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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621254/use-of-microcomputed-tomography-to-measure-the-relaxin-induced-expansion-of-intrapubic-ligaments-in-mice
#1
Heather A Zimmerman, Richard P Kennan, Chunlian Zhang, Kashmira Shah, Douglas G Johns, Joseph J Lynch, Maya Dajee
Relaxin is a 6-kDa peptide in the insulin superfamily of hormones. In addition to its effects on reproductive and musculoskeletal ligaments, relaxin has demonstrated beneficial effects on cardiac, renal, and vascular systems in preclinical models. The mouse intrapubic ligament ex vivo bioassay is the current standard for measuring in vivo relaxin bioactivity. However, this bioassay necessitates euthanasia and dissection of large cohorts to measure the intrapubic ligament at specified time points. We hypothesized that μCT imaging could be used to reduce the number of animals necessary for the intrapubic ligament bioassay by enabling a single animal to be followed longitudinally throughout the study rather than euthanizing different cohorts at established time points...
June 15, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586424/role-of-er%C3%AE-in-mediating-female-uterine-transcriptional-responses-to-igf1
#2
Sylvia C Hewitt, Wipawee Winuthayanon, Sydney L Lierz, Katherine J Hamilton, Lauren J Donoghue, J Tyler Ramsey, Sara A Grimm, Yukitomo Arao, Kenneth S Korach
Estrogen (E2) signaling through its nuclear receptor, estrogen receptor α (ERα) increases insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in the rodent uterus, which then initiates further signals via the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R). Directly administering IGF1 results in similar biological and transcriptional uterine responses. Our studies using global ERα-null mice demonstrated a loss of uterine biological responses of the uterus to E2 or IGF1 treatment, while maintaining transcriptional responses to IGF1. To address this discrepancy in the need for uterine ERα in mediating the IGF1 transcriptional vs...
June 6, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585217/obesity-associated-breast-cancer-analysis-of-risk-factors
#3
Atilla Engin
Several studies show that a significantly stronger association is obvious between increased body mass index (BMI) and higher breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, obese women are at higher risk of all-cause and breast cancer specific mortality when compared to non-obese women with breast cancer. In this context, increased levels of estrogens due to excessive aromatization activity of the adipose tissue, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, hyperactivation of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) pathways, adipocyte-derived adipokines, hypercholesterolemia and excessive oxidative stress contribute to the development of breast cancer in obese women...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575556/-endocrinology-of-cancer-and-age-early-and-late-stages-of-ontogenesis
#4
L M Berstein
Processes important for hormone-mediated carcinogenesis are present on different, even very early, ontogenesis stages. Early shifts in hormone-metabolic status often display opposite correlations with the risk of most common age-associated non-communicable pathologies (namely, hormone-dependent cancers and cardiovascular diseases). Additional known contradiction is the raise of reproductive system tumors incidence in the age associated with lower production of mitogenic hormones. Consequently, one should take into account production of steroids in target tissues themselves, recognize the importance of progenotoxic effect, which, apart from mitogenic function, is characteristic for estrogens and their derivatives, as well as the role of endocrine-genotoxic switchings forming so called basic triad, which is born under the influence of age-associated endocrine shifts and environmental factors...
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559116/uterine-er%C3%AE-epigenetic-modifications-are-induced-by-the-endocrine-disruptor-endosulfan-in-female-rats-with-impaired-fertility
#5
María M Milesi, Jorgelina Varayoud, Jorge G Ramos, Enrique H Luque
High ERα activity may disrupt the window of uterine receptivity, causing defective implantation. We investigated whether implantation failures prompted by endosulfan are associated with aberrant ERα uterine expression and DNA methylation status during the pre-implantation period. ERα-dependent target genes that play a crucial role in the uterine receptivity for embryo attachment and implantation were also investigated. Newborn female rats received corn oil (vehicle, Control), 6 μg/kg/d of endosulfan (Endo6) or 600 μg/kg/d of endosulfan (Endo600) on postnatal days (PND) 1, 3, 5, and 7...
May 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551627/the-cooh-terminus-of-the-igf-1ec-isoform-enhances-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-human-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#6
Panagiotis F Christopoulos, Efstathia Papageorgiou, Constantina Petraki, Michael Koutsilieris
BACKGROUND/AIM: The insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling is well implicated in cancer biology, however the potential roles of the distinct IGF-1 isoforms in human malignancies are largely unknown. Recently, the carboxyl-terminal of the IGF-1Ec variant (hEc; 24aa) has been associated with osteosarcoma and prostate cancer. Herein, we investigated the potential role of hEc in breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Synthetic hEc peptide was administrated to MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533226/igf1r-protein-expression-is-not-associated-with-differential-benefit-to-concurrent-trastuzumab-in-early-stage-her2-breast-cancer-from-the-north-central-cancer-treatment-group-alliance-adjuvant-trastuzumab-trial-n9831
#7
Monica M Reinholz, Beiyun Chen, Amylou C Dueck, Kathleen Tenner, Karla Ballman, Darren Riehle, Robert B Jenkins, Xochiquetzal J Geiger, Ann E McCullough, Edith A Perez
Background: Preclinical evidence indicates that increased insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF1R) signaling interferes with the action of trastuzumab suggesting a possible mechanism of trastuzumab resistance. Thus, we evaluated IGF1R prevalence, relationship with demographic data, and association with disease-free survival (DFS) of patients randomized to chemotherapy alone (Arm A) or chemotherapy with sequential (Arm B) or concurrent trastuzumab (Arm C) in the prospective phase III HER2(+) adjuvant N9831 trial...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521865/exaggerated-glucagon-responses-to-hypoglycemia-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#8
Susan Sam, Priyathama Vellanki, Sudha K Yalamanchi, Richard N Bergman, Andrea Dunaif
CONTEXT: Premenopausal women have blunted counter-regulatory hormone responses (CRR) to hypoglycemia compared to men. Postmenopausal women have CRR similar to men; the premenopausal pattern can be restored by estrogen. However, glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) responses remain lower in postmenopausal women than in men. Since hyperandrogenemia contributes to the metabolic phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), we hypothesize that CRR to hypoglycemia especially of glucagon and PP is exaggerated in premenopausal women with PCOS compared to premenopausal control women...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515690/brain-renin-angiotensin-system-and-microglial-polarization-implications-for-aging-and-neurodegeneration
#9
REVIEW
Jose L Labandeira-Garcia, Ana I Rodríguez-Perez, Pablo Garrido-Gil, Jannette Rodriguez-Pallares, Jose L Lanciego, Maria J Guerra
Microglia can transform into proinflammatory/classically activated (M1) or anti-inflammatory/alternatively activated (M2) phenotypes following environmental signals related to physiological conditions or brain lesions. An adequate transition from the M1 (proinflammatory) to M2 (immunoregulatory) phenotype is necessary to counteract brain damage. Several factors involved in microglial polarization have already been identified. However, the effects of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on microglial polarization are less known...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508601/effects-of-anorexia-nervosa-on-the-endocrine-system
#10
Charumathi Baskaran, Madhusmita Misra, Anne Klibanski
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by severe undernutrition associated with alterations in multiple endocrine axes, which are primarily adaptive to the state of caloric deprivation. Hormonal changes include growth hormone (GH) resistance with low insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels, hypothalamic hypogonadism, relative hypercortisolemia and changes in appetite regulating hormones, including leptin, ghrelin, and peptide YY. These alterations contribute to abnormalities in bone metabolism leading to low bone mass, impaired bone microarchitecture, and increased risk for fracture, and may also negatively impact cognition, emotions and mood...
March 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502695/selective-activation-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-activation-function-1-is-sufficient-to-prevent-obesity-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-in-mouse
#11
Maeva Guillaume, Sandra Handgraaf, Aurélie Fabre, Isabelle Raymond-Letron, Elodie Riant, Alexandra Montagner, Alexia Vinel, Melissa Buscato, Natalia Smirnova, Coralie Fontaine, Hervé Guillou, Jean-François Arnal, Pierre Gourdy
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) regulates gene transcription through two activation functions (ERα-AF1 and ERα-AF2). We recently found that the protection conferred by 17β-estradiol against obesity and insulin resistance requires ERα-AF2 but not ERα-AF1. However, the interplay between the two ERα-AFs is poorly understood in vivo and the metabolic influence of a specific ERα-AF1 action remains to be explored. To this end, wild-type, ERα-deficient, or ERα-AF1-deficient ovariectomized female mice were fed a high-fat diet and concomitantly administered with vehicle or tamoxifen, a selective ER modulator that acts as a ERα-AF1 agonist/ERα-AF2 antagonist...
June 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488912/a-high-level-of-estrogen-stimulated-proteins-selects-breast-cancer-patients-treated-with-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-with-good-prognosis
#12
Katrine L H Weischenfeldt, Tove Kirkegaard, Birgitte B Rasmussen, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Maj-Britt Jensen, Bent Ejlertsen, Anne E Lykkesfeldt
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant endocrine therapy has significantly improved survival of estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer patients, but around 20% relapse within 10 years. High expression of ER-stimulated proteins like progesterone receptor (PR), Bcl-2 and insulin-like growth factor receptor I (IGF-IR) is a marker for estrogen-driven cell growth. Therefore, patients with high tumor levels of these proteins may have particularly good prognosis following adjuvant endocrine therapy...
May 10, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472101/estradiol-mediated-improvements-in-adipose-tissue-insulin-sensitivity-are-related-to-the-balance-of-adipose-tissue-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-in-postmenopausal-women
#13
Young-Min Park, Rocio I Pereira, Christopher B Erickson, Tracy A Swibas, Kimberly A Cox-York, Rachael E Van Pelt
We recently demonstrated that short-term estradiol (E2) treatment improved insulin-mediated suppression of lipolysis in postmenopausal women, but to a greater extent in those who were late compared to early postmenopausal. In this follow-up study we tested whether subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) expression of estrogen receptors (ER) α and β differs between early and late postmenopausal women. We further tested whether the balance of ERα to ERβ in SAT determined the effect of E2 on SAT insulin sensitivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447735/mice-endometrium-receptivity-in-early-pregnancy-is-impaired-by-maternal-hyperinsulinemia
#14
Runqin Li, Juan Wu, Junlin He, Yingxiong Wang, Xueqing Liu, Xuemei Chen, Chao Tong, Yubin Ding, Yan Su, Wenqi Chen, Chen Zhang, Rufei Gao
Previous studies have investigated the lower embryo implantation rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity and type 2 diabetes, and specifically the association between the abnormal oocyte and embryo and hyperinsulinemia. The importance of hyperinsulinemia on maternal endometrium receptivity remains to be elucidated. The present study used a hyperinsulinemic mouse model to determine whether hyperinsulinemia may affect endometrial receptivity. An insulin intervention mouse model was first established...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443261/diabetes-mellitus-caused-by-secondary-hemochromatosis-after-multiple-blood-transfusions-in-2-patients-with-severe-aplastic-anemia
#15
Hyun Jin Kim, Yoon-Myung Kim, Eungu Kang, Beom Hee Lee, Jin-Ho Choi, Han-Wook Yoo
Hemochromatosis is an inherited or secondary disorder caused by excessive iron storage leading to multiple organ damage. We describe 2 patients with diabetes mellitus caused by hemochromatosis secondary to multiple blood transfusions due to severe aplastic anemia. Subject 1, who was diagnosed with severe aplastic anemia at 15 years of age, received multiple red blood cell transfusions before he underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) at 22 years of age. At 21 years of age, hyperglycemia was detected with increased hemoglobin A1c and serum ferritin levels, 9...
March 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442777/serotonin-transporter-deficiency-drives-estrogen-dependent-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance
#16
Weibin Zha, Horace T B Ho, Tao Hu, Mary F Hebert, Joanne Wang
Depression and use of antidepressant medications are both associated with increased risk of obesity, potentially attributed to a reduced serotonin transporter (SERT) function. However, how SERT deficiency promotes obesity is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that SERT (-/-) mice display abnormal fat accumulation in both white and brown adipose tissues, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance while exhibiting suppressed aromatase (Cyp19a1) expression and reduced circulating 17β-estradiol levels. 17β-estradiol replacement in SERT (-/-) mice reversed the obesity and glucose intolerance, supporting a role for estrogen in SERT deficiency-associated obesity and glucose intolerance...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433506/heifers-express-g-protein-coupled-receptor-61-in-anterior-pituitary-gonadotrophs-in-stage-dependent-manner
#17
Kiran Pandey, Onalenna Kereilwe, Vitaliano Borromeo, Hiroya Kadokawa
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRHRs) colocalize with insulin and glucocorticoid receptors in lipid rafts of the gonadotroph plasma membrane, where they facilitate downstream signaling. We recently found that orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)61 is expressed in the anterior pituitary (AP) of heifers, leading us to speculate that GPR61 colocalizes with GnRHR in the plasma membrane of gonadotroph and is expressed at specific times of the reproductive cycle. To test this hypothesis, we examined the coexpression of GnRHR, GPR61, and either luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit in AP tissue and cultured AP cells by immunofluorescence microscopy...
April 4, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430983/absence-of-endothelial-er%C3%AE-results-in-arterial-remodeling-and-decreased-stiffness-in-western-diet-fed-male-mice
#18
Camila Manrique-Acevedo, Francisco I Ramirez-Perez, Jaume Padilla, Victoria J Vieira-Potter, Annayya R Aroor, Brady J Barron, Dongqing Chen, Dominic Haertling, Cory Declue, James R Sowers, Luis A Martinez-Lemus
The role of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) signaling in the vasculature of females has been described under different experimental conditions and our group recently reported that lack of endothelial cell (EC) ERα in female mice fed a Western diet (WD) results in amelioration of vascular stiffness. Conversely, the role of ERα in the male vasculature in this setting has not been explored. In conditions of overnutrition and insulin resistance, augmented arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction, and arterial remodeling contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease...
June 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420820/high-insulin-impaired-ovarian-function-in-early-pregnant-mice-and-the-role-of-autophagy-in-this-process
#19
Yan Su, Juan Wu, Junlin He, Xueqing Liu, Xuemei Chen, Yubin Ding, Chen Zhang, Wenqi Chen, Yingxiong Wang, Rufei Gao
Metabolic disorders, such as PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) and T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus), are associated with menstrual dysfunction, anovulation, infertility, and early pregnancy loss. Ovarian dysfunction is not only related to low pregnancy rates but also to the increased risk of miscarriage. Women with PCOS or T2DM, characterized by hyperinsulinemia, commonly experience ovarian dysfunction. In this study, we first explored whether high insulin levels directly affected ovarian functioning during embryo implantation...
April 18, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410230/insulin-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-mediates-the-progression-of-lymphangioleiomyomatosis
#20
Xiangke Li, Xiaolei Liu, Linda Zhang, Chenggang Li, Erik Zhang, Wang Ma, Qingxia Fan, Jane J Yu
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive pulmonary disease that almost exclusively affects women. LAM cells migrate to the lungs, where they cause cystic destruction of lung parenchyma. Mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 lead to the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1, a kinase that regulates growth factor-dependent protein translation, cell growth, and metabolism. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) binds insulin, IGF1 and IGF2 in circulation, thereby modulating cell survival, migration, and invasion in neoplasms...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
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