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Cancer AND Immune System

Gee Su Yang, Sreelakshmy Kumar, Susan G Dorsey, Angela R Starkweather, Debra Lynch Kelly, Debra E Lyon
PURPOSE: Psychoneurological (PN) symptoms, such as anxiety, cognitive impairment, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbances, and pain, are highly prevalent in breast cancer patients undergoing cancer treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that genetic polymorphisms may contribute to differential symptom susceptibility. We aimed to systematically review associations between genetic polymorphisms and PN symptoms during or after cancer treatment for early-stage breast cancer. METHODS: Twenty-six eligible articles published until October 2017 were identified in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and additional records...
October 20, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Laetitia Nebot-Bral, Clelia Coutzac, Patricia L Kannouche, Nathalie Chaput
In the last few years, immunotherapy has revolutionized the oncology landscape by targeting the host immune system. Blocking immune checkpoints such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1 or B7-H1), has proven its efficacy in several solid cancers. Recently, several clinical studies have demonstrated a significant improvement in clinical response to the anti-PD-1-based immunotherapy in a subset of patients with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H)/mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient tumors that accumulate short insertion/deletion mutations notably in coding microsatellites regions of the genome...
October 17, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Wen-Hui Wang, Hong-Yan Xu, Zhong-Min Zhao, Guang-Mei Zhang, Feng-Wu Lin
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer and its surgical treatment and chemotherapy have great impact on the immune system. This study aimed to monitor the various T cells in breast cancer patients and evaluate the immune functions. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 249 breast cancer patients at the following time points: 1-3 days preoperative, postoperative (before the chemotherapy), after 3 chemotherapy cycles, and after 6 chemotherapy cycles. The percentages of the CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ , CD45RA+ , and CD45RO+ T cells were measured using flow cytometry...
October 17, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Inbal Zafir-Lavie, Shay Sherbo, Haim Goltsman, Felix Badinter, Eilam Yieni, Paula Ofek, Reem Miari, Osnat Tal, Atar Liran, Tamar Shatil, Simi Krispel, Nir Shapir, Garry A Neil, Itai Benhar, Amos Panet, Ronit Satchi Fainaro
BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody which demonstrates efficacy for HER2 positive breast cancer patients. Recently, an increased incidence of brain metastasis in trastuzumab-treated patients has been reported. The reason for this may be the effectiveness of systemic trastuzumab allowing patients to survive longer thus providing time for brain metastases to develop, along with the lack of penetration of systemic therapies through the blood brain barrier. In recent years, several administration routes to the brain have been evaluated...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Zi-Quan Zhou, Shuo Pang, Xing-Chen Yu, Qi Xue, Hong-Yu Jiang, Xin-Jun Liang, Li Liu
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic potential of postoperative scores of inflammation indexes and the dynamic changes of scores before and after tumor resection in colorectal cancer patients. The study included 516 colorectal cancer patients with primary colorectal tumor resection. Cox regression was applied to estimate the associations of postoperative and dynamic changes of inflammation indexes with progression-free survival and overall survival. As results, we found that higher postoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), neutrophil and monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (NMLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and systemic immune inflammation index (SII) were associated with shorter progression-free survival...
October 2018: Current medical science
Michelle N Messmer, Annelise G Snyder, Andrew Oberst
Our conception of programmed cell death has expanded beyond apoptosis to encompass additional forms of cell suicide, including necroptosis and pyroptosis; these cell death modalities are notable for their diverse and emerging roles in engaging the immune system. Concurrently, treatments that activate the immune system to combat cancer have achieved remarkable success in the clinic. These two scientific narratives converge to provide new perspectives on the role of programmed cell death in cancer therapy. This review focuses on our current understanding of the relationship between apoptosis and antitumor immune responses and the emerging evidence that induction of alternate death pathways such as necroptosis could improve therapeutic outcomes...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Bradlee L Heckmann, Bart Tummers, Douglas R Green
Programmed cell death (PCD) plays critical roles in development, homeostasis, and both control and progression of a plethora of diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative pathologies. Besides classical apoptosis, several different forms of PCD have now been recognized, including necroptosis. The way a cell dies determines the reaction of the surrounding environment, and immune activation in response to cell death proceeds in a manner dependent on which death pathways are activated. Apoptosis and necroptosis are major mechanisms of cell death that typically result in opposing immune responses...
October 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Sanaz Javadi, Christine O Menias, Niloofar Karbasian, Akram Shaaban, Komal Shah, Adam Osman, Corey T Jensen, Meghan G Lubner, Ayman H Gaballah, Khaled M Elsayes
The risk of developing malignancy is higher in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection than in non-HIV-infected patients. Several factors including immunosuppression, viral coinfection, and high-risk lifestyle choices lead to higher rates of cancer in the HIV-infected population. A subset of HIV-related malignancies are considered to be acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies, as their presence confirms the diagnosis of AIDS in an HIV-infected patient. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a significant drop in the rate of AIDS-defining malignancies, including Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and invasive cervical carcinoma...
October 19, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Jing Chen, Yue Tang, Yun Liu, Yushun Dou
Nucleic acid-based therapeutics present huge potential in the treatment of pulmonary diseases ranging from lung cancer to asthma and chronic pulmonary diseases, which are often fatal and widely prevalent. The susceptibility of nucleic acids to degradation and the complex structure of lungs retard the effective pulmonary delivery of nucleic acid drug. To overcome these barriers, different strategies have been exploited to increase the delivery efficiency using chemically synthesized nucleic acids, vector encapsulation, proper formulation, and administration route...
October 18, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Kevin Chang, Anita Lwanga, Tanjeev Kaur, Cathy Helgason
Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes are a group of immune-mediated, cancer-associated disorders affecting the nervous system. While these syndromes are not understood fully, they are reportedly caused by an immune response against common antigens expressed by the cancer and nervous system. We describe the course of a patient who suffered paraneoplastic chorea before being diagnosed with breast cancer. A 70-year-old female presented with complaints of "shaking" movements of her head. History, physical exam findings, and preliminary workup ruled out the hereditary, metabolic, and infectious causes of chorea while brain computed tomography (CT) ruled out chorea due to a basal ganglia lesion...
August 4, 2018: Curēus
Eizo Watanabe, Lukose K Thampy, Richard S Hotchkiss
Recent efforts have focused on immunoadjuvant therapies for sepsis. The host inflammatory response consequent to initial exposure to pathogens is often followed by anti-inflammatory forces, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality in such critically ill patients. In the subacute stage of sepsis, apoptosis (type I programmed cell death) and subsequently autophagy (type II programmed cell death) have been attracting recent research interest. Although many patients may die during the initial cytokine storm, those who survive this phase might acquire defining characteristics of profound immunosuppression, including failure to clear the primary infection, development of secondary opportunistic infections, and reactivation of latent viruses...
October 2018: Acute Medicine & Surgery
Elena De Mattia, Eva Dreussi, Marcella Montico, Sara Gagno, Chiara Zanusso, Luca Quartuccio, Salvatore De Vita, Michela Guardascione, Angela Buonadonna, Mario D'Andrea, Nicoletta Pella, Adolfo Favaretto, Enrico Mini, Stefania Nobili, Loredana Romanato, Erika Cecchin, Giuseppe Toffoli
There are clinical challenges related to adjuvant treatment in colorectal cancer (CRC) and novel molecular markers are needed for better risk stratification of patients. Our aim was to integrate our previously reported clinical-genetic prognostic score with new immunogenetic markers of 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) to evaluate the recurrence risk stratification before fluoropyrimidine (FL)-based adjuvant therapy. The study population included a total of 270 stage II-III CRC patients treated with adjuvant FL with (FL + OXA, n = 119) or without oxaliplatin (FL, n = 151)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
L F Ni, H Wang, H Li, Z G Zhang, X M Liu
OBJECTIVE: To improve the understanding of the clinical features of pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-human immunodeficiency virus (non-HIV) infection patients and reduce delay in diagnosis, or misdiagnosis. METHODS: The clinical features, imaging characteristics, laboratory examinations, treatment and prognosis of 34 cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis were retrospectively analyzed. The data were collected from Peking University First Hospital from June 1997 to June 2016...
October 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Dayson Moreira, Tomasz Adamus, Xingli Zhao, Yu-Lin Su, Zhuoran Zhang, Seok Voon White, Piotr Swiderski, Xin Lu, Ronald A DePinho, Sumanta K Pal, Marcin Kortylewski
Purpose: Prostate cancers show remarkable resistance to emerging immunotherapies, partly due to tolerogenic STAT3 signaling in tumor-associated myeloid cells. Here, we describe a novel strategy combining STAT3 inhibition with Toll-like Receptor 9 (TLR9) stimulation to unleash immune response against prostate cancers regardless of the genetic background. Experimental Design: We developed and validated a conjugate of the STAT3 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) tethered to immunostimulatory TLR9 agonist (CpG oligonucleotide) to improve targeting of human and mouse prostate cancer and myeloid immune cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC)...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Miles Congreve, Giles A Brown, Alexandra Borodovsky, Michelle L Lamb
Adenosine A2A Receptor (A2A R) antagonists are an emerging class of agents that treat cancers, both as a monotherapy and in combination with other therapeutic agents. Several studies support the accumulation of extracellular adenosine in the tumor microenvironment as a critical mechanism in immune evasion implicating A2A R antagonists for use in immuno-oncology. Areas covered: In this perspective article, the authors briefly outline the history of the A2A R antagonist field for central nervous system indications and give their perspective on the status of agents progressing today in oncology...
October 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Yoshinaga Okugawa, Yuji Toiyama, Akira Yamamoto, Tsunehiko Shigemori, Ayame Kitamura, Takashi Ichikawa, Shozo Ide, Takahito Kitajima, Hiroyuki Fujikawa, Hiromi Yasuda, Yoshiki Okita, Junichiro Hiro, Toshimitsu Araki, Donald C McMillan, Chikao Miki, Masato Kusunoki
BACKGROUND: The systemic inflammatory response (SIR) via host-tumor interactions has been termed the seventh hallmark of cancer, and several studies demonstrated that SIR might be a pivotal mediator for progression of cancer cachexia. The objective of this study was to clarify the correlation between sarcopenia and SIR in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: A total of 308 patients with CRC were enrolled in this study. Preoperative psoas muscle mass index and intramuscular adipose tissue content were evaluated using preoperative computed tomographic images, and the correlation between body composition status and several SIR markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), serum albumin level, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-lymphocyte ratio, and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) was assessed using statistical methods...
October 18, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Moshe C Ornstein, Jorge A Garcia
Background: Checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) have now been established as standard agents in the management of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Given the unique toxicity profiles of CPIs, a detailed understanding of their incidence rate and characteristics is critical. Objective: To perform a systematic review for the analysis of the incidence rate and characteristics of toxicities in mRCC patients treated with CPIs in published clinical trials. Methods: A systematic search of EMBASE (Ovid) and MEDLINE (Ovid) was conducted as per PRISMA guidelines to identify prospective clinical trials of checkpoint inhibitors in mRCC...
November 27, 2017: Kidney cancer
Moss Bruton Joe, Pauline T Truong
The abscopal effect is a rare phenomenon in the treatment of metastatic cancer where tumor regression occurs distant from the irradiated volume. It is thought that local radiation induces immunogenic cell death by systemically enhancing the host's antitumor immune system. We present a rare case of the abscopal effect in esophageal adenocarcinoma. After palliative radiation therapy to the primary tumor and adjacent lymph nodes, a complete response was observed not only in the irradiated tissues, but also in non-irradiated metastatic lymph nodes...
August 2, 2018: Curēus
Lu Zhong, Fei Xu, Fangyuan Chen
Lymphoma is a type of cancer that develops from certain immune system cells. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has attracted wide attention owing to its antitumor activities. However, the role of ATO in tumorigenesis and progression remains to be investigated. In the present study, the antitumor function of ATO was investigated in in lymphoma Raji and Jurkat cell lines and the effect of ATO on nuclear factor (NF)-κB expression levels. A Cell Counting kit-8 assay was used to assess cellular proliferation and the degree of cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometric analysis; these assays demonstrated that ATO inhibited proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of Raji and Jurkat cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
November 2018: Oncology Letters
Taro Shimizu, Amr S Abu Lila, Yoshino Kawaguchi, Yuna Shimazaki, Yuki Watanabe, Yu Mima, Yosuke Hashimoto, Keiichiro Okuhira, Gert Storm, Yu Ishima, Tatsuhiro Ishida
Treating cancer with vaccines has been a challenge. In this study, we introduce a novel Ag delivery platform for cancer vaccines that delivers an encapsulated Ag to splenic marginal zone B (MZ-B) cells via the aid of a PEGylated liposome (PL) system. Splenic MZ-B cells have recently attracted interest as alternative APCs. In mice, preimmunization with empty (no Ag encapsulation) PLs triggered the efficient delivery of a subsequent dose of Ag-containing PLs, injected 3 d later, to the spleen compared with a single dose of Ag-containing PLs...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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