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Estrogen, insulin

P Xie, X P Wan, Z Bu, E J Diao, D Q Gong, X T Zou
The present study was conducted to determine the changes in concentrations of hormones and growth factors and their related receptor gene expressions in crop tissue, relative organ weight, and serum biochemical parameters in male and female pigeons during incubation and chick-rearing periods under artificial farming conditions. Seventy-eight pairs of 60-week-old White King pigeons with 2 fertile eggs per pair were randomly divided into 13 groups by different breeding stages. Serum prolactin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations in crop tissue homogenates were the highest in both male and female pigeons at 1 d of chick-rearing (R1), while epidermal growth factor (EGF) in female pigeons peaked at d 17 of incubation (I17) (P < 0...
March 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Patricia Barrionuevo, Mohammed Nabhan, Osama Altayar, Zhen Wang, Patricia J Erwin, Noor Asi, Kathryn A Martin, M Hassan Murad
Background: Several pharmacologic treatments for hirsutism are used in practice; however, their relative efficacy is unclear. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL through January 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with follow-up of at least 6 months that evaluated antiandrogens, insulin sensitizers, and oral contraceptives in women with hirsutism. Independent pairs of reviewers selected and appraised trials. Random-effects network meta-analysis was used to compare individual drugs and classes...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kathryn A Martin, R Rox Anderson, R Jeffrey Chang, David A Ehrmann, Rogerio A Lobo, M Hassan Murad, Michel M Pugeat, Robert L Rosenfield
Objective: To update the "Evaluation and Treatment of Hirsutism in Premenopausal Women: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline," published by the Endocrine Society in 2008. Participants: The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed task force of seven medical experts and a methodologist. Evidence: This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Antonino Belfiore, Roberta Malaguarnera, Maria Luisa Nicolosi, Rosamaria Lappano, Marco Ragusa, Andrea Morrione, Veronica Vella
In the last decades increasing importance has been attributed to the Insulin/Insulin-like Growth Factor signaling (IIGFs) in cancer development, progression and resistance to therapy. In fact, IIGFs is often deregulated in cancer. In particular, the mitogenic insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) are frequently overexpressed in cancer together with their cognate ligands IGF-1 and IGF-2. Recently, we identified discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) as a new IR-A interacting protein...
February 28, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
A I Duarte, M S Santos, C R Oliveira, P I Moreira
Alzheimer's disease (AD) constitutes a major socioeconomic challenge due to its disabling features and the rise in prevalence (especially among (peri)menopausal women and type 2 diabetes patients). The precise etiopathogenesis of AD remains poorly understood. Importantly, its neurodegenerative perspective has been challenged towards a more "systemic" view. Amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated Tau protein (P-Tau) (the main AD neuropathological features) affect and are affected by peripheral and brain insulin signalling dysfunction, leading to glucose dysmetabolism, synaptic loss and AD-related cognitive deficits...
February 19, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Lei Lei, Yuanjie Mao
The common ultimate pathological feature for all cardiovascular diseases, congestive heart failure (CHF), is now considered as one of the main public health burdens that is associated with grave implications. Neurohormonal systems play a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis, pathophysiology, and cardiovascular diseases. Hormone treatments such as the newly invented dual-acting drug valsartan/sacubitril are promising candidates for CHF, in addition to the conventional medications encompassing beta receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Luís Crisóstomo, Marco G Alves, Agostina Gorga, Mário Sousa, María F Riera, María N Galardo, Silvina B Meroni, Pedro F Oliveira
Sertoli cells play a central role in spermatogenesis. They maintain the blood-testis barrier, an essential feature of seminiferous tubules which creates the proper environment for the occurrence of the spermatogenesis. However, this confinement renders germ cells almost exclusively dependent on Sertoli cells' nursing function and support. Throughout spermatogenesis, differentiating sperm cells become more specialized, and their biochemical machinery is insufficient to meet their metabolic demands. Although the needs are not the same at all differentiation stages, Sertoli cells are able to satisfy their needs...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Daniil Nikitin, Dmitry Penzar, Andrew Garazha, Maxim Sorokin, Victor Tkachev, Nicolas Borisov, Alexander Poltorak, Vladimir Prassolov, Anton A Buzdin
Endogenous retroviruses and retrotransposons also termed retroelements (REs) are mobile genetic elements that were active until recently in human genome evolution. REs regulate gene expression by actively reshaping chromatin structure or by directly providing transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). We aimed to identify molecular processes most deeply impacted by the REs in human cells at the level of TFBS regulation. By using ENCODE data, we identified ~2 million TFBS overlapping with putatively regulation-competent human REs located in 5-kb gene promoter neighborhood (~17% of all TFBS in promoter neighborhoods; ~9% of all RE-linked TFBS)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Liang Zhang, Yuyan Zhao, Lei Guo
17β-estradiol (17β-E2) is a steroid hormone that is known to exert effects on blood glucose homeostasis. The G protein‑coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been identified as a non-genomic estrogenic receptor, and is involved in numerous physiological processes, including cell survival, energy provision and metabolism. 17β-E2 may decrease apoptosis by binding to the GPER. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway is involved in physiological and pathological functions such as autophagy...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Yongjing Lai, Chuanying Sun
This study aimed to detect glucose metabolism indicators and insulin resistance index in patients with endometrial cancer, and to explore the clinical significance and correlation between them. A total of 65 patients with endometrial cancer (52 of typical endometrial and 13 cases of atypical endometrial cancer patients, 27 with diabetes mellitus, and 38 cases without diabetes mellitus) were selected at the People's Hospital of Rizhao from June, 2010 to June, 2016 to serve as the observation group. During the same period, 62 patients with endometrial benign lesions (24 with diabetes mellitus and 38 cases without diabetes mellitus) were selected as the control group...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Anna M Weijler, Barbara Schmidinger, Stylianos Kapiotis, Hilde Laggner, Marcela Hermann
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is marked by hepatic fat accumulation and reflects a spectrum of chronic liver diseases associated with obesity, impaired insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia. Apolipoprotein O (ApoO) is a new member of the plasma apolipoprotein family that may play a role in lipid metabolism and electron transport activity of the mitochondrium. However, its physiological functions have not been elucidated yet. Based on our previous data in a non-mammalian experimental system [1], we hypothesized that hepatic expression of ApoO is tightly linked not only to diet-induced hepatosteatosis, but also to increased lipoprotein-production induced by, e...
February 9, 2018: Biochimie
Yukiko Kitase, Julian A Vallejo, William Gutheil, Harika Vemula, Katharina Jähn, Jianxun Yi, Jingsong Zhou, Marco Brotto, Lynda F Bonewald
Exercise has beneficial effects on metabolism and on tissues. The exercise-induced muscle factor β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) plays a critical role in the browning of white fat and in insulin resistance. Here we show another function for BAIBA, that of a bone-protective factor that prevents osteocyte cell death induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). l-BAIBA was as or more protective than estrogen or N-acetyl cysteine, signaling through the Mas-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptor Type D (MRGPRD) to prevent the breakdown of mitochondria due to ROS...
February 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Oluwaseun Aremu Adeyanju, Olaniyi Soetan, Ayodele Soladoye, Lawrence A Aderemi Olatunji
Estrogen deficiency has been associated with increased cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and recent clinical trials of standard formulations of hormonal therapies have not demonstrated consistent beneficial effects. Estrogen-progestin therapy has been used as exogenous estrogen to normalise depressed estrogen level during menopause. Ovariectomized rodents mimic estrogen-deficient state in that they develop cardiometabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance (IR).We therefore hypothesized that hormonal therapy with combined oral contraceptive steroids, ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel (EEL) improves IR, obesity and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) through reduction in circulating mineralocorticoid level in ovariectomized rats...
February 3, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Nan Mu, Mei Dong, Lei Li, Min Xia, Luyun Qv, Yingmei Wang, Changyan Dong, Yonghua Chen, Ying Zuo, Jianqing Hou, Fengxia Xue
Accumulating data indicate that insulin resistance and unopposed estrogen are important risk factors of endometrial cancer (EC). Medroxyprogesterone 17‑acetate (MPA) has been used in the treatment of EC for many years. However, the therapeutic effect of this agent on EC has not been satisfactory. 36 arMetformin was recently reported to be a promising agent for the treatment of malignant diseases including EC. However, information on the synergistic effect of the two agents in EC is limited. With the aim to evaluate the synergistic effect of metformin and MPA, we conducted the present study in vitro and in vivo...
January 26, 2018: Oncology Reports
A Uçar, Melike Tuğrul, Bülent Oğuz Erol, Ensar Yekeler, Banu Aydın, Seher Yıldız, Kemal Nişli, Firdevs Baş, Şükran Poyrazoğlu, Feyza Darendeliler, Nurçin Saka, Aylin Yetim Şahin, Yasin Yılmaz, Rüveyde Bundak
Factors associated with aortic dilation and dissection in patients with Turner syndrome (TS) remain unclear. We assessed magnetic resonance imaging-based aortic diameters at nine predefined anatomic positions and examined associations of increased aortic diameters with B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), A-type NP (ANP), growth hormone treatment, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and estrogen status. Forty-seven patients with TS aged 7.3-21 years and 34 healthy peers were enrolled in this study. Aortic diameters were higher in patients with TS at three positions than in controls (p < 0...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Ferdinand Roelfsema, Rebecca J Yang, Paul Y Takahashi, Dana Erickson, Cyril Y Bowers, Johannes D Veldhuis
Context: Estrogens amplify spontaneous and stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion, whereas they diminish GH-dependent insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I in a dose-dependent manner. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), including tamoxifen and toremifene, are widely adjunctively used in breast and prostate cancer. Although some endocrine effects of tamoxifen are known, few data are available for toremifene. Objective: To explore sex-dependent effects of toremifene on spontaneous 10-hour overnight GH secretion, followed by GH-releasing hormone-ghrelin stimulation...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Zhenqi Zhou, Vicent Ribas, Prashant Rajbhandari, Brian G Drew, Timothy M Moore, Amy H Fluitt, Britany R Reddish, Kate A Whitney, Senta Georgia, Laurent Vergnes, Karen Reue, Marc Liesa, Orian Shirihai, Alexander M van der Bliek, Nai-Wen Chi, Sushil K Mahata, Joseph P Tiano, Sylvia C Hewitt, Peter Tontonoz, Kenneth S Korach, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, Andrea L Hevener
Estrogen receptoralpha (ERalpha) action plays an important role in pancreatic β-cell function and survival; thus, it is considered a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in women. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of ERalpha remain unclear. Because ERalpha regulates mitochondrial metabolism in other cell types, we hypothesized that ERalpha may act to preserve insulin secretion and promote beta-cell survival by regulating mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum (EndoRetic) function...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Douglas Yee
Early preclinical and population data suggested a role for the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) in the regulation of breast cancer growth and survival. To target this pathway, multiple monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors were developed and tested in clinical trials. While some of the early clinical trials suggested a benefit for these drugs, none of the attempts showed improved outcomes when compared to conventional therapy. This failure of the IGF-1R inhibitors was pronounced in breast cancer; multiple trials testing IGF-1R inhibition in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer were conducted, none showed benefit...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Vita Birzniece
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on hepatic actions of androgens in the regulation of protein, lipid and glucose metabolism. The rationale for liver-targeted testosterone use will be provided. RECENT FINDINGS: Liver-targeted testosterone administration, via the oral route, induces protein anabolic effect by reducing the rate of protein oxidation to a similar extent to that of systemic testosterone administration. Recent evidence indicates that testosterone exerts whole-body anabolic effect through inhibition of nitrogen loss via the hepatic urea cycle...
January 25, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Yinghui Zhang, Lynn Wester, Jichao He, Tamar Geiger, Marja Moerkens, Ram Siddappa, Jean A Helmijr, Mieke M Timmermans, Maxime P Look, Caroline H M van Deurzen, John W M Martens, Chantal Pont, Marjo de Graauw, Erik H J Danen, Els M J J Berns, John H N Meerman, Maurice P H M Jansen, Bob van de Water
Antiestrogen resistance in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer is associated with increased expression and activity of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R). Here, a kinome siRNA screen has identified 10 regulators of IGF1R-mediated antiestrogen with clinical significance. These include the tamoxifen resistance suppressors BMPR1B, CDK10, CDK5, EIF2AK1, and MAP2K5, and the tamoxifen resistance inducers CHEK1, PAK2, RPS6KC1, TTK, and TXK. The p21-activated kinase 2, PAK2, is the strongest resistance inducer...
January 22, 2018: Oncogene
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