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Estrogen, insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430983/absence-of-endothelial-er%C3%AE-results-in-arterial-remodeling-and-decreased-stiffness-in-western-diet-fed-male-mice
#1
Camila Manrique-Acevedo, Francisco I Ramirez-Perez, Jaume Padilla, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Annayya R Aroor, Brady J Barron, Dongqing Chen, Dominic Haertling, Cory Declue, James R Sowers, Luis A Martinez-Lemus
The role of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling in the vasculature of females has been described under different experimental conditions and our group recently reported that lack of endothelial ERα in female mice fed a Western diet (WD) results in amelioration of vascular stiffness. Conversely, the role of ERα in the male vasculature in this setting has not been explored. In conditions of over-nutrition and insulin resistance, augmented arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and arterial remodeling contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease...
April 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420820/high-insulin-impaired-ovarian-function-in-early-pregnant-mice-and-the-role-of-autophagy-in-this-process
#2
Yan Su, Juan Wu, Junlin He, Xueqing Liu, Xuemei Chen, Yubin Ding, Chen Zhang, Wenqi Chen, Yingxiong Wang, Rufei Gao
Metabolic disorders, such as PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) and T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus), are associated with menstrual dysfunction, anovulation, infertility, and early pregnancy loss. Ovarian dysfunction is not only related to low pregnancy rates but also to the increased risk of miscarriage. Women with PCOS or T2DM, characterized by hyperinsulinemia, commonly experience ovarian dysfunction. In this study, we first explored whether high insulin levels directly affected ovarian functioning during embryo implantation...
April 18, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410230/insulin-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-mediates-the-progression-of-lymphangioleiomyomatosis
#3
Xiangke Li, Xiaolei Liu, Linda Zhang, Chenggang Li, Erik Zhang, Wang Ma, Qingxia Fan, Jane J Yu
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive pulmonary disease that almost exclusively affects women. LAM cells migrate to the lungs, where they cause cystic destruction of lung parenchyma. Mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 lead to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1, a kinase that regulates growth factor-dependent protein translation, cell growth, and metabolism. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) binds insulin, IGF1 and IGF2 in circulation, thereby modulating cell survival, migration, and invasion in neoplasms...
March 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397183/prepubertal-ultra-low-dose-estrogen-therapy-is-associated-with-healthier-lipid-profile-than-conventional-estrogen-replacement-for-pubertal-induction-in-adolescent-girls-with-turner-syndrome-preliminary-results
#4
Anna Ruszala, Malgorzata Wojcik, Agata Zygmunt-Gorska, Dominika Janus, Joanna Wojtys, Jerzy B Starzyk
PURPOSE: The metabolic effects of prepubertal low-dose estrogen replacement (LE) therapy in Turner syndrome (TS) have not been fully investigated to date. The present study aimed to compare glucose and lipids metabolism in adolescents with TS on LE and conventional estrogen replacement (CE). METHODS: In 14 TS (mean age 13.8), LE (17β-estradiol, 62.5 μg daily) was introduced before age 12 (mean age 10.5), and followed by a pubertal induction regimen after age 12, and in 14 CE was started after age 12 (mean 14, SD 1...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388998/menopause-and-exercise-intolerance
#5
REVIEW
Ann R Lurati
Central adiposity and weight gain are common among postmenopausal women. Because of the metabolic changes that many postmenopausal women experience, there can be a decrease in exercise tolerance related to the loss of potent estrogens. This can lead to the development of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Despite the challenges that exercise intolerance may pose for some postmenopausal women, evidence suggests that regular exercise and caloric restriction are crucial for weight management after menopause...
April 2017: Nursing for Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382153/increased-tet1-expression-in-inflammatory-microenvironment-of-hyperinsulinemia-enhances-the-response-of-endometrial-cancer-to-estrogen-by-epigenetic-modulation-of-gper
#6
Qiao-Ying Lv, Bing-Ying Xie, Bing-Yi Yang, Cheng-Cheng Ning, Wei-Wei Shan, Chao Gu, Xue-Zhen Luo, Xiao-Jun Chen, Zhen-Bo Zhang, You-Ji Feng
Background: Insulin resistance (IR) has been well studied in the initiation and development of endometrial endometrioid carcinoma (EEC). As yet, it has been largely neglected for estrogen sensitivity in local endometrium in hyperinsulinemia-induced systemic microenvironment. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of insulin in regulating estrogen sensitivity and explore the potential mechanisms in insulin-driven inflammatory microenvironment. Methods: We first investigated the effect of insulin on estradiol-driven endometrial cancer cells proliferation in vitro to address the roles of insulin in modulating estrogen sensitivity...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349880/anti-inflammatory-and-antithrombotic-effects-of-nicotine-exposure-in-oral-contraceptive-induced-insulin-resistance-is-glucocorticoid-independent
#7
Lawrence Aderemi Olatunji, Olugbenga Samuel Michael, Oluwaseun Aremu Adeyanju, Emmanuel Damilare Areola, Ayodele Olufemi Soladoye
BACKGROUND: Reports showed that estrogen-progestin oral contraceptive (COC) or tobacco smoking causes increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in premenopausal women. Studies also suggest that nicotine; a major tobacco alkaloid may worsen or improve atherothrombotic CVD. Altered hemorheology, prothrombotic and pro-inflammatory biomarkers, have been implicated in the development of atherothrombotic CVD events. However, the effect of non-smoking nicotine exposure on these biomarkers during COC treatment is not yet established...
December 19, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337254/amp-activated-protein-kinase-and-energy-balance-in-breast-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Hong Zhao, Yelda C Orhan, Xiaoming Zha, Ecem Esencan, Robert T Chatterton, Serdar E Bulun
Cancer growth and metastasis depends on the availability of energy. Energy-sensing systems are critical in maintaining a balance between the energy supply and utilization of energy for tumor growth. A central regulator in this process is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In times of energy deficit, AMPK is allosterically modified by the binding of increased levels of AMP and ADP, making it a target of specific AMPK kinases (AMPKKs). AMPK signaling prompts cells to produce energy at the expense of growth and motility, opposing the actions of insulin and growth factors...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325853/deletion-of-macrophage-mineralocorticoid-receptor-protects-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-through-er%C3%AE-hgf-met-pathway
#9
Yu-Yao Zhang, Chao Li, Gao-Feng Yao, Lin-Juan Du, Yuan Liu, Xiao-Jun Zheng, Shuai Yan, Jian-Yong Sun, Yan Liu, Ming-Zhu Liu, Xiaoran Zhang, Gang Wei, Wenxin Tong, Xiaobei Chen, Yong Wu, Shuyang Sun, Suling Liu, Qiurong Ding, Ying Yu, Huiyong Yin, Sheng-Zhong Duan
Although the importance of macrophages in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been recognized, it remains elusive how macrophages impact hepatocytes. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) has been implied to play important roles in NAFLD and T2DM. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we report that myeloid MR knockout (MRKO) improves glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obese mice. Estrogen signaling is sufficient and necessary for such improvements...
March 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323956/hyperhomocysteinemia-promotes-insulin-resistance-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-pcos-mice-through-modulating-m2-macrophage-polarization-via-estrogen-suppression
#10
Xinyu Qi, Bochun Zhang, Yue Zhao, Rong Li, Hsun-Ming Chang, Yanli Pang, Jie Qiao
It has been shown that serum homocycteine (Hcy) levels are higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the specific role of hyperhomocycteinemia (HHcy) in the development of PCOS has never been reported. Adipose tissue inflammation is featured by the infiltration of macrophages that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of glucose and insulin intolerance. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were treated with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and/or high methionine diet to induce PCOS and HHcy mice models...
March 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323934/menopausal-hormone-therapy-and-type-2-diabetes-prevention-evidence-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#11
Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, JoAnn E Manson, John C Stevenson, Vivian A Fonseca
Type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the US. Large randomized controlled trials suggest that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in women. Still, the mechanisms and clinical implications of these associations are a matter of controversy. This review provides an up-to-date analysis and integration of epidemiological, clinical and basic studies, and proposes a mechanistic explanation for the effect of menopause and MHT on type 2 diabetes development and prevention...
March 8, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323914/menopause-is-a-determinant-of-breast-aromatase-expression-and-its-associations-with-bmi-inflammation-and-systemic-markers
#12
Kristy A Brown, Neil M Iyengar, Xi Kathy Zhou, Ayca Gucalp, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Hanhan Wang, Dilip D Giri, Monica Morrow, Domenick J Falcone, Nils K Wendel, Lisle A Winston, Michael Pollak, Anneloor Dierickx, Clifford A Hudis, Andrew J Dannenberg
CONTEXT: Most estrogen-dependent breast cancers occur after menopause despite low levels of circulating estrogens. Breast expression of the estrogen-biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, is proposed to drive breast cancer development after menopause. However, the effects of menopause on breast aromatase expression are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of menopause on breast aromatase expression in relation to body mass index (BMI), white adipose tissue inflammation (WATi) and systemic markers of metabolic dysfunction...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295469/assessing-new-peptides-that-may-be-involved-in-the-physiological-regulation-of-the-gonadal-axis-in-humans-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone
#13
Peter Y Liu
The hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular (HPT) and hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axes are integrated networks that regulate androgenization or estrogenization (including embryonic, infantile, pubertal and adult sexual maturation), male or female sexual behavior, and spermatogenesis or ovulation, respectively. Dysregulation of the HPT axis, for example, results in pubertal delay, eunuchism, impaired spermatogenesis, and reduced systemic androgen exposure; and may also contribute to some of the features of male aging, impair recovery from protracted critical illness, and induce visceral adiposity, sarcopenia, osteopenia, and insulin resistance...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293912/breast-cancer-subtype-distribution-is-different-in-normal-weight-overweight-and-obese-women
#14
Victoria Gershuni, Yun R Li, Austin D Williams, Alycia So, Laura Steel, Elena Carrigan, Julia Tchou
PURPOSE: Obesity is associated with tumor promoting pathways related to insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation which have been linked to various disease states, including cancer. Many studies have focused on the relationship between obesity and increased estrogen production, which contributes to the pathogenesis of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. The link between obesity and other breast cancer subtypes, such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and Her2/neu+ (Her2+) breast cancer, is less clear...
March 14, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290159/the-unexplored-crossroads-of-the-female-athlete-triad-and-iron-deficiency-a-narrative-review
#15
REVIEW
Dylan L Petkus, Laura E Murray-Kolb, Mary Jane De Souza
Despite the severity and prevalence of iron deficiency in exercising women, few published reports have explored how iron deficiency interacts with another prevalent and severe condition in exercising women: the 'female athlete triad.' This review aims to describe how iron deficiency may interact with each component of the female athlete triad, that is, energy status, reproductive function, and bone health. The effects of iron deficiency on energy status are discussed in regards to thyroid function, metabolic fuel availability, eating behaviors, and energy expenditure...
March 13, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281660/dpp-4-inhibitor-and-estrogen-share-similar-efficacy-against-cardiac-ischemic-reperfusion-injury-in-obese-insulin-resistant-and-estrogen-deprived-female-rats
#16
Sivaporn Sivasinprasasn, Pongpan Tanajak, Wanpitak Pongkan, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Estrogen deprivation aggravates cardiac injury after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Although either estrogen or the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, vildagliptin, reduces myocardial damage following cardiac I/R, their effects on the heart in obese-insulin resistant and estrogen deprived conditions remain unknown. Ovariectomized (O) rats (n = 36) were divided to receive either normal diet (NDO) or high-fat diet (HFO) for 12 weeks, followed by treatment with a vehicle, estrogen or vildagliptin for 4 weeks...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275672/insulin-use-hormone-receptor-status-and-hematopoietic-cytokines-circulation-in-women-with-diabetes-mellitus-and-breast-cancer
#17
Zachary A P Wintrob, Jeffrey P Hammel, George K Nimako, Dan P Gaile, Alan Forrest, Alice C Ceacareanu
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are cytokines of particular interest in oncology from the perspective of neutropenia management (Mehta et al., 2015 [1]) and also as indirect activators of tumor-associated macrophages and modifiers of tumor microenvironment. Associated with poor breast cancer survival and unfavorable hormone receptor status (Wintrob et al., 2017 [2]), insulin may also influence hematopoiesis, thus interfering with colony stimulating factor production...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274349/sex-hormones-and-acne
#18
Qiang Ju, Tao Tao, Tingting Hu, Ayşe Serap Karadağ, Safaa Al-Khuzaei, WenChieh Chen
The skin is an endocrine organ with the expression of metabolizing enzymes and hormone receptors for diverse hormones. The sebaceous gland is the main site of hormone biosynthesis, especially for androgens, and acne is the classical androgen-mediated dermatosis. In sebocytes, conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone directly to dihydrotestosterone bypassing testosterone has been demonstrated, while type II 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase can inactivate the action of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. The androgen receptor-dependent genomic effect of dihydrotestosterone on sebocytes is confirmed...
March 2017: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270386/metabolic-obesity-adipose-inflammation-and-elevated-breast-aromatase-in-women-with-normal-body-mass-index
#19
Neil M Iyengar, Kristy A Brown, Xi Kathy Zhou, Ayca Gucalp, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Dilip D Giri, Heba Zahid, Priya Bhardwaj, Nils K Wendel, Domenick J Falcone, Hanhan Wang, Samantha Williams, Michael Pollak, Monica Morrow, Clifford A Hudis, Andrew J Dannenberg
Obesity is associated with breast white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, elevated levels of the estrogen biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, and systemic changes that have been linked to the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Here, we determined whether metabolic obesity, including changes in breast biology and systemic effects, occurs in a subset of women with normal body mass index (BMI). Breast WAT and fasting blood were collected from 72 women with normal BMI (<25 kg/m(2)) undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer risk reduction or treatment...
April 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265342/integrating-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-sex-hormones-into-neuroprotection-implications-for-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Jacob Huffman, Christina Hoffmann, George T Taylor
Brain integrity and cognitive aptitude are often impaired in patients with diabetes mellitus, presumably a result of the metabolic complications inherent to the disease. However, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated the central role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and its relation to sex hormones in many neuroprotective processes. Both male and female patients with diabetes display abnormal IGF1 and sex-hormone levels but the comparison of these fluctuations is seldom a topic of interest. It is interesting to note that both IGF1 and sex hormones have the ability to regulate phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases-extracellular signal-related kinase signaling cascades in animal and cell culture models of neuroprotection...
February 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
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