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Nicotine dementia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883681/delayed-effects-of-combined-stress-and-a%C3%AE-infusion-on-l-ltp-of-the-dentate-gyrus-prevention-by-nicotine
#1
Karim A Alkadhi
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive dementia hallmarked by the presence in the brain of extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and intraneuronal fibrillary tangles. Chronic stress is associated with heightened Aβ buildup and acceleration of development of AD, however, stress alone has no significant effect on synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus (DG) area. Previously, we have reported that the combination of stress and AD causes more severe inhibition of synaptic plasticity of hippocampal area CA1 than chronic stress or AD alone, and that chronic nicotine treatment prevents this impairment...
June 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732929/drug-development-for-alzheimer-s-disease-review
#2
Kejing Lao, Naichun Ji, Xiaohua Zhang, Wenwei Qiao, Zhishu Tang, Xingchun Gou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease, which is considered as one of the most intractable medical problems with heavy social and economic costs. The current drugs for AD, including acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and memantine, a NMDA receptor antagonist, only temporarily ameliorate cognitive decline, but are unable to stop or reverse the progression of dementia. This paper reviewed the recent advance in AD drug development. The drug discovery programs under clinical trials targeting cholinergic system, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), β-secretase, γ-secretase modulators, tau, inflammatory mediators and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were discussed...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672680/cognitive-correlates-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-mild-alzheimer-s-dementia
#3
Osama Sabri, Philipp M Meyer, Susanne Gräf, Swen Hesse, Stephan Wilke, Georg-Alexander Becker, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Julia Luthardt, Gudrun Wagenknecht, Alexander Hoepping, Rene Smits, Annegret Franke, Bernhard Sattler, Solveig Tiepolt, Steffen Fischer, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Ulrich Hegerl, Henryk Barthel, Peter Schönknecht, Peter Brust
In early Alzheimer's dementia, there is a need for PET biomarkers of disease progression with close associations to cognitive dysfunction that may aid to predict further cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Amyloid biomarkers are not suitable for that purpose. The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2-nAChRs) are widely abundant in the human brain. As neuromodulators they play an important role in cognitive functions such as attention, learning and memory. Post-mortem studies reported lower expression of α4β2-nAChRs in more advanced Alzheimer's dementia...
June 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669164/galantamine-is-not-a-positive-allosteric-modulator-of-human-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-or-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#4
Natalia M Kowal, Philip K Ahring, Vivian W Y Liao, Dinesh C Indurti, Benjamin S Harvey, Susan M O'Connor, Mary Chebib, Elin S Olafsdottir, Thomas Balle
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The alkaloid galantamine was originally isolated from the green snowdrop Galanthus woronowii and is currently marketed as a drug for treatment of mild to moderate dementia in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In addition to a well-documented proficiency to inhibit acetylcholinesterase, galantamine has been reported to increase neuronal nicotinic ACh (nACh) receptor function by acting as a positive allosteric modulator. Yet there remains controversy regarding these findings in the literature...
July 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663387/muscarinic-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonists-current-scenario-in-alzheimer-s-disease-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Stuti Verma, Ashwini Kumar, Timir Tripathi, Awanish Kumar
OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become the primary cause of dementia. It shows a progressive cognitive dysfunction with degenerating neurons. Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) propagate the cognitive ability and it consists of two primary members namely muscarinic (mAChRs) and nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). Where mAChRs is G-protein coupled receptor, (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels. The conventional therapeutic regimen for AD consists of three acetylcholinestearse inhibitors while a single NMDA receptor antagonist...
August 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597200/acute-treatment-with-t-type-calcium-channel-enhancer-sak3-reduces-cognitive-impairments-caused-by-methimazole-induced-hypothyroidism-via-activation-of-cholinergic-signaling
#6
Noreen Husain, Yasushi Yabuki, Yasuharu Shinoda, Kohji Fukunaga
Hypothyroidism is a common disorder that is associated with psychological disturbances such as dementia, depression, and psychomotor disorders. We recently found that chronic treatment with the T-type calcium channel enhancer SAK3 prevents the cholinergic neurodegeneration induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of methimazole (MMI; 75 mg/kg), thereby improving cognition. Here, we evaluated the acute effect of SAK3 on cognitive impairments and its mechanism of action following the induction of hypothyroidism...
2018: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476951/current-status-of-vaccines-in-psychiatry-a-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Harshini Manohar, Vikas Menon
INTRODUCTION: Vaccines are one of the newer therapeutic modalities being researched in psychiatric illnesses with limited role of pharmacological interventions. Preclinical studies on vaccines have shown favorable results in conditions like Substance use Disorders and Alzheimer's Dementia. However, the utility of Mumps Measles Rubella vaccine has been overshadowed by controversy linked to causation of Autism. With this background, the current narrative review aimed to comprehensively and critically evaluate the current status of vaccines in Psychiatric illnesses...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088998/post-injury-administration-of-galantamine-reduces-traumatic-brain-injury-pathology-and-improves-outcome
#8
Jing Zhao, Michael J Hylin, Nobuhide Kobori, Kimberly N Hood, Anthony N Moore, Pramod K Dash
Acetylcholine is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system that plays a key role in cognitive function, including learning and memory. Previous studies have shown that experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) reduces cholinergic neurotransmission, decreases evoked release of acetylcholine, and alters cholinergic receptor levels. Galantamine (U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved for the treatment of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease) has been shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity and allosterically potentiate nicotinic receptor signaling...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750690/increased-a%C3%AE-42-%C3%AE-7-like-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-complex-level-in-lymphocytes-is-associated-with-apolipoprotein-e4-driven-alzheimer-s-disease-pathogenesis
#9
Hoau-Yan Wang, Caryn Trocmé-Thibierge, Andres Stucky, Sanket M Shah, Jessica Kvasic, Amber Khan, Philippe Morain, Isabelle Guignot, Eva Bouguen, Karine Deschet, Maria Pueyo, Elisabeth Mocaer, Pierre-Jean Ousset, Bruno Vellas, Vera Kiyasova
BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4) genotype is a prominent late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factor. ApoE4 disrupts memory function in rodents and may contribute to both plaque and tangle formation. METHODS: Coimmunoprecipitation and Western blot detection were used to determine: 1) the effects of select fragments from the apoE low-density lipoprotein (LDL) binding domain and recombinant apoE subtypes on amyloid beta (Aβ)42 -α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) interaction and tau phosphorylation in rodent brain synaptosomes; and 2) the level of Aβ42 -α7nAChR complexes in matched controls and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia due to AD with known APOE genotypes...
July 27, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736097/alcoholic-pellagra-as-a-cause-of-altered-mental-status-in-the-emergency-department
#10
Sarah Kyuragi Luthe, Ryota Sato
BACKGROUND: Pellagra, which is caused by a deficiency of niacin and tryptophan, the precursor of niacin, is a rare disease in developed countries where alcoholism is a major risk factor due to malnutrition and lack of B vitamins. Although pellagra involves treatable dementia and psychosis, it is often underdiagnosed, especially in developed countries. CASE REPORT: In Japan, a 37-year-old man presented to the emergency department with altered mental status and seizures...
October 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358738/%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-inhibition-by-indinavir-implications-for-cognitive-dysfunction-in-treated-hiv-disease
#11
Sean Ekins, Paul Mathews, Erin K Saito, Natalie Diaz, David Naylor, Julia Chung, Aaron M McMurtray
OBJECTIVE: The study set out to determine if the HIV protease inhibitor, indinavir, alters responsiveness of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to acetylcholine. DESIGN: Treatment with HAART has dramatically reduced development of HIV-associated dementia and more severe forms of cognitive impairment. However, many individuals continue to experience cognitive decline of uncertain cause. Previous studies have failed to demonstrate significant alterations of functional brain connectivity, structural brain changes, or changes in cerebral blood flow sufficient to explain cognitive decline in virally suppressed individuals...
May 15, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315274/role-of-%C3%AF-1-receptors-in-learning-and-memory-and-alzheimer-s-disease-type-dementia
#12
REVIEW
Tangui Maurice, Nino Goguadze
The present chapter will review the role of σ1 receptor in learning and memory and neuroprotection , against Alzheimer's type dementia. σ1 Receptor agonists have been tested in a variety of pharmacological and pathological models of learning impairments in rodents these last past 20 years. Their anti-amnesic effects have been explained by the wide-range modulatory role of σ1 receptors on Ca2+ mobilizations, neurotransmitter responses, and particularly glutamate and acetylcholine systems, and neurotrophic factors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049400/elucidating-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease-via-different-receptors
#13
REVIEW
Badar Ul Islam, Mohd Shahnawaz Khan, Nasimudeen R Jabir, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Shams Tabrez
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible multifaceted neurodegenerative disorder that gradually degrades neuronal cells. Presently, it is the most common reason for the memory loss and dementia in older individuals. It is patho-physiologically described by extracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) retention, neuronal decline, and neurotransmitter system derangement. Various receptors such as nicotinic acetylcholine, N-methyl-D-aspartate, insulin, serotonin, adenosine, and histamine are actively involved in the physiological progression of AD...
2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756421/abt-126-monotherapy-in-mild-to-moderate-alzheimer-s-dementia-randomized-double-blind-placebo-and-active-controlled-adaptive-trial-and-open-label-extension
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Laura M Gault, Robert A Lenz, Craig W Ritchie, Andreas Meier, Ahmed A Othman, Qi Tang, Scott Berry, Yili Pritchett, Weining Z Robieson
BACKGROUND: Results from a phase 2a study indicated that treatment with the novel α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist ABT-126 25 mg once daily (QD) was associated with a trend for improvement in cognition in subjects with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's dementia (AD). A phase 2b program was designed to evaluate a broader dose range of ABT-126 as monotherapy in subjects with mild-to-moderate AD. The program consisted of a double-blind, placebo and active controlled study of ABT-126 (dose range 25-75 mg) and an open-label extension study (75 mg)...
October 18, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722025/nicotine-toxicity-in-a-nursing-home-resident-with-dementia-secondary-to-nicotine-replacement-treatment
#15
Sanober Khan, Michael P Blanton, Marina Chavez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572711/the-effect-of-thymoquinone-%C3%AE-7-receptor-agonist-and-%C3%AE-7-receptor-allosteric-modulator-on-the-cerebral-cortex-in-experimentally-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-in-relation-to-mscs-activation
#16
Lamiaa Ibrahim AbdEl Fattah, Maha Baligh Zickri, Lobna Abdel Aal, Ola Heikal, Esraa Osama
Background and Objectives: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older persons. Thymoquinone (TQ) has anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant and antioxidant activity. A novel α7 nicotinic acetyl choline receptor (α7 nAChR ) agonist (PNU- 282987) have been identified to enhance the cognitive performance. An alternative treatment strategy via compounds known as nicotinic "positive allosteric modulators" (PAMs) has been reported. This study was designed to investigate the combination of PAM of α7 nAChRs with PNU- 282987 or with TQ as a possible treatment for AD in rat...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27249957/chrna7-polymorphisms-and-dementia-risk-interactions-with-apolipoprotein-%C3%AE%C2%B54-and-cigarette-smoking
#17
Pei-Hsuan Weng, Jen-Hau Chen, Ta-Fu Chen, Yu Sun, Li-Li Wen, Ping-Keung Yip, Yi-Min Chu, Yen-Ching Chen
α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR, encoded by CHRNA7) is involved in dementia pathogenesis through cholinergic neurotransmission, neuroprotection and interactions with amyloid-β. Smoking promotes atherosclerosis and increases dementia risk, but nicotine exerts neuroprotective effect via α7nAChR in preclinical studies. No studies explored the gene-gene, gene-environment interactions between CHRNA7 polymorphism, apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 status and smoking on dementia risk. This case-control study recruited 254 late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and 115 vascular dementia (VaD) cases (age ≥65) from the neurology clinics of three teaching hospitals in Taiwan during 2007-2010...
June 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199738/early-signs-of-pathological-cognitive-aging-in-mice-lacking-high-affinity-nicotinic-receptors
#18
Eleni Konsolaki, Panagiotis Tsakanikas, Alexia V Polissidis, Antonios Stamatakis, Irini Skaliora
In order to address pathological cognitive decline effectively, it is critical to adopt early preventive measures in individuals considered at risk. It is therefore essential to develop approaches that identify such individuals before the onset of irreversible dementia. A deficient cholinergic system has been consistently implicated as one of the main factors associated with a heightened vulnerability to the aging process. In the present study we used mice lacking high affinity nicotinic receptors (β2-/-), which have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated/premature cognitive aging...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27086593/huperzine-a-as-a-neuroprotective-and-antiepileptic-drug-a-review-of-preclinical-research
#19
REVIEW
U Damar, R Gersner, J T Johnstone, S Schachter, A Rotenberg
Huperzine A (HupA) is an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor extracted from Huperzia Serrata, a firmoss, which has been used for various diseases in traditional Chinese medicine for fever and inflammation. More recently, it has been used in Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia with a presumed mechanism of action via central nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. HupA is marketed as a dietary supplement in the U.S. This article reviews newly proposed neuroprotective and anticonvulsant HupA properties based on animal studies...
June 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27079707/association-between-smoking-and-cholinergic-basal-forebrain-volume-in-healthy-aging-and-prodromal-and-dementia-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Stefan Teipel, Michel J Grothe
BACKGROUND: Smoking has been found associated with decreased cerebral volumes in healthy adults and in various neuropsychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether chronic nicotine exposure through smoking is associated with reduced volume of cortically projecting cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We retrieved cross-sectional data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database including 179 cognitively normal elderly subjects, 270 subjects with early stage MCI, 136 subjects in later, more advanced, stage of MCI, and 86 subjects in dementia stages of AD...
April 12, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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