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Nutrition AND Microbiome

W Druml
The central role of the organ system "gut" for critically ill patients has not been acknowledged until the last decade. The gut is a crucial immunologic, metabolic and neurologic organ system and impairment of its functions is associated with morbidity and mortality. The gut has a central position in the cross-talk between organs and dysfunction of the gut may result in impairment of other intra-abdominal and extra-abdominal organ systems. The intestinal tract is the most important source of endogenous infections and determines the inflammatory status of the organism...
August 17, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Milena Schmidt, Stefan Unterer, Jan S Suchodolski, Julia B Honneffer, Blake C Guard, Jonathan A Lidbury, Jörg M Steiner, Julia Fritz, Petra Kölle
INTRODUCTION: Feeding a Bones and Raw Food (BARF) diet has become an increasing trend in canine nutrition. Bones and Raw Food diets contain a high amount of animal components like meat, offal, and raw meaty bones, combined with comparatively small amounts of plant ingredients like vegetables and fruits as well as different sorts of oil and supplements. While many studies have focused on transmission of pathogens via contaminated meat and on nutritional imbalances, only few studies have evaluated the effect of BARF diets on the fecal microbiome and metabolome...
2018: PloS One
Francois Brial, Aurélie Le Lay, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas, Dominique Gauguier
Evidence from the literature keeps highlighting the impact of mutualistic bacterial communities of the gut microbiota on human health. The gut microbita is a complex ecosystem of symbiotic bacteria which contributes to mammalian host biology by processing, otherwise, indigestible nutrients, supplying essential metabolites, and contributing to modulate its immune system. Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled structural analysis of the human gut microbiota and allowed detection of changes in gut bacterial composition in several common diseases, including cardiometabolic disorders...
August 12, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Robert H J Bandsma, Kamran Sadiq, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Persistent diarrhoea (PD), defined as diarrhoeal symptoms for longer than 2 weeks, still forms a substantial disease burden in children under 5 years of age. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge of PD and discusses novel concepts. METHODS: A literature search on PD was performed which focused on evidence on epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of the disease. RESULTS: The prevalence of PD has potentially decreased over the last decades...
August 6, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Holly J Engelstad, Lauren Barron, Joseph Moen, Todd N Wylie, Kristine Wylie, Deborah C Rubin, Nicholas Davidson, W Todd Cade, Barbara B Warner, Brad W Warner
BACKGROUND: Pediatric Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) is a malabsorptive state placing patients at risk for malnutrition, dehydration and bacterial overgrowth. These patients are often dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN) while intestinal adaptation is underway. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of remnant small bowel length on the gut microbiome. Further, we sought to examine the contribution of clinical and nutritional variables to the gut microbiota and anthropometric growth...
August 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Mariona Pascal, Marina Perez-Gordo, Teresa Caballero, Maria M Escribese, M Natividad Lopez Longo, Olga Luengo, Luis Manso, Victor Matheu, Elena Seoane, Miguel Zamorano, Moisés Labrador, Cristobalina Mayorga
Allergic diseases, such as respiratory, cutaneous, and food allergy, have dramatically increased in prevalence over the last few decades. Recent research points to a central role of the microbiome, which is highly influenced by multiple environmental and dietary factors. It is well established that the microbiome can modulate the immune response, from cellular development to organ and tissue formation exerting its effects through multiple interactions with both the innate and acquired branches of the immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Romero-Ibarguengoitia Maria Elena, Garcia-Dolagaray Gabriela, Gonzalez-Cantu Arnulfod, Caballero Augusto Enrique
Background People from Latin America (LA) and the Hispanic/Latino community living in the United States (LUS) exhibit a high prevalence of diabetes (DM) and obesity (OB). The gut microbiome (GM) is capable of altering energy regulation and glucose metabolism, but for the expression of these diseases a combination of multiple factors such as ethnicity, genetic and nutritional factors are required. A systematic research was conducted to understand if the prevalence of OB and/or DM has an interaction with the GM in LA and LUS...
July 30, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Pamela Thomson, Daniel A Medina, Daniel Garrido
Breast milk is the gold standard in infant nutrition. In addition to provide essential nutrients for the newborn, it contains multiple bioactive molecules that provide protection and stimulate proper development. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are complex carbohydrates abundant in breast milk. Intriguingly, these molecules do not provide energy to the infant. Instead, these oligosaccharides are key to guide and support the assembly of a healthy gut microbiome in the infant, dominated by beneficial gut microbes such as Bifidobacterium...
October 2018: Food Microbiology
Almagul Kushugulova, Sofia K Forslund, Paul Igor Costea, Samat Kozhakhmetov, Zhanagul Khassenbekova, Maira Urazova, Talgat Nurgozhin, Zhaxybay Zhumadilov, Valery Benberin, Marja Driessen, Rajna Hercog, Anita Yvonne Voigt, Vladimir Benes, Stefanie Kandels-Lewis, Shinichi Sunagawa, Ivica Letunic, Peer Bork
OBJECTIVE: Changes in the gut microbiota are increasingly recognised to be involved in many diseases. This ecosystem is known to be shaped by many factors, including climate, geography, host nutrition, lifestyle and medication. Thus, knowledge of varying populations with different habits is important for a better understanding of the microbiome. DESIGN: We therefore conducted a metagenomic analysis of intestinal microbiota from Kazakh donors, recruiting 84 subjects, including male and female healthy subjects and metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients aged 25-75 years, from the Kazakh administrative centre, Astana...
July 28, 2018: BMJ Open
Janelle Robinson, Felicia N Anike, Willie Willis, Omoanghe S Isikhuemhen
Chicken intestinal microbiomes are known to enhance chicken health and increase production. Identifying natural supplements that shift bacteria communities in favor of beneficial bacteria is critical. This study is a preliminary investigation of the use of medicinal mushrooms nutritional supplements (MSs) including Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Cordyceps sp. to modulate bacteria in chicken guts. Two-hundred seventy 1-day-old broilers were weighed and randomly assigned to nine different treatments containing MSs...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Jonathan B Clayton, Gabriel A Al-Ghalith, Ha Thang Long, Bui Van Tuan, Francis Cabana, Hu Huang, Pajau Vangay, Tonya Ward, Vo Van Minh, Nguyen Ai Tam, Nguyen Tat Dat, Dominic A Travis, Michael P Murtaugh, Herbert Covert, Kenneth E Glander, Tilo Nadler, Barbara Toddes, John C M Sha, Randy Singer, Dan Knights, Timothy J Johnson
Red-shanked doucs (Pygathrix nemaeus) are endangered, foregut-fermenting colobine primates which are difficult to maintain in captivity. There are critical gaps in our understanding of their natural lifestyle, including dietary habits such as consumption of leaves, unripe fruit, flowers, seeds, and other plant parts. There is also a lack of understanding of enteric adaptations, including their unique microflora. To address these knowledge gaps, we used the douc as a model to study relationships between gastrointestinal microbial community structure and lifestyle...
July 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elizabeth A Symington, Jeannine Baumgartner, Linda Malan, Lizelle Zandberg, Cristian Ricci, Cornelius M Smuts
BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during pregnancy is important to ensure optimal birth outcomes, maternal health and offspring development. However, little is known about the dietary intake and nutritional status of pregnant women residing in urban South Africa. Therefore, the Nutrition during Pregnancy and Early Development (NuPED) cohort study was initiated to assess early nutrition-related exposures predictive of early childhood development in urban South Africa. METHODS: The aims of this prospective cohort study are: 1) to assess dietary intake and nutritional status of urban pregnant women in Johannesburg, South Africa, and 2) to determine associations with birth outcomes, measures of maternal health, as well as measures of offspring health and development...
July 24, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Byeng Ryel Min, Sandra Solaiman
Comparative aspects of plant tannins on digestive physiology, nutrition and microbial community in sheep and goats are discussed in the context of differences due to feed intake, digestibility, utilization of nutrients and microbial community. The purpose of this review was to present an overview of the potential benefits of tannin-containing diets for sheep and goats and specie differences in their response to tannins. It is well established that moderate level of tannins in the diet (3%-4% tannins DM) can precipitate with soluble proteins and increase protein supply to the sheep, but comparative aspects of tannin-containing diets in sheep and goats on animal performance, digestive physiology, rumen microbial changes and potential benefits to sustainable animal production by those compounds have received little attention...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Wilmes Paul, Calatayud Marta, Van de Wiele Tom
While animal models remain essential for inferring causality, they exhibit important limitations, which restrict the direct translation of findings into new approaches aimed at steering host-microbe interactions for the improvement of human health. Different in vitro models have therefore been developed which incorporate human cell types and microbiota. By virtue of their intricate designs, these models result in human and microbial read-outs reflective of in vivo gut physiology, and present important alternatives to animal models...
July 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Zachary Armstrong, Keith Mewis, Feng Liu, Connor Morgan-Lang, Melanie Scofield, Evan Durno, Hong Ming Chen, Kevin Mehr, Stephen G Withers, Steven J Hallam
The North American beaver (Castor canadensis) has long been considered an engineering marvel, transforming landscapes and shaping biological diversity through its dam building behavior. While the beaver possesses conspicuous morphological features uniquely adapted for the use of woody plants as construction materials and dietary staples, relatively little is known about the specialized microorganisms inhabiting the beaver gastrointestinal tract and their functional roles in determining host nutrition. Here we use a combination of shotgun metagenomics, functional screening and carbohydrate biochemistry to chart the community structure and metabolic power of the beaver fecal microbiome...
July 16, 2018: ISME Journal
Christian A Devaux, Didier Raoult
If the transmission of biological information from one generation to the next is based on DNA, most heritable phenotypic traits such as chronic metabolic diseases, are not linked to genetic variation in DNA sequences. Non-genetic heritability might have several causes including epigenetic, parental effect, adaptive social learning, and influence of the ecological environment. Distinguishing among these causes is crucial to resolve major phenotypic enigmas. Strong evidence indicates that changes in DNA expression through various epigenetic mechanisms can be linked to parent-offspring resemblance in terms of sensitivity to metabolic diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Anna Parra-Llorca, María Gormaz, Cristina Alcántara, María Cernada, Antonio Nuñez-Ramiro, Máximo Vento, Maria C Collado
Preterm microbial colonization is affected by gestational age, antibiotic treatment, type of birth, but also by type of feeding. Breast milk has been acknowledged as the gold standard for human nutrition. In preterm infants breast milk has been associated with improved growth and cognitive development and a reduced risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late onset sepsis. In the absence of their mother's own milk (MOM), pasteurized donor human milk (DHM) could be the best available alternative due to its similarity to the former...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Katherine R Amato, Jon G Sanders, Se Jin Song, Michael Nute, Jessica L Metcalf, Luke R Thompson, James T Morton, Amnon Amir, Valerie J McKenzie, Gregory Humphrey, Grant Gogul, James Gaffney, Andrea L Baden, Gillian A O Britton, Frank P Cuozzo, Anthony Di Fiore, Nathaniel J Dominy, Tony L Goldberg, Andres Gomez, Martin M Kowalewski, Rebecca J Lewis, Andres Link, Michelle L Sauther, Stacey Tecot, Bryan A White, Karen E Nelson, Rebecca M Stumpf, Rob Knight, Steven R Leigh
Over the past decade several studies have reported that the gut microbiomes of mammals with similar dietary niches exhibit similar compositional and functional traits. However, these studies rely heavily on samples from captive individuals and often confound host phylogeny, gut morphology, and diet. To more explicitly test the influence of host dietary niche on the mammalian gut microbiome we use 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomics to compare the gut microbiota of 18 species of wild non-human primates classified as either folivores or closely related non-folivores, evenly distributed throughout the primate order and representing a range of gut morphological specializations...
July 11, 2018: ISME Journal
Dorines Rosario, Rui Benfeitas, Gholamreza Bidkhori, Cheng Zhang, Mathias Uhlen, Saeed Shoaie, Adil Mardinoglu
Dysbiosis in the gut microbiome composition may be promoted by therapeutic drugs such as metformin, the world's most prescribed antidiabetic drug. Under metformin treatment, disturbances of the intestinal microbes lead to increased abundance of Escherichia spp., Akkermansia muciniphila, Subdoligranulum variabile and decreased abundance of Intestinibacter bartlettii . This alteration may potentially lead to adverse effects on the host metabolism, with the depletion of butyrate producer genus. However, an increased production of butyrate and propionate was verified in metformin-treated Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Wenxue Wang, Junfeng Wang, Julan Li, Pingping Yan, Yun Jin, Ruyi Zhang, Wei Yue, Qiang Guo, Jiawei Geng
The intestinal microbiome is essential in humans to maintain physiological balance and nutrition metabolism. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to gallstone disease and cholecystitis can cause intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and following bile acid metabolism dysfunction, positions the patient at high risk of colorectal cancer. However, little is known regarding intestinal microbiota characteristics in post-cholecystectomy patients. Here, we compared the microbial composition of cholecystectomy patients with that of a healthy population...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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