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Cancer AND Immunology

Thijs Roelofsen, Christina Wefers, Mark A J Gorris, Johannes C Textor, Leon F A G Massuger, I Jolanda M de Vries, Anne M van Altena
Despite advances in therapy, ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy and prognosis has not substantially improved over the past 3 decades. Immunotherapy is a promising new treatment option. However, the immunosuppressive cancer microenvironment must be overcome for immunotherapy to be successful. Here, we present a unique case of spontaneous regression of ovarian carcinoma after septic peritonitis. A 79-year-old woman was diagnosed with stage IIIc ovarian cancer. The omental cake biopsy was complicated by sepsis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Woo Jae Shin, Brian A Zabel, Russell K Pachynski
Chemerin [ RARRES2 [retinoic acid receptor responder 2], TIG2 [tazarotene induced gene 2 (TIG2)]] is a multifunctional cytokine initially described in skin cultures upon exposure to the synthetic retinoid tazarotene. Its secreted pro-form, prochemerin, is widely expressed, found systemically, and is readily converted into active chemerin by various proteases. Subsequent studies elucidated major roles of chemerin as both a leukocyte chemoattractant as well as an adipokine. Chemerin's main chemotactic receptor, the G-protein coupled receptor CMKLR1, is expressed on macrophages, dendritic, and NK cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Atsunari Kawashima, Takayuki Kanazawa, Kentaro Jingushi, Taigo Kato, Takeshi Ujike, Akira Nagahara, Kazutoshi Fujita, Akiko Morimoto-Okazawa, Kota Iwahori, Motohide Uemura, Ryoichi Imamura, Hisashi Wada, Norio Nonomura
BACKGROUND: There are no previous reports directly evaluating immunologic conditions in tumor microenvironment including both bladder cancer (BCa) and upper urinary tract carcinoma (UTUC). In this study, we aimed to clarify the difference of immunity status and its clinical significance depending on the tumor site in urothelial carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor tissue-infiltrating lymphocytes were extracted from 70 urothelial cancer patients who underwent surgical resection (52 cases of BCa and 18 cases of UTUC)...
November 17, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Lu Sun, Lixia Chen, Hua Li
Tumor immunotherapy, as a new treatment of cancer, has been developing on the basis of tumor immunology. Tumor immunotherapy stimulates and enhances the function of immune system in human bodies, in order to control and kill tumor cells. It is often used as an adjuvant therapy combined with surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other conventional methods. Cancer immunotherapies involve cells, antibodies and cytokines, etc. Some immunotherapies are widely used to activate the immune system, while some others precisely target at different tumor antigens...
December 12, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Mario Mandalà, Piotr Rutkowski
The recent advances in cancer immunotherapy with unprecedented success in therapy of advanced melanoma represent a turning point in the landscape of melanoma treatment. Given the complexity of activation of immunological system and the physiologic multifactorial homeostatic mechanisms controlling immune responses, combinatorial strategies are eagerly needed in melanoma therapy. Nevertheless, rational selection of immunotherapy combinations should be more biomarker-guided, including not only the cancer immunogram, PD-L1 expression, interferon gene expression signature, mutational burden, and tumor infiltration by CD8+ T cells but also intratumoral T cell exhaustion and microbiota composition...
December 14, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
E Eisenhuber, C Schaefer-Prokop, G Mostbeck
Lung cancer is a histologically, immunologically and therefore morphologically and functionally very heterogeneous group of neoplasms with the highest cancer mortality worldwide. Therefore, the range of diseases mimicking lung cancer is also very broad and includes congenital, infectious and inflammatory changes as well as other benign space-occupying lesions and other primary and secondary pulmonary neoplasms. The difficulty in radiology lies in the ability to diagnose lung cancer with a high degree of certainty...
December 14, 2018: Der Radiologe
Ton N Schumacher, Wouter Scheper, Pia Kvistborg
Malignant transformation of cells depends on accumulation of DNA damage. Over the past years we have learned that the T cell-based immune system frequently responds to the neoantigens that arise as a consequence of this DNA damage. Furthermore, recognition of neoantigens appears an important driver of the clinical activity of both T cell checkpoint blockade and adoptive T cell therapy as cancer immunotherapies. Here we review the evidence for the relevance of cancer neoantigens in tumor control and the biological properties of these antigens...
December 14, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Helio Tedesco-Silva, Maria Del Carmen Rial, Jose Cruz Santiago, Marilda Mazzali, Alvaro Pacheco-Silva, Rodolfo Torres
While calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are effective for preventing acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients, long-term use may cause chronic kidney injury and is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular events, cancer, and infection-associated death. Immunosuppression strategies are needed to balance risks of acute and subclinical rejection with long-term benefits of improved kidney function. Sirolimus, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, is used for immunosuppression in kidney transplantation...
December 13, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Junseong Park, Chang Gon Kim, Jin-Kyoung Shim, Jong Hoon Kim, Hoyoung Lee, Jae Eun Lee, Min Hwan Kim, Keeok Haam, Inkyung Jung, Su-Hyung Park, Jong Hee Chang, Eui-Cheol Shin, Seok-Gu Kang
Background : Although programmed death-1 (PD-1) blockade is effective in treating several types of cancer, the efficacy of this agent in glioblastoma (GBM) is largely unknown. Methods : We evaluated therapeutic effects of anti-PD-1, temozolomide (TMZ), and their combination in an orthotopic murine GBM model. The phenotype, number, and composition of lymphocytes were evaluated using flow cytometry. Transcriptional profiles of tumor tissues were analyzed using microarrays. Generation of antitumor immunological memory was investigated upon rechallenge...
2019: Oncoimmunology
Joanna Walkowska, Thomas Kallemose, Göran Jönsson, Mats Jönsson, Ove Andersen, Mads Hald Andersen, Inge Marie Svane, Anne Langkilde, Mef Nilbert, Christina Therkildsen
Colorectal cancers associated with Lynch syndrome are characterized by defective mismatch repair, microsatellite instability, high mutation rates, and a highly immunogenic environment. These features define a subset of cancer with a favorable prognosis and high likelihood to respond to treatment with anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) drugs. With the aim to define immune-evasive mechanisms and a potential impact hereof in colorectal cancers from Lynch syndrome versus hereditary cases with retained mismatch repair function, we immunohistochemically and transcriptionally profiled 270 tumors...
2019: Oncoimmunology
Qiang Lan, Sanam Peyvandi, Nathalie Duffey, Yu-Ting Huang, David Barras, Werner Held, François Richard, Mauro Delorenzi, Christos Sotiriou, Christine Desmedt, Girieca Lorusso, Curzio Rüegg
Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapies provide survival benefits to breast cancer patients, in particular in estrogen receptor negative (ER- ) cancers, by reducing rates of recurrences. It is assumed that the benefits of (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy are due to the killing of disseminated, residual cancer cells, however, there is no formal evidence for it. Here, we provide experimental evidence that ER- breast cancer cells that survived high-dose Doxorubicin and Methotrexate based chemotherapies elicit a state of immunological dormancy...
December 13, 2018: Oncogene
Adrienne M Rothschilds, K Dane Wittrup
A plethora of new cancer immunotherapies are under clinical development individually and in combination for a wide variety of indications, but optimizing therapeutic outcomes will require precise consideration of timing in treatment schedule design. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the temporal rhythms of the anticancer immune response. Lessons learned in preclinical and clinical studies begin to define a framework for incorporating duration and sequencing into immunotherapy. We also discuss key challenges and opportunities for translation of temporally programmed treatment schedules to the clinic, including alignment of immunological timescales in preclinical models and humans, and the use of current and emerging biomarkers...
December 10, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Ping-Chih Hsu, Cheng-Ta Yang, David M Jablons, Liang You
The programmed death-ligand 1(PD-L1)/PD-1 pathway is an immunological checkpoint in cancer cells. The binding of PD-L1 and PD-1 promotes T-cell tolerance and helps tumor cells escape from host immunity. Immunotherapy targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 axis has been developed as an anti-cancer therapy and used in treating advanced human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a key mediator of the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway, and plays important roles in promoting cancer development, drug resistance and metastasis in human NSCLC and MPM...
December 7, 2018: Biomedicines
Paul Georg Werthmann, Pia Inter, Thilo Welsch, Anne-Kathrin Sturm, Robert Grützmann, Markus Debus, Martin-Günther Sterner, Gunver Sophia Kienle
RATIONALE: Metastatic pancreatic cancer has a dismal prognosis. Many patients seek integrative care as an add-on to their conventional cancer treatment. Viscum album extracts (VAE)-widely used as an adjunct to cancer treatment-have cytotoxic, apoptogenic, and immune stimulatory properties. A statistically significant survival benefit has been demonstrated for VAE in advanced pancreatic cancer. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: A 28-year old patient presented with painless jaundice and was subsequently diagnosed as pancreatic adenocarcinoma with liver metastases...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Junji Akagi, Hideo Baba
Exhausted cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ T cells lose immunological activity due to mitochondrial dysfunction caused by peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC‑1α) inactivation, resulting in a poor prognosis in patients with cancer. As hydrogen gas was recently reported to activate PGC‑1α, the present study investigated whether it restores exhausted CD8+ T cells to improve prognosis in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer. A total of 55 patients with histologically and clinically diagnosed stage IV colorectal carcinoma were enrolled between July 2014 and July 2017...
November 1, 2018: Oncology Reports
Gijs G Zom, Marian M J H P Willems, Selina Khan, Tetje C van der Sluis, Jan Willem Kleinovink, Marcel G M Camps, Gijsbert A van der Marel, Dmitri V Filippov, Cornelis J M Melief, Ferry Ossendorp
BACKGROUND: Ligands for the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family can induce activation of cells of the innate immune system and are widely studied for their potential to enhance adaptive immunity. Conjugation of TLR2-ligand Pam3CSK4 to synthetic long peptides (SLPs) was shown to strongly enhance the induction of antitumor immunity. To further improve cancer vaccination, we have previously shown that the novel TLR2-L Amplivant (AV), a modified Pam3CSK4, potentiates the maturation effects on murine DCs...
December 12, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
Han Gao, Feng-Yan Huang, Zhi-Ping Wang
Background: Macrophage polarization is involved in the development of many diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cancer. This study aimed to understand the trends and hotspots of macrophage polarization research. Methods: We searched through the Web of Science Core Collection database to obtain original articles in this research domain. CiteSpace, HistCite, and VOSviewer software were used to facilitate the analysis and visualization of scientific productivity and emerging trends...
December 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Bettzy Stephen, Joud Hajjar
Tumor exists as a complex network of structures with an ability to evolve and evade the host immune surveillance mechanism. The immune milieu which includes macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, mast cells, B cells, and T cells are found in the core, the invasive margin, or the adjacent stromal or lymphoid component of the tumor. The immune infiltrate is heterogeneous and varies within a patient and between patients of the same tumor histology. The location, density, functionality, and the crosstalk between the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment influence the nature of immune response, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in cancer patients...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Michael R Shurin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: ImmunoTargets and Therapy
Márcia S Pereira, Inês Alves, Manuel Vicente, Ana Campar, Mariana C Silva, Nuno A Padrão, Vanda Pinto, Ângela Fernandes, Ana M Dias, Salomé S Pinho
The immune system is highly controlled and fine-tuned by glycosylation, through the addition of a diversity of carbohydrates structures (glycans) to virtually all immune cell receptors. Despite a relative backlog in understanding the importance of glycans in the immune system, due to its inherent complexity, remarkable findings have been highlighting the essential contributions of glycosylation in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses with important implications in the pathogenesis of major diseases such as autoimmunity and cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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