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Atmospheric pollutants

Jun Zhou, Buyun Du, Zhangwei Wang, Wantong Zhang, Lei Xu, Xingjun Fan, Xiaoli Liu, Jing Zhou
There is growing interest in how heavy metals in remote ecosystems are elevated and affect environmental health. However, no studies have investigated atmospheric lead (Pb) deposition influences on the Pb bioaccumulation in insects in forests. Here we measure Pb concentrations and pools in forest vegetation, litterfall, organic soil, mineral soil, as well as litterfall deposition fluxes in a region severely affected by atmospheric deposition. We also analyzed Pb in insects which feed in the polluted forest vegetation and litter...
August 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Maite de Blas, Pablo Ibáñez, Jose Antonio García, Maria Carmen Gómez, Marino Navazo, Lucio Alonso, Nieves Durana, Jon Iza, Gotzon Gangoiti, Estíbaliz Sáez de Cámara
On rural background areas atmospheric formaldehyde (HCHO) is important for its abundance and chemical reactivity, directly linked to the tropospheric ozone formation processes. HCHO is also toxic and carcinogenic to humans. Atmospheric HCHO was continuously measured in summer 2016 during 81 days (N = 6722, average: 1.42 ppbv) in a rural background area in Northern Spain, Valderejo Natural Park (VNP) using a Hantzsch fluorimetric system. To better characterize the photochemical processes the database was completed with hourly measurements of 63 Non-Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) performed by gas chromatography and other common atmospheric pollutants and meteorological parameters...
July 31, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Huibin Guo
BACKGROUND: Some ozone (O3 ) and nitrogen dioxides (NO2 ) health effects studies use Ox (sum value) as a surrogate. However, little is known about how this related to Ox wt (weighted value). OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of redox-weighted oxidant capacity (Ox wt ) on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a biomarker of airway inflammation, in a set of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. We also compare combined oxidant capacity (Ox ) and Ox wt in their associations with increasing levels of FeNO...
August 4, 2018: Chemosphere
Daniel C Teixeira, Luiz D Lacerda, Emmanoel V Silva-Filho
The terrestrial biogeochemical cycle of mercury has been widely studied because, among other causes, it presents a global distribution and harmful biotic interactions. Forested ecosystems shows great concentrations from Hg and Litterfall is known as the major contributor to the fluxes at the soil/air interface, through the superficial adsorption on the leaves and by the gas exchange of the stomatal pores. The understanding of which processes control the stage of Hg cycle in these ecosystems is still not totally clear...
July 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Mari E Løseth, Nathalie Briels, Jørgen Flo, Govindan Malarvannan, Giulia Poma, Adrian Covaci, Dorte Herzke, Torgeir Nygård, Jan O Bustnes, Bjørn M Jenssen, Veerle L B Jaspers
While feathers have been successfully validated for monitoring of internal concentrations of heavy metals and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), less is known about their suitability for monitoring of emerging contaminants (ECs). Our study presents a broad investigation of both legacy POPs and ECs in non-destructive matrices from a bird of prey. Plasma and feathers were sampled in 2015 and 2016 from 70 whitetailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) nestlings from two archipelagos in Norway. Preen oil was also sampled in 2016...
July 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hao Li, Jie Zhong, Hanna Vehkamaki, Theo Kurtén, Weigang Wang, Maofa Ge, Shaowen Zhang, Zesheng Li, Xiuhui Zhang, Joseph S Francisco, Xiao Cheng Zeng
Sulfur trioxide (SO3) is one of the most active chemical species in the atmosphere, and its atmospheric fate has profound implications to air quality and human health. The dominant gas-phase loss pathway for SO3 is generally believed to be the reaction with water molecules, resulting in sulfuric acid. The latter is viewed as a critical component in the new particle formation (NPF). Herein, a new and competitive loss pathway for SO3 in the presence of abundant gas-phase ammonia (NH3) species is identified. Specifically, the reaction between SO3 and NH3, which produces sulfamic acid, can be self-catalyzed by the reactant (NH3)...
August 8, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Xia Chen, Ping Zhao, Yanting Hu, Xiuhua Zhao, Lei Ouyang, Liwei Zhu, Guangyan Ni
Assessing the uptake of trace gases by forests contributes to understanding the mechanisms of gas exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere and to evaluating the potential risk of these pollutant gases to forests. In this study, the multi-timescale characteristics of the stomatal uptake of NO, NO2 , SO2 and O3 by Schima superba, Eucalyptus citriodora and Acacia auriculiformis were investigated by continuous sap flow measurements for a 3-year period. The peak canopy stomatal conductance (GC ) for these three species appeared between 9:00 and 12:00, which was jointly regulated by the vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)...
August 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Keunje Yoo, Hyunji Yoo, Jae Min Lee, Sudheer Kumar Shukla, Joonhong Park
Despite progress in monitoring and modeling Asian dust (AD) events, real-time public hazard prediction based on biological evidence during AD events remains a challenge. Herein, both a classification and regression tree (CART) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were applied to assess the applicability of prediction for potential urban airborne bacterial hazards during AD events using metagenomic analysis and real-time qPCR. In the present work, Bacillus cereus was screened as a potential pathogenic candidate and positively correlated with PM10 concentration (p < 0...
August 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhiguo Cao, Leicheng Zhao, Xuejie Meng, Xiaotu Liu, Peipei Wu, Xinyi Fan, Shihua Wang, Jianye Jie, Zheng Miao, Xiaopeng Xu, Mohai Shen, Qingwei Bu
The health impact of haze is of great concern; however, few air quality studies have investigated trace pollutant contamination in the air. Size-segregated atmospheric particles (nine size fractions derived from PM10 ) were collected in dwelling (indoor) and traffic (outdoor) environments in Xinxiang, China, during light pollution conditions (air quality index (AQI), 60-90) and heavy pollution conditions (AQI, 350-550), and they were analysed for halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) isomers...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Qianshan He, Fuhai Geng, Chengcai Li, Haizhen Mu, Guangqiang Zhou, Xiaobo Liu, Wei Gao, Yanyu Wang, Tiantao Cheng
With the explosive economic development of China over the past few decades, air pollution has attracted increasing global concern. Using satellite-based PM2.5 data from 2000 to 2015, we found that the available emissions of atmospheric compositions show similar yearly variation trends to PM2.5 , even if the synchronization is not met for each composition, implying that the intensity of anthropogenic emissions dominates the temporal variation of PM2.5 in East China. Empirical orthogonal function analysis demonstrates that the dominant variability in the seasonal PM2...
August 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yingxin Yu, Zi'an Jiang, Zhishen Zhao, Dan Chong, Guiying Li, Shengtao Ma, Yanan Zhang, Taicheng An
The bioaccessibility of organic pollutants is a key factor in human health risk assessments. We developed a novel in vitro method for determining the mass fraction of bioaccessible atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using an air-washing device containing simulated human lung fluid. The experimental parameters were optimized based on the deposition fractions (DFs) of PAHs in human lung fluids. The DFs were measured for PAHs based on the mass of compounds in the mainstream and exhaled cigarette smoke...
July 30, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jingfeng Mou, Jingjie Fan, Zhouning Yan, Xing Zhao, Dan Zeng, Yan Yan, Wenliang Luo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the pollution characteristics and possible influence factors of PM_(2. 5)in Shenzhen in 2016. METHODS: The dynamic characters of PM_(2. 5)mass concentration were analyzed using air quality monitoring and meteorology observation data. The correlations between PM_(2. 5)and other affecting factors, e. g. gas pollutions and meteorology factors, were discussed. A multiple linear regression model was built to reveal the impacts of those factors on PM_(2...
May 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Róbert Szép, Zsolt Bodor, Ildikó Miklóssy, Ion-Andrei Niță, Oana A Oprea, Ágnes Keresztesi
A comprehensive study on the chemical composition of precipitation, the influence of peat fires and their relations with atmospheric circulation was conducted in the year of 2012, in two intra-mountain basins, the Ciuc basin (CB) and the Giurgeu basin (GB), Eastern Carpathians, Romania. Atmospheric circulation types showed the presence of a westerly anticyclonic circulation, characterized by a strong development of the Azores High to the northern Atlantic, contributing to the appearance of peat-fires. Using ROCADA daily gridded climatic datasets, the maximum and minimum daily temperatures were extracted, showing deviation from 2 °C to 6 °C in the studied year against the multiannual mean for the 1981-2016 period...
August 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mark M Scerri, Konrad Kandler, Stephan Weinbruch, Eduardo Yubero, Nuria Galindo, Paolo Prati, Lorenzo Caponi, Dario Massabò
Receptor modelling techniques are widely used in order to identify the main natural and anthropogenic processes driving aerosol levels at a receptor. In this work, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was used to apportion PM2.5 levels at a traffic site (Msida) located in a coastal town. 180 filters collected throughout a yearly sampling campaign conducted in 2016, were chemically characterized by light absorbance analysis, x-ray fluorescence and ion chromatography in order to determine the concentrations of black carbon, 17 elements and 5 ions, respectively...
July 24, 2018: Chemosphere
Margaux Riant, Aline Meirhaeghe, Jonathan Giovannelli, Florent Occelli, Anais Havet, Damien Cuny, Philippe Amouyel, Luc Dauchet
INTRODUCTION: A growing body of evidence suggests that long-term exposure to air pollutants like nitrogen oxides (NOx ) and particulate matter (PM) is associated with the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels are biomarkers of glucose homeostasis. Data on the association between glucose homeostasis biomarkers and air pollution are scarce. HbA1c and fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentrations have been linked to PM and NO2 exposure in Taiwan, where mean pollution levels are 3 to 7 times higher than the guideline maximum annual mean values of 40 μg/m3 (for NO2 ) and 20 μg/m3 (for PM10) set by the World Health Organization (WHO)...
August 2, 2018: Environment International
Peiwen Wang, Nan Zhao, Yang Cui, Wei Jiang, Lina Wang, Zhenhua Wang, Xiangfeng Chen, Lei Jiang, Lei Ding
China is the largest chlorinated paraffin (CP) producer in the world. Given that CP production is a major source of short-chain CP (SCCP) pollution in China, the effects of CP production on the environment inside and outside of CP production plants are worth revealing. The concentrations and specific congener group patterns of SCCPs in various environmental matrices, such as air, soil and dust, inside and outside of a chosen CP production plant surrounded by farmlands and villages were analyzed to explore SCCP pollution and transportation behaviors...
July 23, 2018: Chemosphere
Zhenli Sun, Fengkui Duan, Kebin He, Jingjing Du, Lidan Zhu
Obtaining detailed information on sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA) is fundamentally important to explain the formation of haze in China, since it is a dominant component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and plays a critical role in the deterioration of air quality. Several single-particle analysis methods have been applied to study and explain SNA formation; however, determining its mixture state remains a challenge. This study describes a direct observation of the SNA components in atmospheric particles on a single-particle scale, and details the first use of a non-destructive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique for SNA analysis...
August 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jos Lelieveld, Andy Haines, Andrea Pozzer
BACKGROUND: WHO estimates that, in 2015, nearly 1 million children younger than 5 years died from lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs). Ambient air pollution has a major impact on mortality from LRIs, especially in combination with undernutrition and inadequate health care. We aimed to estimate mortality due to ambient air pollution in 2015, particularly in children younger than 5 years, to investigate to what extent exposure to this risk factor affects life expectancy in different parts of the world...
July 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Krishna Vadrevu, Toshimasa Ohara, Chris Justice
A better understanding of land cover/land use changes (LCLUC) and their interactions with the atmospheric environment is essential for the sustainable management of natural resources, environmental protection, air quality, agricultural planning and food security. The 15 papers published in this focus issue showcase a variety of studies relating to drivers and impacts of LCLUC and air pollution in different South/Southeast Asian (S/SEA) countries. This synthesis article, in addition to giving context to the articles in this focus issue, also reviews the broad linkages between population, LCLUC and air pollution...
December 2017: Environmental Research Letters: ERL [Web Site]
Lingbin Sun, Jinpeng Ruan, Mengchao Lu, Meng Chen, Zhongliang Dai, Zhenghong Zuo
Ocean acidification (OA) and crude oil pollution have been highlighted as some of the most pervasive anthropogenic influences on the ocean.In marine teleosts, early life-history stages are particularly vulnerable to disturbance by CO2 -driven acidification as they lack pH-mediated intracellular regulation. Embryos exposed to trace levels of crude oil constituents dissolved in water exhibit a common syndrome of developmental abnormalities. So far, little is known about the combined effects of OA and crude oil on the early life history of marine fish...
July 31, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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