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Nutrition AND Immunology

Maria G Grammatikopoulou, Xenophon Theodoridis, Konstantinos Gkiouras, Eleni-Maria Stamouli, Myrsini-Eleni Mavrantoni, Theodore Dardavessis, Dimitrios P Bogdanos
BACKGROUND: Severe burns are associated with a plethora of profound metabolic, immunologic, and physiologic responses, demanding prompt and adequate management. The objective of the present study was to review, compare, and critically appraise medical nutrition therapy guidelines for adult patients with severe burns, and produce salient points for the future update of relevant guidelines. METHODS: A total of 8 clinical practice guidelines developed by the American Burn Association (ABA), the European Burn Association (EBA), the European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN), the Midlands National Health Service, the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM)/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN), the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Coronary Units and Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, the Indian Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (IAPEN), and the International Society for Burn Injury regarding medical nutrition therapy in burn patients was independently reviewed by a team of 4 multidisciplinary researchers using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument...
October 15, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Vicki Thomson, Andrew Wiewel, Aldo Chinen, Ibnu Maryanto, M H Sinaga, Ric How, Ken Aplin, Hitoshi Suzuki
The murid rodent genus Rattus Fischer 1803 contains several species that are responsible for massive loss of crops and food, extinction of other species and the spread of zoonotic diseases to humans, as well as a laboratory species used to answer important questions in physiology, immunology, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, behaviour and learning. Despite the well-known significant impacts of Rattus, a definitive evolutionary based systematic framework for the genus is not yet available. The past 75 years have seen more dramatic changes in membership of Rattus than in almost any other genus of mammals...
August 15, 2018: Zootaxa
Kazuo Okadome, Yoshifumi Baba, Taisuke Yagi, Yuki Kiyozumi, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Yuji Miyamoto, Naoya Yoshida, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prognostic nutritional index (PNI) affects clinical outcome through local immunity in esophageal cancers. BACKGROUND: PNI is an indicator of nutritional status and systemic immune competence, and has attracted attention as a prognostic biomarker. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are a specific histological feature of human cancers, reflecting an individual's immunological tumor response. METHODS: Using a nonbiased database of 337 curatively resected esophageal cancers, we evaluated the relationship between PNI, TILs status, CD8 expression by immunohistochemical staining, and clinical outcome...
October 10, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Jacqueline Elizabeth Van Wijlen
AIM: This discursive paper aims to bring to the foreground the ongoing influence of Cartesian dualism and other important contextual complexities on breastfeeding in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is widely supported as the optimal form of nutrition for the first six months of life and beyond. Amidst a myriad of contextual factors, current breastfeeding rates are below globally targeted goals. For premature and/or critically ill infants, the importance of receiving breast milk is often encouraged based on its immunological and nutritive benefits as opposed to the entirety of the breastfeeding interaction, underscoring the influence of dualism in the NICU...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Camilla Virili, Poupak Fallahi, Alessandro Antonelli, Salvatore Benvenga, Marco Centanni
About two third of the human microbial commensal community, namely the gut microbiota, is hosted by the gastrointestinal tract which represents the largest interface of the organism to the external environment. This microbial community co-evolved in a symbiotic relationship with the human beings. Growing evidence support the notion that the microbiota plays a significant role in maintaining nutritional, metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the host. Microbiota, beside the expected role in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis also exerts metabolic functions in nutrients digestion and absorption, detoxification and vitamins' synthesis...
October 8, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Maria Carmen Collado, Maija Kristiina Katila, Nina Maria Vuorela, Outi Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Seppo Salminen, Erika Isolauri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early microbial colonization has a key impact on infant health through nutritional, immunological, and metabolic programming. The origin of child snoring is multifactorial and complex, and may thereby also generate long-term health problems. The link between child snoring and gut microbes remains unclear, although indirect evidence exists regarding this relationship. This study aimed to characterize the connection between gut microbiota and child snoring. METHODS: In a prospective, observational CHILD-SLEEP birth cohort study, gut microbiota in a subcohort of 43 of these children at 2 years of life was profiled with 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Maxime Fournet, Frédéric Bonté, Alexis Desmoulière
Glycation is both a physiological and pathological process which mainly affects proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Exogenous and endogenous glycation produces deleterious reactions that take place principally in the extracellular matrix environment or within the cell cytosol and organelles. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation begins by the non-enzymatic glycation of free amino groups by sugars and aldehydes which leads to a succession of rearrangements of intermediate compounds and ultimately to irreversibly bound products known as AGEs...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
Malgorzata Teodorowicz, Wouter H Hendriks, Harry J Wichers, Huub F J Savelkoul
The immune system provides host protection to infection with pathogenic organisms, while at the same time providing tolerance upon exposure to harmless antigens. Thus, an impaired immune function is associated with increased susceptibility to infections with increased disease severity and thereby necessitating the therapeutic use of antibiotics. Livestock performance and feed efficiency, in addition to their health status, are dependent on the microbial load of their gut, the barrier function of the intestinal epithelium and the activity of the mucosal immune system, all of which can be modulated by dietary components...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Guosheng Wu, Qingchuan Zhao, Mian Wang, Jiangpeng Wei, Hao Sun, Jianyong Zheng, Daiming Fan
Background: The availability of an identical twin donor that allows avoidance of complications related to graft rejection and immunosuppression represents an ideal treatment option for irreversible intestinal failure. Methods and Results: We described a 45-year-old woman who lost most of her small bowel due to acute superior mesenteric thrombosis received a living-related small bowel transplant from her identical-twin sister. Monozygosity was established by buccal smear DNA amplification using short tandem repeat...
August 2018: Transplantation Direct
Luis A Rubio
The strong selection in search for a higher growth rate in broilers has resulted in adverse effects such as metabolic disorders, low responsiveness of the immune system, and decreased resistance to pathogens. On the other hand, newly hatched chicks rely mostly on innate immune responses until their gut gets colonized with microbiota. In consequence, early access to active substances or bacteria (pre- and post-hatch) is particularly relevant here because in broilers much of the immune system development occurs early in life...
September 22, 2018: Poultry Science
Yusuke Kumamoto, Takashi Kaizu, Hiroshi Tajima, Nobuyuki Nishizawa, Shigenori Ei, Kazuharu Igarashi, Masahiko Watanabe
Systemic inflammatory-, immunological- and nutritional-based indices, such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), are drawing considerable research attention to predict the long-term prognosis of many types of cancer. Recently, these parameters have also been reported to be useful in predicting postoperative morbidity in several fields, including colorectal and otolaryngological cancer. However, while distal cholangiocarcinoma exhibits a high morbidity rate, its risk factors of morbidity have not yet been established...
October 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Toshiya Abe, Kohei Nakata, Shin Kibe, Yasuhisa Mori, Yoshihiro Miyasaka, Kenoki Ohuchida, Takao Ohtsuka, Yoshinao Oda, Masafumi Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Preoperative nutritional and immunological patient factors have been found to be associated with prognostic outcomes of malignant tumors; however, the clinical significance of these factors in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of nutritional and immunological factors in predicting survival of patients with PDAC. METHODS: Retrospective studies of 329 patients who underwent surgical resection for PDAC and 95 patients who underwent palliative surgery were separately conducted to investigate the prognostic impact of tumor-related factors and patient-related factors, including Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), modified GPS, Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet/lymphocyte ratio, and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio...
September 17, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Leo Pruimboom, Frits A J Muskiet
Chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) are the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. They ensue from the sum of modern anthropogenic risk factors, including high calorie nutrition, malnutrition, sedentary lifestyle, social stress, environmental toxins, politics and economic factors. Many of these factors are beyond the span of control of individuals, suggesting that CNCD are inevitable. However, various studies, ours included, show that the use of intermittent challenges with hormetic effects improve subjective and objective wellbeing of individuals with CNCD, while having favourable effects on immunological, metabolic and behavioural indices...
November 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Alessandra Bortoluzzi, Federica Furini, Carlo A Scirè
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent chronic rheumatic diseases worldwide, with a strong impact on individual and population health. OA is a clinically heterogeneous disease presenting with different clinical phenotypes recognising systemic and local risk factors. The pathogenesis is multifactorial including constitutive features of the joint, non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. Epidemiological studies highlight the link between metabolic syndrome and OA and the effect of interplay between immunological and metabolic processes is getting increasing emphasis because of to the discovery that metabolic syndrome is implicated in OA pathogenesis and progression...
September 11, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Luana de Fátima Alves, Cauã Antunes Westmann, Gabriel Lencioni Lovate, Guilherme Marcelino Viana de Siqueira, Tiago Cabral Borelli, María-Eugenia Guazzaroni
Over the past thirty years, since the dawn of metagenomic studies, a completely new (micro) universe was revealed, with the potential to have profound impacts on many aspects of the society. Remarkably, the study of human microbiome provided a new perspective on a myriad of human traits previously regarded as solely (epi-) genetically encoded, such as disease susceptibility, immunological response, and social and nutritional behaviors. In this context, metagenomics has established a powerful framework for understanding the intricate connections between human societies and microbial communities, ultimately allowing for the optimization of both human health and productivity...
2018: International Journal of Genomics
Gaby Andersen, Patrick Marcinek, Nicole Sulzinger, Peter Schieberle, Dietmar Krautwurst
Tyramine is a biogenic trace amine that is generated via the decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine. At pico- to nanomolar concentrations, it can influence a multitude of physiological mechanisms, exhibiting neuromodulatory properties as well as cardiovascular and immunological effects. In humans, the diet is the primary source of physiologically relevant tyramine concentrations, which are influenced by a large number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Among these factors are the availability of tyrosine in food, the presence of tyramine-producing bacteria, the environmental pH, and the salt content of food...
August 27, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
I J Skypala, N W de Jong, E Angier, J Gardner, I Kull, D Ryan, C Venter, B J Vlieg-Boerstra, K Grimshaw
The multi-disciplinary team approach is an effective model for patient care. Allied health professionals (AHPs) are an important part of such teams, bringing specific knowledge and skills related to the target patient population. The AHPs most often involved in allergy care are nurses and dietitians. Nurses are often involved in the care of patients with all types of allergy and also with asthma, whilst allergy-specialist dietitians provide vital nutritional and dietary support for the diagnosis and management of food allergy...
2018: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Hyejeong Hong, Chakra Budhathoki, Jason E Farley
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Malnutrition is common in Sub-Saharan Africa, weakening the immune function of persons living with HIV infection (PLWH). Being malnourished at the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) leads to higher risk of early mortality and reduced quality of life. Thus, introduction of protein-energy-fortified macronutrient supplements at ART initiation may improve HIV treatment outcomes. This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of macronutrient interventions. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis included 15 studies conducted from 2000 to 2015 among Sub-Saharan African adults...
October 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Caterina Pipino, Domitilla Mandatori, Flavia Buccella, Paola Lanuti, Alessandra Preziuso, Federica Castellani, Lisa Grotta, Pamela Di Tomo, Sonia Marchetti, Natalia Di Pietro, Angelo Cichelli, Assunta Pandolfi, Giuseppe Martino
Milk is a complex fluid required for the development, nutrition and immunological protection to the newborn offspring. Interestingly, latest finding proved the presence of novel stem cell population in human milk with multi-lineage differentiation potential. Given that little is known about cellular milk content in other mammalian species such as bovine, the purpose of our study was to isolate and characterize a potential stem cell-like population in bovine milk. In detail, we first analyzed the phenotype of the isolated cells able to grow in plastic-adherence and, then their capability to differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages...
August 24, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
Giselle Ferreira Ribeiro, Caroline Gonçalves de Góes, Diego Santos Onorio, Cláudia Barbosa Ladeira de Campos, Flavia Villaça Morais
Paracoccidioides spp. is a thermally dimorphic fungus endemic to Latin America and the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a granulomatous disease acquired through fungal propagule inhalation by its mammalian host. The infection is established after successful mycelia to yeast transition in the host pulmonary alveoli. The challenging environment inside the host exposes the fungus to the need of adaptation in order to circumvent nutritional, thermal, oxidative, immunological and other stresses that can directly affect their survival...
2018: PloS One
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