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Atmospheric pollutants

Xian Liu, Huazhou Zhang, Wenxiao Pan, Qiao Xue, Jianjie Fu, Guorui Liu, Minghui Zheng, Aiqian Zhang
Regional haze episode has already caused overwhelming public concern. Unraveling the health effects of the representative composition mixtures of atmospheric fine particulate matters (PM2.5 ) becomes a top priority. In this study, a novel computational solution integrating chemical-induced genomic residual effect prediction with in vitro-based risk assessment is proposed to obtain the cumulative health risk of typical chemical mixtures of particulate matters (PM). The joint toxicity of binary mixtures is estimated by analyzing both genomic similarity and dose-response curve of relevant pollutants for the chemical-induced genomic residual effect...
December 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Liang Liu, Juying Wang, Lijun Wang, Yingying Hu, Xindong Ma
In past decades, China has experienced substantial economic growth and industrialization. However, the effects of vast development of China on Hg input to the nearby oceans are still unclear. In this study, four representative 210Pb-dated sediment cores were collected in the central and southern part of Bohai sea to investigate vertical changes of Hg contents and explore the relationship between the Hg deposition and pollution history in this region utilizing a large amount of information available. The results indicated that Hg median concentrations of sediment core B62, B66, JQ17 and HZ24 were 0...
December 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Katrianne Lehtipalo, Chao Yan, Lubna Dada, Federico Bianchi, Mao Xiao, Robert Wagner, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lauri R Ahonen, Antonio Amorim, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S Bauer, Bernhard Baumgartner, Anton Bergen, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Martin Breitenlechner, Sophia Brilke, Angela Buchholz, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Dexian Chen, Xuemeng Chen, Antonio Dias, Josef Dommen, Danielle C Draper, Jonathan Duplissy, Mikael Ehn, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Fischer, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Jani Hakala, Xucheng He, Liine Heikkinen, Martin Heinritzi, Johanna C Helm, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R Hoyle, Tuija Jokinen, Juha Kangasluoma, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Changhyuk Kim, Jasper Kirkby, Jenni Kontkanen, Andreas Kürten, Michael J Lawler, Huajun Mai, Serge Mathot, Roy L Mauldin, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Tuomo Nieminen, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Monica Passananti, Tuukka Petäjä, Felix Piel, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L J Quéléver, Matti P Rissanen, Clémence Rose, Nina Sarnela, Simon Schallhart, Simone Schuchmann, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Christian Tauber, António Tomé, Jasmin Tröstl, Olli Väisänen, Alexander L Vogel, Rainer Volkamer, Andrea C Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Penglin Ye, Arttu Ylisirniö, Qiaozhi Zha, Kenneth S Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M Donahue, Richard C Flagan, Armin Hansel, Ilona Riipinen, Annele Virtanen, Paul M Winkler, Urs Baltensperger, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R Worsnop
A major fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles, which affect both air quality and climate, form from gaseous precursors in the atmosphere. Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs), formed by oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, are known to participate in particle formation and growth. However, it is not well understood how they interact with atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) from fossil fuel combustion, as well as ammonia (NH3 ) from livestock and fertilizers...
December 2018: Science Advances
Chao Zhang, Zhenyu Quan, Qincheng Wu, Zhezhen Jin, Joseph H Lee, Chunhua Li, Yuxin Zheng, Lianhua Cui
BACKGROUND: Air pollution in large Chinese cities has led to recent studies that highlighted the relationship between particulate matters (PM) and elevated risk of cardio-cerebrovascular mortality. However, it is unclear as to whether: (1) The same adverse relations exist in cities with relatively low levels of air pollution; and (2) the relationship between the two are similar across ethnic groups. METHODS: We collected data of PM2.5 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Chang Seok Bang, Keunwook Lee, Jae Ho Choi, Jae Seung Soh, Ji Young Hong, Gwang Ho Baik, Dong Joon Kim
BACKGROUND: A gastrointestinal endoscopy unit is frequently exposed to gastrointestinal gas expelled from patients and electrocoagulated tissue through carbonation for the treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms or hemostasis of gastrointestinal bleeding. This can be potentially harmful to the health of not only the healthcare personnel but also patients who undergo endoscopic examinations. However, there has been scarce data on air quality in the endoscopy unit. This study aimed to measure the air quality in the gastrointestinal endoscopy unit...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Zhiwen Dong, Dahe Qin, Kaiming Li, Shichang Kang, Ting Wei, Junfeng Lu
Pollutants, which are usually transported from urban cities to remote glacier basins, and aerosol impurities affect the earth's temperature and climate by altering the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This work focused on the physicochemical properties of atmospheric pollutants across the urban and remote background sites in northwest China. Information on individual particles was obtained using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Particle size and age-dependent mixing structures of individual particles in clean and polluted air were investigated...
December 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Annekatrin Dreyer, Stefan Nickel, Winfried Schröder
Background: Since 1990, every 5 years, moss sampling is conducted within the European moss monitoring programme to assess the atmospheric deposition of airborne pollutants. Besides many other countries, Germany takes regularly part at these evaluations. Within the European moss monitoring 2015, more than 400 moss samples across Germany were taken according to a harmonized methodology for the assessment heavy metal and nitrogen input. In a pilot programme, eight of these sites were chosen for additional investigations on a broad range of organic contaminants to evaluate their accumulation in moss and thereby their presence in atmospheric deposition in Germany...
2018: Environmental Sciences Europe
Ottavia Zoboli, Manfred Clara, Oliver Gabriel, Christoph Scheffknecht, Monika Humer, Heike Brielmann, Sandra Kulcsar, Helene Trautvetter, Steffen Kittlaus, Arabel Amann, Ernis Saracevic, Jörg Krampe, Matthias Zessner
Occurrence and concentration of a broad spectrum of micropollutants are investigated in Austrian river catchments, namely polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organotin compounds, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and metals. The parallel analysis across multiple environmental and engineered compartments sheds light on the ratio of dissolved and particulate transport and on differences in concentration levels between point and diffuse emission pathways. It is found that some PAHs and organotins are present in rivers, groundwater and bulk deposition at higher concentrations than in municipal wastewater effluents...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Ana Cabrerizo, Derek C G Muir, Amila O De Silva, Xiaowa Wang, Scott F Lamoureux, Melissa J Lafrenière
Legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and emerging perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in vegetation and soil samples collected at remote lakes in the Canadian High Arctic. Field studies were carried out in 2015 and 2016 to assess concentrations of POPs, study the relevant sorbing phases, and determine whether Arctic soils were sinks or sources of legacy POPs to the atmosphere and to neighboring lakes. The patterns of legacy POPs in vegetation and soils were dominated by low molecular weight PCB congeners along with OCPs, confirming the importance of long-range atmospheric transport...
December 6, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Lucia Natali, Alberto Vangelisti, Lucia Guidi, Damiano Remorini, Lorenzo Cotrozzi, Giacomo Lorenzini, Cristina Nali, Elisa Pellegrini, Alice Trivellini, Paolo Vernieri, Marco Landi, Andrea Cavallini, Tommaso Giordani
BACKGROUND: Similar to other urban trees, holm oaks (Quercus ilex L.) provide a physiological, ecological and social service in the urban environment, since they remove atmospheric pollution. However, the urban environment has several abiotic factors that negatively influence plant life, which are further exacerbated due to climate change, especially in the Mediterranean area. Among these abiotic factors, increased uptake of Na + and Cl - usually occurs in trees in the urban ecosystem; moreover, an excess of the tropospheric ozone concentration in Mediterranean cities further affects plant growth and survival...
December 4, 2018: BMC Genomics
Seonghyun Park, Janghoo Seo
Improved quality of life has led to a growing demand for better indoor air quality (IAQ). Buildings are becoming more airtight and insulated in order to minimize energy consumption. The importance of both energy conservation and IAQ improvement has been recognized and addressed by many studies. Bake-out is the process of using indoor heating to remove volatile compounds present in building materials and furnishings so that they can be vented out into the atmosphere. Indiscriminate use of heating to increase the surface temperature of materials during this process can result in significant loss of energy...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rita Ventura Matos, Filipa Ferreira, Carla Gil, José Saldanha Matos
Gas pollutants emitted during wastewater transport contribute to atmospheric pollution, aggravated risks for utility workers, infrastructure corrosion, and odour nuisance. Field studies have shown that is difficult to effectively obtain reliable correlations between in-sewer air movement and gas pollutant concentrations. This study aimed at investigating the influence of different ventilation and operating conditions in H2 S and CH4 horizontal and vertical movement in a section of a gravity sewer, downstream of a pumping station...
December 3, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Anders Sahlén, Petter Ljungman, David Erlinge, Mark Y Chan, Jonathan Yap, Derek J Hausenloy, Khung Keong Yeo, Tomas Jernberg
OBJECTIVE: Studies have related air pollution to myocardial infarction (MI) events over days or weeks, with few data on very short-term risks. We studied risk of ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) within hours of exposure to air pollution while adjusting for weather. METHODS: We performed a case-crossover study of STEMI cases in Stockholm, Sweden (Jan 2000-June 2014) based on SWEDEHEART. Exposures during hazard periods up to 24 h prior to admission were compared to bidirectionally sampled control periods...
January 15, 2019: International Journal of Cardiology
Sijie Ge, Jian Zhang, Sujing Wang, Qiang Xu, Thomas Ho
Flaring is a common and necessary operation for chemical industries, which is designed to manage dangerous process overpressure scenarios or to release and destroy off-spec products during chemical plant upsets or turnarounds. However, excessive flaring can emit large quantities of VOCs and NOx into the atmosphere, which will cause transient and localized ozone pollution events in the presence of sunlight. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact to regional air-quality due to flare emissions from chemical plant start-up operations through the coupling of dynamic process simulations via Aspen Plus and air-quality simulations via CAMx...
November 22, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Shengkai Cao, Guangshui Na, Ruijing Li, Linke Ge, Hui Gao, Shuaichen Jin, Chao Hou, Yunze Gao, Zhifeng Zhang
Fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in seawater and atmosphere of Bransfield Strait. The concentration of ∑15 [PAH] in the atmosphere ranged from 3.75 to 8.53 ng m-3 , and three-ring PAHs were the most abundant compounds. Dissolved ∑15 [PAH] in seawater ranged from 5.42 to 34.37 ng L-1 , and the level of PAHs was markedly different on each side of the strait. The air-sea gas exchange process and molecular diagnostic ratios were calculated, results showed that the environmental behavior of PAHs was net deposition along this cruise...
December 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Xiaoyan Wang, Linlin Zhao, Huanzhi Xu, Xiumei Zhang
Spatial-seasonal variations, sources and correlations with seawater physiochemical factors and the pollution indexes of dissolved heavy metals in the surface seawater of the Yellow River Estuary in China were investigated. The concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) had ranges of 0.04-31.0 (11.6 ± 7.08), 0.42-13.3 (5.61 ± 3.55), 1.97-42.2 (14.9 ± 12.0), 0.10-1.90 (0.66 ± 0.37), 0.16-5.89 (2.59 ± 1.12) and 0.10-0.52 μg/L (0...
December 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Weihua Qin, Yuepeng Zhang, Jing Chen, Qing Yu, Siming Cheng, Wenguang Li, Xingang Liu, Hezhong Tian
Based on the ground-measurements and MERRA-2 (Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2) reanalysis data, the temporal-spatial variation of black carbon (BC) in Beijing and the affecting factors were investigated. According to the ground-measured BC concentration in November months of 2014, 2015 and 2016, the before-heating period in November 2014 showed the lowest BC concentration as a result of the efficient emission controls for the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting...
November 23, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Fengwen Wang, Ting Feng, Zhigang Guo, Yuanyuan Li, Tian Lin, Neil L Rose
75 paired TSP and PM2.5 samples were collected over four seasons on Huaniao Island (HNI), an island that lies downwind of continental pollutants emitted from mainland China to the East China Sea (ECS). These samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), with a special focus on char-EC (char) and soot-EC (soot), to understand their sources, and the scale and extent of pollution and dry deposition over the coastal ECS. The results showed that char concentrations in PM2.5 and TSP averaged from 0...
November 25, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Wenxiao Pan, Jiamin Chang, Xian Liu, Qiao Xue, Jianjie Fu, Aiqian Zhang
Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in atmospheric fine particulate matters (PM2.5 ) possess high bioactivity and result in severe health problems. The facile transformation of aromatic pollutants into EPFRs on montmorillonite (MMT), an important solid component in PM2.5 , is an activation of air pollutants into more toxic chemical species and also attributes to the secondary source of EPFRs in PM2.5 . In this study, the interfacial reactions of pentachlorophenol (PCP), a typical EPFR precursor in air pollution, on the Fe(III)-, Ca- and Na-MMT surfaces have been explored by the density functional theory (DFT) calculations using the periodic slab models...
November 26, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Despoina Ioannidou, Laure Malherbe, Maxime Beauchamp, Nicolas P A Saby, Roseline Bonnard, Julien Caudeville
Reducing environmental health inequalities has become a major focus of public health efforts in France, as evidenced by the French action plans for health and the environment. To evaluate environmental inequalities, routine monitoring networks provide a valuable source of data on environmental contamination, which can be used in integrated assessments, to identify overexposed populations and prioritize actions. However, available databases generally do not meet sufficient spatial representativeness to characterize population exposure, as they are usually not assembled for this specific purpose...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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