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Polycystic ovary treatment

Fumio Otsuka
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system in the ovary plays a physiological role as a luteinization inhibitor in growing follicles. BMP-6 secreted from oocytes and granulosa cells can exert an inhibitory effect on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) actions by suppressing adenylate cyclase activity downstream of the FSH receptor. The inhibition of FSH-induced progesterone production by BMP-6 is impaired by melatonin treatment in granulosa cells. Intracellular Smad signaling induced by BMP-6 is suppressed by melatonin, suggesting that melatonin has a regulatory role in BMP receptor signaling in granulosa cells...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Misbah Malik, Nasira Tasnim, Ghazala Mahmud
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of metformin alone versus metformin plus simvastatin for treatment of polycystic ovariansyndrome (PCOS). STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Maternal and Child Health Centre, Unit II, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), from November 2014 to April 2015. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and eight patients (108) were randomly divided into metformin group (n=54) and metformin plus simvastatin group (n=54), detailed clinical history, including menstrual details, was taken with thorough examination performed...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Apryl Susi, Theophil Stokes, Gregory Gorman, Christine Erdie-Lalena, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: We explored the association of 29 previously reported neonatal, perinatal and prenatal conditions and exposures with later diagnosis of ASD in a large sample of children followed over multiple years. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-cohort study was formed using the Military Health System database. Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for ASD between 2000 and 2013 and were matched 3:1 with controls on sex, date of birth, and enrollment time-frame...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Selin Elmaoğulları, Zeyra Aycan
Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the major gynecologic complaint of adolescents admitting to hospital. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is the most common clinical presentation of AUB. Anovulatory cycles owing to immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is the leading etiology of HMB and there is an accompanying bleeding disorder in almost %20 of patients with HMB. Additionally, endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, hyperprolactinemia and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are possible causes of AUB...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Min Hu, Yuehui Zhang, Jiaxing Feng, Xue Xu, Jiao Zhang, Wei Zhao, Xiaozhu Guo, Juan Li, Edvin Vestin, Peng Cui, Xin Li, Xiaoke Wu, Mats Brannstrom, Linus R Shao, Hakan Billig
Impaired progesterone (P4) signaling is linked to endometrial dysfunction and infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Here we report for the first time that elevated expression of progesterone receptor (PGR) isoforms A and B parallels increased estrogen receptor (ER) expression in PCOS-like rat uteri. The aberrant PGR-targeted gene expression in PCOS-like rats before and after implantation overlaps with dysregulated expression of Fkbp52 and Ncoa2, two genes that contribute to the development of uterine P4 resistance...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Sabriye Arslan, Yasemin Akdevelioğlu
Nonclassical target organs recently defined for vitamin D, a major regulator of calcium phosphorus homeostasis and bone health, include reproductive ones. This compilation study focuses on the potential effects of vitamin D on female reproductive functions. Vitamin D receptor enzymes that metabolize vitamin D are expressed in both central and peripheral reproductive organs. Most studies suggest that vitamin D may be directly or indirectly related to gonadal functions. Vitamin D's effects on reproductive functions may be indirectly related to diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), uterine leiomyomas, and endometriosis...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
D L Rofey, N E El Nokali, L J Jackson Foster, E Seiler, H L McCauley, E Miller
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of childhood trauma and family history of psychiatric illness on weight loss trajectories of obese, adolescent females with PCOS. DESIGN: Prospective Study SETTING: PCOS and Adolescent Medicine Outpatient Clinics PATIENTS: Participants were, on average, 15.8 years, 80% Caucasian, and had a BMI of 36.8 ± 8.8 kg/m2 . INTERVENTIONS: Healthy Bodies, Healthy Minds is an evidence-based one-on-one intervention consisting of four weekly sessions, four bi-weekly sessions, and three monthly booster sessions...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
C Berthin, P Sibilia, J Martins-Hericher, A Donzeau, L Martin
BACKGROUND: Non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH) is a recessive autosomal disease caused by a deficiency of adrenal steroidogenesis enzymes. It must be distinguished from classical CAH, either simple virilising or salt-wasting, diagnosed during the neonatal period and responsible for potentially lethal disorders of sexual differentiation. NC-CAH presents a simpler and less specific clinical picture. Herein, we present two cases comprising twin girls consulting for diffuse hypertrichosis...
March 7, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Marianne Lønnebotn, Gerd Karin Natvig, Bryndís Benediktsdóttir, John A Burgess, Mathias Holm, Rain Jógi, Eva Lindberg, Ferenc Macsali, Vivi Schlünssen, Svein Magne Skulstad, Karl A Franklin, Eszter Vanky, Francisco Gòmez Real
OBJECTIVE: Some studies of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) report increased prevalence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, while others do not. Several of these studies do not control for obesity. We aimed to study whether PCOS is associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and whether it is dependent on body mass index (BMI). STUDY DESIGN: We present a cross-sectional analysis of 3732 women from Denmark, Estonia, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, born in 1945-72, who participated in the Respiratory Health In Northern Europe (RHINE) study and answered an extensive women's health questionnaire on menstruation, PCOS, infertility, pregnancy history and childbirth...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Erica Silvestris, Giovanni de Pergola, Raffaele Rosania, Giuseppe Loverro
Both obesity and overweight are increasing worldwide and have detrimental influences on several human body functions including the reproductive health. In particular, obese women undergo perturbations of the 'hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis', and frequently suffer of menstrual dysfunction leading to anovulation and infertility. Besides the hormone disorders and subfertility that are common in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), in obesity the adipocytes act as endocrine organ. The adipose tissue indeed, releases a number of bioactive molecules, namely adipokines, that variably interact with multiple molecular pathways of insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, coagulation, and oocyte differentiation and maturation...
March 9, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Javad Heshmati, Reza Omani-Samani, Samira Vesali, Saman Maroufizadeh, Mahroo Rezaeinejad, Maryam Razavi, Mahdi Sepidarkish
Recently, the effects of nutritional supplementation on improvement or prevention of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been considered. Several studies have been carried out on the effect of chromium supplementation in improving PCOS patients. This study aimed to summarize the available findings regarding the effect of chromium on improving the polycystic ovary syndrome. The review includes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing chromium treatment with placebo or other treatments in women with PCOS...
March 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Laura L Burger, Charlotte Vanacker, Chayarndorn Phumsatitpong, Elizabeth R Wagenmaker, Luhong Wang, David P Olson, Suzanne M Moenter
GnRH neurons are a nexus of fertility regulation. We utilized translating ribosome affinity purification coupled with RNA sequencing to examine mRNAs of GnRH neurons in adult intact and gonadectomized (GDX) male and female mice. GnRH neuron ribosomes were tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and GFP-labeled polysomes isolated by immunoprecipitation, producing one RNA fraction enhanced for GnRH neuron transcripts and one RNA fraction depleted. cDNA libraries were created from each fraction and 50-base, paired-end sequencing done and differential expression (enhanced fraction/depleted fraction) determined with a threshold of >1...
March 7, 2018: Endocrinology
Sofia Lazaridou, Konstantinos Dinas, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. PCOS is not only the leading cause of anovulatory infertility but is also associated with an array of metabolic disorders, among which impaired glucose metabolism has been a topic of intense research. The aim of the present narrative review is to summarize the findings of the studies that have evaluated the prevalence and incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients with PCOS, to analyze the factors underpinning the association between T2DM and PCOS and to discuss the current strategies for screening and management of impaired glucose metabolism in this population...
October 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Shayesteh Mehdinejadiani, Fardin Amidi, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Mahmood Barati, Leili Safdarian, Reza Aflatoonian, Ashraf Alyasin, Marzieh Aghahosseini, Azar Pazhohan, Parisa Hayat, Farzaneh Mohammadzadeh Kazorgah, Aligholi Sobhani
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinologic disorder in women of reproductive age characterized by polycystic ovaries, oligo/anovulation, and hyperandrogenism. Not only anovulation but also endometrial dysfunction can reduce fertility in PCOS patients. Wnt pathway is responsible for endometrial proliferation which be strongly regulated by estradiol. To determine the effects of clomiphene citrate (CC) and letrozole, we measured the expression of some main ligands of Wnt/β-catenin signaling including Wnt7a, Wnt3, and Wnt8b in the endometrial samples taken from PCOS women on day 12 of the menses who received 100 mg CC or 5 mg letrozole as well as from women without treatment...
March 6, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Magdalena Smyka, Barbara Grzechocinska, Miroslaw Wielgos
Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrinopathy of the reproductive age. Heterogenity of its clinical symptoms is related to the presence of a number of phenotypes of this disfunction, hence the necessity for individualized treatment is needed. A change of a lifestyle, well-balanced diet and physical activity are the most effective medical way contributing to the improvement of carbohydrate metabolism parameters and weight reduction which reactivates regular ovulation and facilitates getting pregnant...
February 6, 2018: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Pedro-Antonio Regidor, Adolf Eduard Schindler, Bernd Lesoine, Rene Druckman
Introduction The use of 2 × 2000 mg myo-inositol +2 × 200 μg folic acid per day is a safe and promising tool in the effective improvement of symptoms and infertility for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In addition, PCOS is one of the pathological factors involved in the failure of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Typically, PCOS patients suffer of poor quality oocytes. Patients and methods In an open, prospective, non-blinded, non-comparative observational study, 3602 infertile women used myo-inositol and folic acid between 2 and 3 months in a dosage of 2 × 2000 mg myo-inositol +2 × 200 μg folic acid per day...
March 2, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Sharon E Oberfield, Rachel H Tao, Selma F Witchel
Premature adrenarche (PA) has been assumed to be a benign variant of normal pubertal development. Yet, current collective information suggests associations between PA and potential risks for development of polycystic ovary syndrome and adult diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. Adrenarche refers to the increased secretion of the adrenal androgen precursors DHEA, DHEAS, and androstenedione, which normally occurs in children at age 6-8 years. PA may be identified clinically by early pubarche, which is defined as the development of pubic or axillary hair before 8 years in girls or 9 years in boys...
March 2018: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
Hui-Li Yang, Wen-Jie Zhou, Chun-Jie Gu, Yu-Han Meng, Jun Shao, Da-Jin Li, Ming-Qing Li
Melatonin is a neurohormone synthesized from the aromatic amino acid tryptophan mainly by the pineal gland of mammals. Melatonin acts as a broad-spectrum antioxidant, powerful free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory agent, anticarcinogenic factor, sleep inducer and regulator of the circadian rhythm, and potential immunoregulator. Melatonin and reproductive system are interrelated under both physiological and pathological conditions. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune dysregulation are associated with the pathogenesis of the female reproductive system which causes endometriosis (EMS), recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Ahmad Mahran, Ahmed R Abdelraheim, Abdelrahman Eissa, Mohamed Gadelrab
Background: More than 3 decades after the introduction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and despite the improved success rates of assisted reproductive technologies, the argument for performing laparoscopy as a part of the infertility workup still stands. Objective: To evaluate the role of laparoscopy±hysteroscopy in diagnosis and management of infertility in our setting in view of modern fertility practice. Materials and Methods: This case control study was carried out on 600 infertile women subjected to laparoscopy or combined laparoscopy and hysteroscopy at endoscopy unit in Minia University Hospital, Egypt during the period from January 2012 to December 2014...
December 2017: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Tao Tao, Peihong Wu, Yuying Wang, Wei Liu
BACKGROUND: Impaired insulin activity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome might differ from that seen in type 2 diabetes mellitus without polycystic ovary syndrome. This study was designed to compare the effects of treatment with metformin, saxagliptin, and their combination in newly diagnosed women with type 2 diabetes mellitus and polycystic ovary syndrome in China. METHODS: A total of 75 newly diagnosed patients from Shanghai, China with type 2 diabetes mellitus and polycystic ovary syndrome were included in this randomized, parallel, open-label study...
February 27, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
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