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Nutrition AND Microbiome

Stephanie Fischinger, Carolyn M Boudreau, Audrey L Butler, Hendrik Streeck, Galit Alter
Vaccines are among the most impactful public health interventions, preventing millions of new infections and deaths annually worldwide. However, emerging data suggest that vaccines may not protect all populations equally. Specifically, studies analyzing variation in vaccine-induced immunity have pointed to the critical impact of genetics, the environment, nutrition, the microbiome, and sex in influencing vaccine responsiveness. The significant contribution of sex to modulating vaccine-induced immunity has gained attention over the last years...
December 13, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Chee Y Ooi, Saad A Syed, Laura Rossi, Millie Garg, Bronwen Needham, Julie Avolio, Kelsey Young, Michael G Surette, Tanja Gonska
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Next to progressive airway disease, CF is also associated with intestinal inflammation and dysbiosis. Ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, has improved pulmonary and nutritional status but its effects on the intestinal microbiota and inflammation are unclear. Hence, we assessed the changes on the intestinal microbial communities (16S rRNA variable 3 gene region) and inflammatory markers (calprotectin and M2-pyruvate kinase [M2-PK]) in 16 CF individuals (8 children and 8 adults) before and after (median 6...
December 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zev H Davidovics, Sonia Michail, Maribeth R Nicholson, Larry K Kociolek, Nikhil Pai, Richard Hansen, Tobias Schwerd, Aldo Maspons, Raanan Shamir, Hania Szajewska, Nikhil Thapar, Tim de Meij, Alexis Mosca, Yvan Vandenplas, Stacy A Kahn, Richard Kellermayer
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is becoming part of the treatment algorithms against recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) both in adult and pediatric gastroenterology practice. With our increasing recognition of the critical role the microbiome plays in human health and disease, FMT is also being considered as a potential therapy for other disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis), graft versus host disease, neuropsychiatric diseases, and metabolic syndrome...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Nienke Z Borren, C Janneke van der Woude, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
Fatigue is an important clinical problem in patients with IBD, affecting nearly 50% of patients in clinical remission and > 80% of those with active disease. The resulting decrease in quality of life and impaired work productivity and functioning contribute markedly to the societal costs of fatigue. However, despite the burden and effects of fatigue, little is known about its aetiology and pathophysiology, which impairs our ability to effectively treat this symptom. Here, we review the theories behind the development of fatigue in IBD and the role of contributing factors, including nutritional deficiency, inflammation and altered metabolism...
December 10, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mayu Uemura, Fumikazu Hayashi, Ken Ishioka, Kunio Ihara, Kazushi Yasuda, Kanako Okazaki, Junichi Omata, Tatsuo Suzutani, Yoshihisa Hirakawa, Chifa Chiang, Atsuko Aoyama, Tetsuya Ohira
PURPOSE: Gut microbiota composition was supposedly related to obesity and psychological factors. We examined the effects of a nutritional education intervention focusing on gut microbiota composition on obesity and psychological factors among obese women. METHODS: Forty-four obese Japanese women aged 40 or older were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 22) or control group (n = 22). The intervention consisted of a 20-min dietary lecture and a 10-min counselling session by registered dieticians, every 2 weeks for eight consecutive weeks...
December 6, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Zhen-Hui Cao, Julia M Green-Johnson, Nicole D Buckley, Qiu-Ye Lin
For centuries, fermented soy foods have been dietary staples in Asia and, now, in response to consumer demand, they are available throughout the world. Fermentation bestows unique flavors, boosts nutritional values and increases or adds new functional properties. In this review, we describe the functional properties and underlying action mechanisms of soy-based fermented foods such as Natto, fermented soy milk, Tempeh and soy sauce. When possible, the contribution of specific bioactive components is highlighted...
December 4, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Alexandra Schutkowski, Holger Kluge, Paula Trotz, Gerd Hause, Bettina König, Monika Wensch-Dorendorf, Gabriele I Stangl
PURPOSE: Early postnatal nutrition not only holds relevance to infant growth, but also determines the risk of developing obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. It is suggested that a high-protein (HP) diet in early childhood can predispose children to obesity. However, data concerning possible alterations in milk composition and the development of the offspring in response to a maternal HP diet are currently not available. To address this question, we conducted a study using pigs as a model organism...
November 28, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Sarah C Pearce, Heidi G Coia, J P Karl, Ida G Pantoja-Feliciano, Nicholas C Zachos, Kenneth Racicot
The gut microbiome is extremely important for maintaining homeostasis with host intestinal epithelial, neuronal, and immune cells and this host-microbe interaction is critical during times of stress or disease. Environmental, nutritional, and cognitive stress are just a few factors known to influence the gut microbiota and are thought to induce microbial dysbiosis. Research on this bidirectional relationship as it pertains to health and disease is extensive and rapidly expanding in both in vivo and in vitro/ex vivo models...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jin Xu, Yunzeng Zhang, Pengfan Zhang, Pankaj Trivedi, Nadia Riera, Yayu Wang, Xin Liu, Guangyi Fan, Jiliang Tang, Helvécio D Coletta-Filho, Jaime Cubero, Xiaoling Deng, Veronica Ancona, Zhanjun Lu, Balian Zhong, M Caroline Roper, Nieves Capote, Vittoria Catara, Gerhard Pietersen, Christian Vernière, Abdullah M Al-Sadi, Lei Li, Fan Yang, Xun Xu, Jian Wang, Huanming Yang, Tao Jin, Nian Wang
Citrus is a globally important, perennial fruit crop whose rhizosphere microbiome is thought to play an important role in promoting citrus growth and health. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of the structural and functional composition of the citrus rhizosphere microbiome. We use both amplicon and deep shotgun metagenomic sequencing of bulk soil and rhizosphere samples collected across distinct biogeographical regions from six continents. Predominant taxa include Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Bacteroidetes...
November 20, 2018: Nature Communications
J David Spence
There have been recent advances in stroke prevention in nutrition, blood pressure control, antiplatelet therapy, anticoagulation, identification of high-risk asymptomatic carotid stenosis, and percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale. There is evidence that the Mediterranean diet significantly reduces the risk of stroke and that B vitamins lower homocysteine, thus preventing stroke. The benefit of B vitamins to lower homocysteine was masked by harm from cyanocobalamin among study participants with impaired renal function; we should be using methylcobalamin instead of cyanocobalamin...
September 2018: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
Audrone Muleviciene, Federica D'Amico, Silvia Turroni, Marco Candela, Augustina Jankauskiene
Nutritional iron deficiency (ID) causes not only anemia but also malfunction of the entire human organism. Recently, a role of the gut microbiota has been hypothesized, but limited data are available especially in infants. Here, we performed a pilot study to explore the gut microbiota in 10 patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and 10 healthy controls aged 6-34 months. Fresh stool samples were collected from diapers, and the fecal microbiota was profiled by next-generation sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene...
November 12, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Brittany L Graf, Li Zhang, Maria G Corradini, Peter Kuhn, Susan S Newman, J Michael Salbaum, Ilya Raskin
Malanga ( Xanthosoma sagittifolium ) is used as a medicinal food for infant development and gastritis. We compared the physicochemical properties and gut microbial effects of malanga versus potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) using nutritional analysis, rheometry, in vitro TNO Intestinal Model, and C57Bl/6J mouse models. Malanga was characterized by higher starch (70.7% v. 66.3%), lower amylose:amylopectin (0.33 v. 0.59), higher free sugar (5.44% v. 3.23%), lower viscosity (271.0 v. 863.0 mPa.s), and higher bioaccessible and bioavailable sugar (0...
June 2018: Journal of Functional Foods
Hajara Aslam, Jessica Green, Felice N Jacka, Fiona Collier, Michael Berk, Julie Pasco, Samantha L Dawson
Mental disorders including depression and anxiety are often comorbid with gut problems, suggesting a bidirectional relationship between mental health and gut function. Several mechanisms might explain this comorbidity, such as inflammation and immune activation; intestinal permeability; perturbations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; neurotransmitter/neuropeptide dysregulation; dietary deficiencies; and disturbed gut microbiome composition. The potential of modulating the microbiome-gut-brain axis, and subsequently mental health, through the use of functional foods, is an emerging and novel topic of interest...
November 11, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Charlie Lin, Joshua Culver, Bronson Weston, Evan Underhill, Jonathan Gorky, Prasad Dhurjati
Knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the gut microbiome is essential to understanding the state of human health, as over a hundred diseases have been correlated with changes in microbial populations. Unfortunately, due to the complexity of the microbiome and the limitations of in vivo and in vitro experiments, studying spatial and temporal dynamics of gut bacteria in a biological setting is extremely challenging. Thus, in silico experiments present an excellent alternative for studying such systems...
2018: PloS One
Huanhuan Wang, Yikai Shou, Xuan Zhu, Yuanyuan Xu, Lihua Shi, Shasha Xiang, Xiao Feng, Jianzhong Han
Cobalamin degrades in the presence of light and heat, which causes spectral changes and loss of coenzyme activity. In the presence of beta-lactoglobulin or alpha-lactalbumin, the thermal- and photostabilities of adenosylcobalamin (ADCBL) and cyanocobalamin (CNCBL) are increased by 10-30%. Similarly, the stabilities of ADCBL and CNCBL are increased in the presence of whey proteins by 19.7% and 2.2%, respectively, when tested in gastric juice for 2 h. Due to the limited absorption of cobalamin during digestion, excess cobalamin can enter the colon and modulate the gut microbiome...
March 15, 2019: Food Chemistry
Yue Shang, Sanjay Kumar, Brian Oakley, Woo Kyun Kim
Sustainable poultry meat and egg production is important to provide safe and quality protein sources in human nutrition worldwide. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of chickens harbor a diverse and complex microbiota that plays a vital role in digestion and absorption of nutrients, immune system development and pathogen exclusion. However, the integrity, functionality, and health of the chicken gut depends on many factors including the environment, feed, and the GI microbiota. The symbiotic interactions between host and microbe is fundamental to poultry health and production...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Elena Biagi, Arianna Aceti, Sara Quercia, Isadora Beghetti, Simone Rampelli, Silvia Turroni, Matteo Soverini, Angelo Vittorio Zambrini, Giacomo Faldella, Marco Candela, Luigi Corvaglia, Patrizia Brigidi
Mother's own milk represents the optimal source for preterm infant nutrition, as it promotes immune defenses and gastrointestinal function, protects against necrotizing enterocolitis, improves long-term clinical outcome and is hypothesized to drive gut microbiota assembly. Preterm infants at birth usually do not receive their mother's milk directly from the breast, because active suckling and coordination between suckling, swallowing and breathing do not develop until 32-34 weeks gestational age, but actual breastfeeding is usually possible as they grow older...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Anna Ojo-Okunola, Mark Nicol, Elloise du Toit
It is well-known that, beyond nutritional components, human breast milk (HBM) contains a wide variety of non-nutritive bio-factors perfectly suited for the growing infant. In the pre-2000 era, HBM was considered sterile and devoid of micro-organisms. Though HBM was not included as part of the human microbiome project launched in 2007, great strides have been made in studying the bacterial diversity of HBM in both a healthy state and diseased state, and in understanding their role in infant health. HBM provides a vast array of beneficial micro-organisms that play a key role in colonizing the infant's mucosal system, including that of the gut...
November 3, 2018: Nutrients
Eder Orlando Méndez-Salazar, María Guadalupe Ortiz-López, María de Los Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Berenice Palacios-González, Marta Menjivar
Mexico is experiencing an epidemiological and nutritional transition period, and Mexican children are often affected by the double burden of malnutrition, which includes undernutrition (15.3% of children) and obesity (13.6%). The gut microbiome is a complex and metabolically active community of organisms that influences the host phenotype. Although previous studies have shown alterations in the gut microbiota in undernourished children, the affected bacterial communities remain unknown. The present study investigated and compared the bacterial richness and diversity of the fecal microbiota in groups of undernourished ( n = 12), obese ( n = 12), and normal-weight (control) ( n = 12) Mexican school-age children...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alberto Noronha, Jennifer Modamio, Yohan Jarosz, Elisabeth Guerard, Nicolas Sompairac, German Preciat, Anna Dröfn Daníelsdóttir, Max Krecke, Diane Merten, Hulda S Haraldsdóttir, Almut Heinken, Laurent Heirendt, Stefanía Magnúsdóttir, Dmitry A Ravcheev, Swagatika Sahoo, Piotr Gawron, Lucia Friscioni, Beatriz Garcia, Mabel Prendergast, Alberto Puente, Mariana Rodrigues, Akansha Roy, Mouss Rouquaya, Luca Wiltgen, Alise Žagare, Elisabeth John, Maren Krueger, Inna Kuperstein, Andrei Zinovyev, Reinhard Schneider, Ronan M T Fleming, Ines Thiele
A multitude of factors contribute to complex diseases and can be measured with 'omics' methods. Databases facilitate data interpretation for underlying mechanisms. Here, we describe the Virtual Metabolic Human (VMH, database encapsulating current knowledge of human metabolism within five interlinked resources 'Human metabolism', 'Gut microbiome', 'Disease', 'Nutrition', and 'ReconMaps'. The VMH captures 5180 unique metabolites, 17 730 unique reactions, 3695 human genes, 255 Mendelian diseases, 818 microbes, 632 685 microbial genes and 8790 food items...
October 29, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
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