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Nutrition AND Microbiome

Bożena Cukrowska
The "microbiota hypothesis" ties the increase in allergy rates observed in highly developed countries over the last decades to disturbances in the gut microbiota. Gut microbiota formation depends on a number of factors and occurs over approximately 1000 days of life, including the prenatal period. During this period the microbiota helps establish the functional immune phenotype, including immune tolerance. The development of immune tolerance depends also on early exposure to potential food allergens, a process referred to as nutritional programming...
October 18, 2018: Nutrients
Amanda C Kentner, John F Cryan, Susanne Brummelte
Despite the increasing attention to early life adversity and its long-term consequences on health, behavior, and the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, our understanding of the adaptations and interventions that promote resiliency and rescue against such insults are underexplored. Specifically, investigations of the perinatal period often focus on negative events/outcomes. In contrast, positive experiences (i.e. enrichment/parental care//healthy nutrition) favorably influence development of the nervous and endocrine systems...
October 11, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
David L Vollmer, Virginia A West, Edwin D Lephart
The history of cosmetics goes back to early Egyptian times for hygiene and health benefits while the history of topical applications that provide a medicinal treatment to combat dermal aging is relatively new. For example, the term cosmeceutical was first coined by Albert Kligman in 1984 to describe topical products that afford both cosmetic and therapeutic benefits. However, beauty comes from the inside. Therefore, for some time scientists have considered how nutrition reflects healthy skin and the aging process...
October 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Sani M Roy, David A Fields, Jonathan A Mitchell, Colin P Hawkes, Andrea Kelly, Gary D Wu, Patricia A DeRusso, Michal A Elovitz, Eileen Ford, Danielle Drigo, Babette S Zemel, Shana E McCormack
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether body mass index (BMI) provides a better assessment of measured adiposity at age 1 month compared with weight-for-length (WFL). STUDY DESIGN: Participants were healthy term-born infants in the Infant Growth and Microbiome (n = 146) and the Baby Peas (n = 147) studies. Length, weight, and body composition by air displacement plethysmography were measured at 1 month. World Health Organization-based WFL and BMI z-scores were calculated...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Niv Zmora, Jotham Suez, Eran Elinav
Since the renaissance of microbiome research in the past decade, much insight has accumulated in comprehending forces shaping the architecture and functionality of resident microorganisms in the human gut. Of the multiple host-endogenous and host-exogenous factors involved, diet emerges as a pivotal determinant of gut microbiota community structure and function. By introducing dietary signals into the nexus between the host and its microbiota, nutrition sustains homeostasis or contributes to disease susceptibility...
September 27, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
P Løvendahl, G F Difford, B Li, M G G Chagunda, P Huhtanen, M H Lidauer, J Lassen, P Lund
It may be possible for dairy farms to improve profitability and reduce environmental impacts by selecting for higher feed efficiency and lower methane (CH4) emission traits. It remains to be clarified how CH4 emission and feed efficiency traits are related to each other, which will require direct and accurate measurements of both of these traits in large numbers of animals under the conditions in which they are expected to perform. The ranking of animals for feed efficiency and CH4 emission traits can differ depending upon the type and duration of measurement used, the trait definitions and calculations used, the period in lactation examined and the production system, as well as interactions among these factors...
September 26, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Luis A Rubio
The strong selection in search for a higher growth rate in broilers has resulted in adverse effects such as metabolic disorders, low responsiveness of the immune system, and decreased resistance to pathogens. On the other hand, newly hatched chicks rely mostly on innate immune responses until their gut gets colonized with microbiota. In consequence, early access to active substances or bacteria (pre- and post-hatch) is particularly relevant here because in broilers much of the immune system development occurs early in life...
September 22, 2018: Poultry Science
Takumi Murakami, Takahiro Segawa, Nozomu Takeuchi, Gonzalo Barcaza Sepúlveda, Pedro Labarca, Shiro Kohshima, Yuichi Hongoh
The glacier stonefly Andiperla willinki is the largest metazoan inhabiting the Patagonian glaciers. In this study, we analysed the gut microbiome of the aquatic nymphs by 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic sequencing. The bacterial gut community was consistently dominated by taxa typical of animal digestive tracts, such as Dysgonomonadaceae and Lachnospiraceae, as well as those generally indigenous to glacier environments, such as Polaromonas. Interestingly, the dominant Polaromonas phylotypes detected in the stonefly gut were almost never detected in the glacier surface habitat...
September 24, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Adam D Kennedy, Bryan M Wittmann, Anne M Evans, Luke A D Miller, Douglas R Toal, Shaun Lonergan, Sarah H Elsea, Kirk L Pappan
Metabolomics is the untargeted measurement of the metabolome, which is comprised of the complement of small molecules detected in a biological sample. As such, metabolomic analysis produces a global biochemical phenotype. It is a technology that has been utilized in the research setting for over a decade. The metabolome is directly linked to and is influenced by genetics, epigenetics, environmental factors and the microbiome - all of which affect health. Metabolomics can be applied to human clinical diagnostics and to other fields such as veterinary medicine, nutrition, exercise, physiology, agriculture/plant biochemistry, and toxicology...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Samanta Michelini, Biju Balakrishnan, Silvia Parolo, Alice Matone, Jane A Mullaney, Wayne Young, Olivier Gasser, Clare Wall, Corrado Priami, Rosario Lombardo, Martin Kussmann
BACKGROUND: Weaning is a period of marked physiological change. The introduction of solid foods and the changes in milk consumption are accompanied by significant gastrointestinal, immune, developmental, and microbial adaptations. Defining a reduced number of infections as the desired health benefit for infants around weaning, we identified in silico (i.e., by advanced public domain mining) infant gut microbes as potential deliverers of this benefit. We then investigated the requirements of these bacteria for exogenous metabolites as potential prebiotic feeds that were subsequently searched for in the natural product space...
September 21, 2018: Microbiome
Florence Van Herreweghen, Kim De Paepe, Hugo Roume, Frederiek-Maarten Kerckhof, Tom Van de Wiele
Akkermansia muciniphila, an abundant mucin degrading intestinal bacterium, has been correlated with human health in various studies. The in vitro SHIME model was used to reach a mechanistic understanding of A. muciniphila's colonization preferences and its response to environmental parameters such as colon pH and mucins. These insight can help to identify the optimal conditions for successful in vivo application. After a period of mucin deprivation, we found that mucin supplementation resulted in significantly different microbial communities, with more Akkermansia, Bacteroides and Ruminococcus...
December 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Sivaranjani Namasivayam, Alan Sher, Michael S Glickman, Matthew F Wipperman
Tuberculosis (TB) is an ancient infectious disease of humans that has been extensively studied both clinically and experimentally. Although susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is clearly influenced by factors such as nutrition, immune status, and both mycobacterial and host genetics, the variable pathogenesis of TB in infected individuals remains poorly understood. During the past two decades, it has become clear that the microbiota-the trillion organisms that reside at mucosal surfaces within and on the body-can exert a major influence on disease outcome through its effects on host innate and adaptive immune function and metabolism...
September 18, 2018: MBio
Nora Allan, Trina A Knotts, Risa Pesapane, Jon J Ramsey, Stephanie Castle, Deana Clifford, Janet Foley
The Amargosa vole is a highly endangered rodent endemic to a small stretch of the Amargosa River basin in Inyo County, California. It specializes on a single, nutritionally marginal food source in nature. As part of a conservation effort to preserve the species, a captive breeding population was established to serve as an insurance colony and a source of individuals to release into the wild as restored habitat becomes available. The colony has successfully been maintained on commercial diets for multiple generations, but there are concerns that colony animals could lose gut microbes necessary to digest a wild diet...
September 12, 2018: Microorganisms
Luana de Fátima Alves, Cauã Antunes Westmann, Gabriel Lencioni Lovate, Guilherme Marcelino Viana de Siqueira, Tiago Cabral Borelli, María-Eugenia Guazzaroni
Over the past thirty years, since the dawn of metagenomic studies, a completely new (micro) universe was revealed, with the potential to have profound impacts on many aspects of the society. Remarkably, the study of human microbiome provided a new perspective on a myriad of human traits previously regarded as solely (epi-) genetically encoded, such as disease susceptibility, immunological response, and social and nutritional behaviors. In this context, metagenomics has established a powerful framework for understanding the intricate connections between human societies and microbial communities, ultimately allowing for the optimization of both human health and productivity...
2018: International Journal of Genomics
Yuanyuan Li
Nutrition is the most important environmental factor that can influence early developmental processes through regulation of epigenetic mechanisms during pregnancy and neonatal periods. Maternal diets or nutritional compositions contribute to the establishment of the epigenetic profiles in the fetus that have a profound impact on individual susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders in the offspring later in life. Obesity is considered a global epidemic that impairs human life quality and also increases risk of development of many human diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Mohamed S Sarhan, Sascha Patz, Mervat A Hamza, Hanan H Youssef, Elhussein F Mourad, Mohamed Fayez, Brian Murphy, Silke Ruppel, Nabil A Hegazi
The rapid development of high-throughput techniques and expansion of bacterial databases have accelerated efforts to bring plant microbiomes into cultivation. We introduced plant-only-based culture media as a successful candidate to mimic the nutritional matrices of plant roots. We herein employed a G3 PhyloChip microarray to meticulously characterize the culture-dependent and -independent bacterial communities of the maize root compartments, the endo- and ecto-rhizospheres. An emphasis was placed on the preference of the growth of unculturable candidate divisions/phyla on plant-only-based culture media over standard culture media (nutrient agar)...
September 29, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Banu Bayram, Antonio González-Sarrías, Geoffrey Istas, Mar Garcia-Aloy, Christine Morand, Kieran Tuohy, Rocío García-Villalba, Pedro Mena
Plant bioactive compounds consumed as part of our diet are able to influence human health. They include secondary metabolites like (poly)phenols, carotenoids, glucosinolates, alkaloids, and terpenes. Although much knowledge has been gained, there is still need for studies unravelling the effects of plant bioactives on cardiometabolic health at the individual level, using cutting-edge high-resolution and data-rich holistic approaches. The aim of this Perspective is to review the prospects of microbiomics, nutrigenomics and nutriepigenomics, and metabolomics to assess the response to plant bioactive consumption while considering interindividual variability...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Raphael Chevre, Carlos Silvestre-Roig, Oliver Soehnlein
Altered nutritional behavior in Western societies has unleashed numerous metabolic disorders, intimately linked to profound disruptions of the immune system. Here we summarize how nutrition modulates innate immunity. We outline recent findings regarding nutrient signaling and we particularly focus on the collateral impact of nutrition on the microbiome and on the bile acid (BA) pool. We discuss how the integration of postprandial signals by the gut microbiota, along with the absorption routes of metabolites, differentially affects immune niches to orchestrate immune responses...
October 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Suprabhat Mukherjee, Nikhilesh Joardar, Subhasree Sengupta, Santi P Sinha Babu
The human gut microbiota has been the interest of extensive research in recent years and our knowledge on using the potential capacity of these microbes are growing rapidly. Microorganisms colonized throughout the gastrointestinal tract of human are coevolved through symbiotic relationship and can influence physiology, metabolism, nutrition and immune functions of an individual. The gut microbes are directly involved in conferring protection against pathogen colonization by inducing direct killing, competing with nutrients and enhancing the response of the gut-associated immune repertoire...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Tien S Dong, Arpana Gupta
Advances in sequencing technology and bioinformatics have greatly enhanced our ability to understand the human microbiome. Over the last decade, a growing body of literature has linked nutrition and the environment to the microbiome and is now thought to be an important contributor to overall health. This paper reviews the literature from the past 10 years to highlight the influence of environmental factors such as diet, early life adversity and stress in shaping and modifying our microbiome towards health and disease...
September 6, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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