Kawai, Takashi Muramatsu, Masahide Harada, Akira Yamada, Sadako Motoyama, Shigeru Matsui, Mutsuharu Hayashi, Masayoshi Sarai, Eiichi Watanabe, Hideo Izawa, Yukio Ozaki
BACKGROUND: The early prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI) can facilitate timely intervention and prevent complications. We aimed to understand the predictive value of urinary liver-type fatty-acid binding protein (L-FABP) levels on admission to medical (non-surgical) cardiac intensive care units (CICUs) for AKI, both independently and in combination with serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels. METHODS: We prospectively investigated the predictive value of L-FABP and NT-proBNP for AKI in a large, heterogeneous cohort of patients treated in medical CICUs...
August 18, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Jenny Carter, Rachel M Tribe, Jane Sandall, Andrew H Shennan
BACKGROUND: Despite much research effort, there is a paucity of conclusive evidence in the field of preterm birth prediction and prevention. The methods of monitoring and prevention strategies offered to women at risk vary considerably around the UK and depend on local maternity care provision. It is becoming increasingly recognised that this experience and knowledge, if captured on a larger scale, could be a utilized as a valuable source of evidence for others. The UK Preterm Clinical Network (UKPCN) was established with the aim of improving care and outcomes for women at risk of preterm birth through the sharing of a wealth of experience and knowledge, as well as the building of clinical and research collaboration...
August 17, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Abi Merriel, Julia Hussein, Address Malata, Arri Coomarasamy, Michael Larkin
BACKGROUND: In Malawi there are too few maternity healthcare workers to enable delivery of high quality care to women. These staff are often overworked and have low job satisfaction. Skilled maternity healthcare workers are essential to improve outcomes for mothers and babies. This study focuses on understanding the working life experience of maternity staff at district hospitals in Malawi with the aim of developing relevant low-cost solutions to improve working life. METHODS: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was undertaken in three district hospitals around Malawi's Capital city...
August 17, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Andrea L Cheville, Sarah A McLaughlin, Tufia Haddad, Kathleen D Lyons, Robin Newman, Kathryn J Ruddy
The physical and psychological side effects of breast cancer therapies can have substantial impact on survivors' physical and social functioning. Roughly half of the more than 3 million Americans alive with a history of breast cancer report adverse, function-degrading sequelae related to their oncologic treatments. Care delivery models for the timely delivery of rehabilitation services have been proposed yet limitedly vetted or implemented. These include the prospective surveillance model, procedure-linked referrals, survivorship care plans and risk stratification...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
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