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Atmospheric pollutants

Jinfeng Li, Ziqiang Pan, Ziying Jiang, Senlin Liu, Chuangao Wang, Yanqi Zhang, Chunhong Wang, Ling Chen, Zhijun Huang, Jingshun Pan, Xutao Xu
Crude steel production in China made up the majority of the global output, at 49.5% in 2014. High temperature smelting processes result in the release of natural radionuclides, including radon gas and other air pollutants into the atmosphere. This paper conducts an analysis of the raw materials, end products and flue gas sampled from an integrated steel plant from within China's Jiangxi Province, with annual production of 8.50 Mt of crude steel. Normalized stack emissions factors of radionuclides from steel production were first reported in China...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Zhendong Guo, Zhongyi Wang, Lu'an Qian, Zongzheng Zhao, Chunmao Zhang, Yingying Fu, Jiaming Li, Cheng Zhang, Bing Lu, Jun Qian
Particulate matter (PM), a major air pollutant in Beijing in recent years, poses a formidable public health threat. Even through many studies have documented the chemical and biological characteristics of PM, less is known about these characteristics on hazardous haze days (Air Quality Index, AQI 301-500) and the difference with sunny or unhealthy haze day (AQI 151-200) characteristics. Herein, studies were performed during a red alert air pollution event (continuous hazardous haze days) and the first few days following the event (sunny days first and then unhealthy haze days) in Beijing from December 19 to 25, 2016...
October 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chengtian Du, Lingdong Kong, Assiya Zhanzakova, Songying Tong, Xin Yang, Lin Wang, Hongbo Fu, Tiantao Cheng, Jianmin Chen, Shicheng Zhang
Adsorbed nitrate is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, and it can undergo photolysis to produce oxidizing active radicals. Nitrate photolysis may be coupled with the oxidation conversions of atmospheric gaseous pollutants. However, the processes involved remain poorly understood. In this study, the impact of adsorbed nitrate on the heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 on α-Fe2 O3 was investigated in the absence and presence of simulated solar irradiation by using in situ Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS)...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Taoran Shi, Jin Ma, Fuyong Wu, Tienan Ju, Yiwei Gong, Yunyun Zhang, Xiao Wu, Hong Hou, Long Zhao, Huading Shi
It is important to understand the status and extent of soil contamination with heavy metals to make sustainable management strategies for agricultural soils. Input and output inventory of heavy metals in agricultural soil of Zhejiang Province was systematically studied. The results showed that atmospheric deposition was responsible for 47.88% and 76.87% of the total Cr and Pb inputs, respectively. Livestock manures accounted for approximately 54-85% of the total As, Cu, and Zn inputs. Livestock manure and irrigation were the main sources of Hg, contributed 50...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Camila R de O Nunes, Benigno Sánchez, Carlos E N Gatts, Cibele M S de Almeida, Maria C Canela
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations depend on several sources and factors, such as temperature, ventilation, and humidity. Sources can be external atmospheric pollution or indoor release from furniture, coatings or occupants. In this context, this study focused on quantification of VOCs present in a confined atmosphere in a commercial office in downtown Madrid, Spain. The influence of seasonal changes in VOCs concentrations was evaluated using chemometric approaches. Indoor air was systematically monitored for one year using stainless steel tubes filled with Tenax® TA...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Hao Zhou, Philip K Hopke, Chuanlong Zhou, Thomas M Holsen
Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particle-bound mercury (PBM) were measured continuously in Rochester, NY (NY43) from January 2012 to December 2014. Continuous measurements of ozone (O3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), particulate matter (PM2.5 ), and meteorological data were also made at this site. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the resulting 15 variables showed that the ambient mercury in Rochester was primarily produced by non-local sources in contrast to earlier studies that showed that local sources were present...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Aguinaldo N Marques Junior, Douglas P Panetto, Fernando Lamego, Felipe O Nepomuceno, Fabrice Monna, Remi Losno, Rodrigue Guillon
The atmospheric dispersion atmospheric plume of the metropolitan region and neighborhoods of the city of Rio de Janeiro was investigated through elemental analyzes (Na, K, Al, Mn, Pb, Ni, Cr) and stable lead isotopes in two epiphytes; the lichen Parmotrema crinitum (Ach.) and the bromeliad Tillandsia usneoides (L.). All the elements had lower concentrations in epiphytes than in rocks of the local geological basement, with the exception of K, which was similar to rocks. This behavior was attributed to the nutritional essentiality and abundance of this element in the environment...
July 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Narcisa Nechita-Banda, Maarten Krol, Guido R van der Werf, Johannes W Kaiser, Sudhanshu Pandey, Vincent Huijnen, Cathy Clerbaux, Pierre Coheur, Merritt N Deeter, Thomas Röckmann
Southeast Asia, in particular Indonesia, has periodically struggled with intense fire events. These events convert substantial amounts of carbon stored as peat to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and significantly affect atmospheric composition on a regional to global scale. During the recent 2015 El Niño event, peat fires led to strong enhancements of carbon monoxide (CO), an air pollutant and well-known tracer for biomass burning. These enhancements were clearly observed from space by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instruments...
October 8, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Xiaohui Ma, Yanhui Sun, Zixiao Huang, Qingzhu Zhang, Wenxing Wang
Amides, a class of nitrogen-containing organic pollutants in the atmosphere, may affect the formation of atmospheric aerosols by the interactions with sulfuric acid. Here, the molecular interactions of sulfuric acid with formamide, methylformamide, dimethylformamide, acetamide, methylacetamide and dimethylacetamide was investigated by density functional theory. Geometry optimization and Gibbs free energy calculation were carried out at M06-2X/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level. The results indicate that the addition of amides to H2 SO4 might have a promoting effect on atmospheric new particle formation at 298...
September 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Yali Cao, Wei Zhang, Xia Wang, Liang Wu, Guangren Qian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Xueyun Zheng, Kevin T Dupuis, Noor A Aly, Yuxuan Zhou, Francesca B Smith, Keqi Tang, Richard D Smith, Erin S Baker
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental pollutants originating from incomplete combustion of organic materials and synthetic sources. PAHs, PCBs, and PBDEs have all been shown to have a significant effect on human health with correlations to cancer and other diseases. Therefore, measuring the presence of these xenobiotics in the environment and human body is imperative for assessing their health risks. To date, their analyses require both gas chromatography and liquid chromatography separations in conjunction with mass spectrometry measurements for detection of both the parent molecules and their hydroxylated metabolites, making their studies extremely time consuming...
December 11, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Markus Hilpert, Ana Maria Rule, Bernat Adria-Mora, Tedmund Tiberi
At gas stations, fuel vapors are released into the atmosphere from storage tanks through vent pipes. Little is known about when releases occur, their magnitude, and their potential health consequences. Our goals were to quantify vent pipe releases and examine exceedance of short-term exposure limits to benzene around gas stations. At two US gas stations, we measured volumetric vent pipe flow rates and pressure in the storage tank headspace at high temporal resolution for approximately three weeks. Based on the measured vent emission and meteorological data, we performed air dispersion modeling to obtain hourly atmospheric benzene levels...
September 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Helena Cristina Serrano, Maria Alexandra Oliveira, Ceres Barros, Ana Sofia Augusto, Maria João Pereira, Pedro Pinho, Cristina Branquinho
To protect human health and the environment (namely ecosystems), international air quality protocols and guidelines, like the Gothenburg protocol (1999) and the 2001 EU Air Quality Directive (NECD), conveyed national emission ceilings for atmospheric pollutants (Directive 2001/81/EC), including the reduction of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions by 2010. However, to what degree this expected reduction in emissions had reflections at the ecosystem level (i.e. pollutant levels reaching and impacting ecosystems and their organisms) remains unknown...
January 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Anna Gładka, Joanna Rymaszewska, Tomasz Zatoński
Air pollution is one of the greatest public health threats worldwide. All substances appearing in excessive quantities in the atmosphere, such as particulate matter, nitrogen oxides or sulphur oxides may be its ingredients. Depending on their size and nature, these compounds may cause greater risk of suffering from respiratory or cardiovascular diseases for exposed people as well as exacerbation and increased mortality due to these illnesses. Smaller particles may penetrate the brain's blood barrier and thus affect the central nervous system...
October 3, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Yueqin Chen, Qiuyang Song, Ling Pan, Meiqing Jia, Congwei Li, Beibei Hu, Guanghong Wu
This study aimed to determine sediment contamination in the Beidagang Wetland Nature Reserve to describe atmospheric deposition of trace metals. We analyzed Hg, Cd, Pb, TOC, TN, TP, δ13C, and δ15N, and studied their variations in surface sediments and in the vertical profiles of sediment cores collected from the reserve. Evaluation of environmental trace metal contamination using sediment quality guidelines and geochemical background values indicated that the risk of metal pollution in the reserve sediments was relatively low...
2018: PloS One
M Volkan Akdoğan, Evren Hızal, Mustafa Semiz, Özgül Topal, Hakan Akkaş, Aydın Kabataş, Selim S Erbek
Fluctuations in atmospheric temperature, humidity, and air pollution are associated with the incidence of epistaxis. To date, no study in the literature has evaluated the effect of air pollution and meteorologic conditions on the pediatric population. We aimed to evaluate the effect of meteorologic factors and air pollution on the frequency of epistaxis in children. Children presenting to an outpatient clinical setting at a tertiary care hospital during a 5-year period (July 1, 2009, to June 30, 2014) and diagnosed with epistaxis formed the study population...
September 2018: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
Cassandra Rauert, Tom Harner, Jasmin K Schuster, Anita Eng, Gilberto Fillmann, Luisa Eugenia Castillo, Oscar Fentanes, Martín Villa Ibarra, Karina S B Miglioranza, Isabel Moreno Rivadeneira, Karla Pozo, Beatriz Helena Aristizábal Zuluaga
A special initiative in the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network was implemented to provide information on new and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Group of Latin America and Caribbean (GRULAC) region. Regional-scale atmospheric concentrations of the new and emerging POPs hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD), pentachloroanisole (PCA) and dicofol indicators (breakdown products) are reported for the first time. HCBD was detected in similar concentrations at all location types (<20-120 pg/m3 )...
September 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Donna B Schwede, David Simpson, Jiani Tan, Joshua S Fu, Frank Dentener, Enzai Du, Wim deVries
Forests are an important biome that covers about one third of the global land surface and provides important ecosystem services. Since atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) can have both beneficial and deleterious effects, it is important to quantify the amount of N deposition to forest ecosystems. Measurements of N deposition to the numerous forest biomes across the globe are scarce, so chemical transport models are often used to provide estimates of atmospheric N inputs to these ecosystems. We provide an overview of approaches used to calculate N deposition in commonly used chemical transport models...
September 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Qingqi Die, Zhiqiang Nie, Qifei Huang, Yufei Yang, Yanyan Fang, Jinzhong Yang, Jie He
In this work, the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in air, dust and fly ash samples from three legal waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling plants with strict pollution controls. The risks posed by PBDEs to workers at the plants were assessed. The atmospheric concentrations of PBDEs in the different e-waste recycling workshops were 0.58-2.89 × 103  ng/m3 , and predominantly distributed in the particle phase (90.7%-99.9%). The concentrations of the PBDEs in the floor dust and fly ash samples from bag-type dust collectors in different workshops were 2...
September 21, 2018: Chemosphere
Chaoliu Li, Xiaowen Han, Shichang Kang, Fangping Yan, Pengfei Chen, Zhaofu Hu, Junhua Yang, Duojie Ciren, Shaopeng Gao, Mika Sillanpää, Yongming Han, Yuyan Cui, Shang Liu, Kirk R Smith
Fairly high near-surface PM2.5 concentrations were found during relatively static winter conditions within Lhasa - a Tibetan Plateau city normally considered to have a clean atmosphere. The average daily PM2.5 concentration reached 118 ± 60 μg m-3 during the study period, was approximately 3.4 times the United States Environmental Protection Agency 24-h standard. PM2.5 concentration of Lhasa increased from 20:00 until 23:00, which was probably caused by space heating, waste incineration activities and decreased boundary layer at night...
September 22, 2018: Chemosphere
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