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Nutrition AND Immunology

Yi-Hsien Chen, Wei-Ming Wang, Tung-Wei Kao, Chien-Ping Chiang, Chih-Tsung Hung, Wei-Liang Chen
BACKGROUND: In recent years, researchers have illuminated many non-skeletal actions of vitamin D including host defense against various pathogens and vaccine immunology. The purpose of our study was to explore the potential association between serum vitamin D levels and measles antibody titers. METHODS: The biochemical profiles and de-identified information were accessed from the 2001 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were divided into quartiles according to their measles antibody titers...
2018: PloS One
César Agostinis-Sobrinho, Sonia Gómez-Martínez, Esther Nova, Aurora Hernandez, Idoia Labayen, Antonios Kafatos, Frederic Gottand, Dénes Molnár, Marika Ferrari, Luis A Moreno, Nathalie Michels, Azahara Ruperez, Jonatan R Ruiz, Ascensión Marcos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of lifestyle patterns related to physical activity (PA), sedentariness and sleep with endocrine, metabolic and immunological health biomarkers in European adolescents. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study comprised 3528 adolescents (1845 girls) (12.5 -17.5 years) enrolled in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Study. Cluster analysis was performed by including body composition, PA by accelerometry, self-reported sedentary behaviors and sleep duration...
November 24, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Eugenio Del Prete, Angelo Facchiano, Pietro Liò
Coeliac disease (CD) is a complex, multifactorial pathology caused by different factors, such as nutrition, immunological response and genetic factors. Many autoimmune diseases are comorbidities for CD, and a comprehensive and integrated analysis with bioinformatics approaches can help in evaluating the interconnections among all the selected pathologies. We first performed a detailed survey of gene expression data available in public repositories on CD and less commonly considered comorbidities. Then we developed an innovative pipeline that integrates gene expression, cell-type data and online resources (e...
November 16, 2018: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Jorge Moreno-Fernandez, Belén Sánchez-Martínez, Laura Serrano-López, Estefanía Martín-Álvarez, Javier Diaz-Castro, Manuela Peña-Caballero, Francisca Martín-Peregrina, Mercedes Alonso-Moya, José Maldonado-Lozano, Julio J Ochoa, Jose A Hurtado-Suazo
BACKGROUND: The immune system of preterm infants is immature, being a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the preterm infant. Oropharyngeal colostrum administration could be an immunomodulatory aid. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of oropharyngeal colostrum on the serum levels of immunoglobulins, lactoferrin and resistin during the first month of life and to track the clinical outcome of the neonates. METHODS: 100 preterm neonates born at < 32 weeks of gestation and/or weighing less than 1,500g and assisted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit were enrolled and divided into two groups: colostrum (n=48) and control (n=52)...
November 16, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Ahmad Javanmard, Sara Ashtari, Babak Sabet, Seyed Hossein Davoodi, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Azadeh Niaz, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian
Cancers of the gastrointestinal (GI) track are a serious global health problem. The human GI tract is home to trillions of microorganisms that known as gut microbiota and have established a symbiotic relationship with the host. The human intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of the gut immune system, metabolism, nutrition absorption, production of short-chain fatty acids and essential vitamins, resistance to pathogenic microorganisms, and modulates a normal immunological response...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Janet Warren
Complementary feeding is an important developmental milestone in children and occurs at a formative time for the development of healthy eating habits that can continue into later childhood and beyond. The timing of weaning has been a controversial subject and recommendations in the UK differ from those in Europe. In the UK and New Zealand, baby-led weaning is becoming increasingly popular. The importance of responsive feeding is highlighted to make parents aware of a baby's cues indicating hunger or fullness...
November 2, 2018: Nursing Children and Young People
Qian Shen, Wu Liu, Hu Quan, Shuguang Pan, Shuang Li, Tiejun Zhou, Yongzhong Ouyang, Hua Xiao
The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prognostic significance of pre-treatment immunological and nutritional statuses in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer (GC), and to use the risk factors to develop a predictive score. A total of 731 patients who underwent gastrectomy for stage II/III GC from November 2010 to December 2015 were recruited into this retrospective study. On the basis of univariate and further multivariate Cox regression analyses, decreased pretreatment lymphocyte count (<1·5×109/litre) and prealbumin concentrations (<180 mg/l) were identified to be independently associated with poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS)...
December 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Florence Lacaille
In the last 20 years, intestinal transplantation (ITx) has become an important part of the treatment of intestinal failure. However, patients treated with home parenteral nutrition in specialized centers have far better longterm survival outcomes than those treated with ITx. The intestine remains one of the most difficult organs to transplant, with poor longterm graft survival, mostly due to its immunological properties: The innate and adaptative immune systems exchange continuously with the bowel content (food or microbiota) in the middle of 80% of our body's immune-reactive cells...
October 28, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Calixte Ida Penda, Else Carole Eboumbou Moukoko, Nicolas Policarpe Nolla, Nadia Olivia Abomo Evindi, Paul Koki Ndombo
Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among HIV infected children under five years of age followed up at the Laquintinie Hospital Douala (LHD). Methods: Medical records of children aged 13 days-59 months enrolled at initiation of antiretroviral treatment in the Day Care Unit/LHD, were reviewed for a period of 14 years (from 2002 to 2015). We used standard Z-scores, with cut-off point of <-2 SD to define low height-for-age (HAZ), low weight-for-height (WHZ) and low weight-for-age (WAZ)...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Malin Barman, Fiona Murray, Angelina I Bernardi, Karin Broberg, Sven Bölte, Bill Hesselmar, Bo Jacobsson, Karin Jonsson, Maria Kippler, Hardis Rabe, Alastair B Ross, Fei Sjöberg, Nicklas Strömberg, Marie Vahter, Agnes E Wold, Ann-Sofie Sandberg, Anna Sandin
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal and neonatal environmental factors, such as nutrition, microbes and toxicants, may affect health throughout life. Many diseases, such as allergy and impaired child development, may be programmed already in utero or during early infancy. Birth cohorts are important tools to study associations between early life exposure and disease risk. Here, we describe the study protocol of the prospective birth cohort, 'Nutritional impact on Immunological maturation during Childhood in relation to the Environment' (NICE)...
October 21, 2018: BMJ Open
Mary W Lenfestey, Josef Neu
The gastrointestinal (GI) system provides digestive, absorptive, neuroendocrine, and immunologic functions to support overall health. If normal development is interrupted, a variety of complications and disease can arise. This article explores normal development of the GI tract and specific clinical challenges pertinent to preterm and term infants. Specific topics include abnormal motility, gastroesophageal reflux, current feeding recommendations for preterm infants, effects of parenteral nutrition, and the relationship between the GI tract and the immune system...
December 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Yoshinaga Okugawa, Yuji Toiyama, Akira Yamamoto, Tsunehiko Shigemori, Ayame Kitamura, Takashi Ichikawa, Shozo Ide, Takahito Kitajima, Hiroyuki Fujikawa, Hiromi Yasuda, Yoshiki Okita, Junichiro Hiro, Toshimitsu Araki, Donald C McMillan, Chikao Miki, Masato Kusunoki
BACKGROUND: The systemic inflammatory response (SIR) via host-tumor interactions has been termed the seventh hallmark of cancer, and several studies demonstrated that SIR might be a pivotal mediator for progression of cancer cachexia. The objective of this study was to clarify the correlation between sarcopenia and SIR in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: A total of 308 patients with CRC were enrolled in this study. Preoperative psoas muscle mass index and intramuscular adipose tissue content were evaluated using preoperative computed tomographic images, and the correlation between body composition status and several SIR markers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), serum albumin level, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-lymphocyte ratio, and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) was assessed using statistical methods...
October 18, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Iacopo Franconi, Olga Theou, Lindsay Wallace, Andrea Malagoli, Cristina Mussini, Kenneth Rockwood, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Standard care for HIV clinical practice has started focusing on age-related problems, but despite this recent change physicians involved in HIV care do not often screen HIV patients for frailty. Our aim was to construct three indexes from an HIV clinical database (i.e. Frailty Index, (FI), HIV Index, (HIVI), and Protective Index (PI)) and to assess levels of frailty, HIV severity and demographic and protective lifestyle factors among HIV patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included data from 1612 patients who attended an Italian HIV clinic between September 2016 and December2017 (mean±SD age: 53...
2018: PloS One
Maria G Grammatikopoulou, Xenophon Theodoridis, Konstantinos Gkiouras, Eleni-Maria Stamouli, Myrsini-Eleni Mavrantoni, Theodore Dardavessis, Dimitrios P Bogdanos
BACKGROUND: Severe burns are associated with a plethora of profound metabolic, immunologic, and physiologic responses, demanding prompt and adequate management. The objective of the present study was to review, compare, and critically appraise medical nutrition therapy guidelines for adult patients with severe burns, and produce salient points for the future update of relevant guidelines. METHODS: A total of 8 clinical practice guidelines developed by the American Burn Association (ABA), the European Burn Association (EBA), the European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN), the Midlands National Health Service, the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM)/American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN), the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Coronary Units and Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, the Indian Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (IAPEN), and the International Society for Burn Injury regarding medical nutrition therapy in burn patients was independently reviewed by a team of 4 multidisciplinary researchers using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument...
October 15, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Vicki Thomson, Andrew Wiewel, Aldo Chinen, Ibnu Maryanto, M H Sinaga, Ric How, Ken Aplin, Hitoshi Suzuki
The murid rodent genus Rattus Fischer 1803 contains several species that are responsible for massive loss of crops and food, extinction of other species and the spread of zoonotic diseases to humans, as well as a laboratory species used to answer important questions in physiology, immunology, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, behaviour and learning. Despite the well-known significant impacts of Rattus, a definitive evolutionary based systematic framework for the genus is not yet available. The past 75 years have seen more dramatic changes in membership of Rattus than in almost any other genus of mammals...
August 15, 2018: Zootaxa
Kazuo Okadome, Yoshifumi Baba, Taisuke Yagi, Yuki Kiyozumi, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Yuji Miyamoto, Naoya Yoshida, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideo Baba
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether prognostic nutritional index (PNI) affects clinical outcome through local immunity in esophageal cancers. BACKGROUND: PNI is an indicator of nutritional status and systemic immune competence, and has attracted attention as a prognostic biomarker. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are a specific histological feature of human cancers, reflecting an individual's immunological tumor response. METHODS: Using a nonbiased database of 337 curatively resected esophageal cancers, we evaluated the relationship between PNI, TILs status, CD8 expression by immunohistochemical staining, and clinical outcome...
October 10, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Jacqueline Elizabeth Van Wijlen
AIM: This discursive paper aims to bring to the foreground the ongoing influence of Cartesian dualism and other important contextual complexities on breastfeeding in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is widely supported as the optimal form of nutrition for the first six months of life and beyond. Amidst a myriad of contextual factors, current breastfeeding rates are below globally targeted goals. For premature and/or critically ill infants, the importance of receiving breast milk is often encouraged based on its immunological and nutritive benefits as opposed to the entirety of the breastfeeding interaction, underscoring the influence of dualism in the NICU...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Camilla Virili, Poupak Fallahi, Alessandro Antonelli, Salvatore Benvenga, Marco Centanni
About two third of the human microbial commensal community, namely the gut microbiota, is hosted by the gastrointestinal tract which represents the largest interface of the organism to the external environment. This microbial community co-evolved in a symbiotic relationship with the human beings. Growing evidence support the notion that the microbiota plays a significant role in maintaining nutritional, metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the host. Microbiota, beside the expected role in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis also exerts metabolic functions in nutrients digestion and absorption, detoxification and vitamins' synthesis...
October 8, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Maria Carmen Collado, Maija Kristiina Katila, Nina Maria Vuorela, Outi Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Seppo Salminen, Erika Isolauri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Early microbial colonization has a key impact on infant health through nutritional, immunological, and metabolic programming. The origin of child snoring is multifactorial and complex, and may thereby also generate long-term health problems. The link between child snoring and gut microbes remains unclear, although indirect evidence exists regarding this relationship. This study aimed to characterize the connection between gut microbiota and child snoring. METHODS: In a prospective, observational CHILD-SLEEP birth cohort study, gut microbiota in a subcohort of 43 of these children at 2 years of life was profiled with 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Maxime Fournet, Frédéric Bonté, Alexis Desmoulière
Glycation is both a physiological and pathological process which mainly affects proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Exogenous and endogenous glycation produces deleterious reactions that take place principally in the extracellular matrix environment or within the cell cytosol and organelles. Advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation begins by the non-enzymatic glycation of free amino groups by sugars and aldehydes which leads to a succession of rearrangements of intermediate compounds and ultimately to irreversibly bound products known as AGEs...
October 2018: Aging and Disease
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