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slow component

Tobias May, Borys Kowalewski, Torsten Dau
Fast-acting dynamic range compression is a level-dependent amplification scheme which aims to restore audibility for hearing-impaired listeners. However, when being applied to noisy speech at positive signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), the gain function typically changes rapidly over time as it is driven by the short-term fluctuations of the speech signal. This leads to an amplification of the noise components in the speech gaps, which reduces the output SNR and distorts the acoustic properties of the background noise...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Denis V Abramochkin, Minna Hassinen, Matti Vornanen
Zebrafish are increasingly used as a model for human cardiac electrophysiology, arrhythmias, and drug screening. However, K+ ion channels of the zebrafish heart, which determine the rate of repolarization and duration of cardiac action potential (AP) are still incompletely known and characterized. Here, we provide the first evidence for the presence of the slow component of the delayed rectifier K+ channels in the zebrafish heart and characterize electrophysiological properties of the slow component of the delayed rectifier K+ current, IKs ...
August 16, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Pei-Chun Chen, Jing-Syuna Ruan, Sheng-Nan Wu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (IKCa; KCa3.1 or KCNN4) channels affect the behaviors of central neurons including motor neurons. The mechanism through which neuronal differentiation is related to the activity of these channels remains largely unclear. METHODS: By using various molecular biology tools and electrophysiological measurements, we investigated possible changes in the activity of IKCa channels in a retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation process in motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells...
August 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Yuya Furukado, Hiroshi Abe, Yosuke Hinakura, Toshihiko Baba
Time of flight light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been tested and used as a key device for auto-driving of vehicles. Frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) LiDAR potentially achieves a high sensitivity. In this study, we fabricated and tested two components of FMCW LiDAR based on Si photonics. The ranging action was also experimentally simulated. A Si photonic crystal slow light Mach-Zehnder modulator was driven by linearly frequency-chirped signals to generate quasi-frequency-modulated signal light...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
Hari Kusnanto, Dwi Agustian, Dany Hilmanto
Biopsychosocial model is a useful worldview for primary care or family doctors. However, it is often considered as impractical or too complicated. The objective of this study is to review the implementation of the biopsychosocial model in clinical practice, and its contributions to clinical outcomes. Hermeneutic circle literature review was conducted to provide experiential learning in an attempt to understand biopscyhosocial model, first developed by George Engel. Literature search started with review articles in Medline and Scopus as search engines...
May 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Vadhana Varadarajan, Chandan Dasgupta, K G Ayappa
Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out for a single component, monatomic Lennard-Jones fluid confined between two mica surfaces to investigate the structure and relaxation dynamics of the confined fluid as a function of surface separation. Due to the underlying symmetry of the potassium ions on the mica surface, the contact layers prefer to adopt an incommensurate square or rhombic symmetry. The inner layers adopt a symmetry varying between rhombic, triangular, and square, depending on the density and surface separation...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Fiona Costello, Jodie M Burton
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by both inflammatory and degenerative components that affect genetically susceptible individuals. Currently, the cause of MS remains unclear, and there is no known cure. Commonly used therapies tend to target inflammatory aspects of MS, but may not halt disease progression, which may be governed by the slow, subclinical accumulation of injury to neuroaxonal structures in the central nervous system (CNS). A recognized challenge in the field of MS relates to the need for better methods of detecting, quantifying, and ameliorating the effects of subclinical disease...
2018: Eye and Brain
Silke Bergeler, Erwin Frey
Precise positioning of the cell division site is essential for the correct segregation of the genetic material into the two daughter cells. In the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus, the proteins PomX and PomY form a cluster on the chromosome that performs a biased random walk to midcell and positively regulates cell division there. PomZ, an ATPase, is necessary for tethering of the cluster to the nucleoid and regulates its movement towards midcell. It has remained unclear how the cluster dynamics change when the biochemical parameters, such as the attachment rates of PomZ dimers to the nucleoid and the cluster, the ATP hydrolysis rate of PomZ or the mobility of PomZ interacting with the nucleoid and cluster, are varied...
August 13, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Else Foverskov, M Maria Glymour, Erik L Mortensen, Anders Holm, Theis Lange, Rikke Lund
Earlier studies report inconsistent associations between education and cognitive aging. We assess the association accounting for selective dropout due to death or dementia, and, in a sub-sample, accounting for confounding by early life intelligence. Data from the Danish component of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (N = 3400) were linked to registry data (education records, dementia diagnoses and mortality), and The Danish Conscription Database (youth intelligence measures for 854 men)...
August 7, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Prassanna Rao, Tania A Rozgaja, Abdulaziz Alqahtani, Julia E Grimwade, Alan C Leonard
Although the mechanisms that precisely time initiation of chromosome replication in bacteria remain unclear, most clock models are based on accumulation of the active initiator protein, DnaA-ATP. During each cell division cycle, sufficient DnaA-ATP must become available to interact with a distinct set of low affinity recognition sites in the unique chromosomal replication origin, oriC , and assemble the pre-replicative complex (orisome) that unwinds origin DNA and helps load the replicative helicase. The low affinity oriC -DnaA-ATP interactions are required for the orisome's mechanical functions, and may also play a role in timing of new rounds of DNA synthesis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Dong Hyu Cho
A 55-year-old woman presented to the hospital with abdominal discomfort over 3 months. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT showed a 10×9×6.5 cm sized well-defined solid-cystic enhancing mass in the right pelvic cavity. Under general anaesthesia, exploratory laparotomy was performed on suspicion of ovarian malignancy. Pathological examination revealed a retroperitoneal schwannoma with highly ordered cellular component (Antoni A) and hypocellularity with predominantly loose myxoid component (Antoni B). On immunohistochemical staining, the sample showed typically positive result for S-100 in the cytoplasm of the tumour cells...
August 8, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Philipp Fervers, Florian Fervers, Wojciech Makałowski, Marcin Jąkalski
The presented work explores the regulatory influence of upstream open reading frames (uORFs) on gene expression in Trypanosoma congolense. More than 31,000 uORFs in total were identified and characterized here. We found evidence for the uORFs' appearance in the transcriptome to be correlated with proteomic expression data, clearly indicating their repressive potential in T. congolense, which has to rely on post-transcriptional gene expression regulation due to its unique genomic organization. Our data show that uORF's translation repressive potential does not only correlate with elemental sequence features such as length, position and quantity, but involves more subtle components, in particular the codon and amino acid profiles...
2018: PloS One
Thomas Schnappinger, Marco Marazzi, Sebastian Mai, Antonio Monari, Leticia Gonzalez, Regina de Vivie-Riedle
We present a non-adiabatic dynamics study concerning the sub picosecond relaxation of excited states in dimeric and trimeric thiophene chains. The influence of the triplet states in the overall process is, for the first time, taken into account by explicitly including spin-orbit couplings and hence allowing intersystem crossing phenomena. We observe the fundamental role of the triplet state manifold in driving the full relaxation process. In particular we evidence the effect of both, inter-ring rotation and ringopening, in the process, as compared to the monomer, where the ring-opening process appears as the dominant one...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Somen Nandi, Sridip Parui, Biman Jana, Kankan Bhattacharyya
The composition dependent local environment of three organic dyes in binary mixtures of a room temperature ionic liquid (1-methyl-3-pentylimidazolium bromide, [pmim][Br]) and water is studied by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We used three dyes-neutral coumarin 480 (C480), anionic coumarin 343 (C343), and highly hydrophobic 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethyl-aminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM)-to probe different environments in the binary mixtures. The heterogeneity of the [pmim][Br]-water mixture leads to multiple values (i...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Arthur Forer, Rozhan Sheykhani, Michael W Berns
Various experiments have indicated that anaphase chromosomes continue to move after their kinetochore microtubules are severed. The chromosomes move poleward at an accelerated rate after the microtubules are cut but they slow down 1-3 min later and move poleward at near the original speed. There are two published interpretations of chromosome movements with severed kinetochore microtubules. One interpretation is that dynein relocates to the severed microtubule ends and propels them poleward by pushing against non-kinetochore microtubules...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Eleni Iacovidou, Anne P M Velenturf, Phil Purnell
The growing British waste management sector has consistently voiced the need to improve the quality of waste streams and thus the value of secondary resources produced, in order to achieve higher reprocessing rates. Mismanagement of wastes that may lead to contamination and degradation of the recyclate feedstock constitutes one of the main barriers in the pathway to a circular economy. The sector has also repeatedly called upon manufacturers to collaborate in designing materials, components and products (MCPs) with properties that aid recovery, refurbishing, repair and recycling (e...
July 25, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sari Stenholm, Luigi Ferrucci, Jussi Vahtera, Emiel O Hoogendijk, Martijn Huisman, Jaana Pentti, Joni V Lindbohm, Stefania Bandinelli, Jack M Guralnik, Mika Kivimäki
Background: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome, but little is known about its development in the years preceding onset of the syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the progression of frailty and compare the trajectories of each frailty component prior to frailty onset. Methods: Repeat data were from two cohort studies: the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (n = 1440) with a 15-year follow-up and the InCHIANTI Study (n = 998) with a 9-year follow-up...
August 1, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Takumi Kishida, Yurie Funakoshi, Yuya Fukuyama, Sari Honda, Toshiya Masuda, Yasuo Oyama
4-Vinylcatechol (4VC) has been identified as an aroma compound in roasted foods, especially coffee. It is also a component in traditional herbal medicines. This compound may be subconsciously ingested through foods and herbs. Recent experimental evidence has shown that 4VC possesses an antioxidative action. However, the antioxidative action of 4VC at cellular levels is not well characterized. The effects of 4VC (0.1-100 µM) were examined on rat thymic lymphocytes without and with oxidative stress induced by 300 µM hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )...
August 6, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Anshul D S Parmar, Shiladitya Sengupta, Srikanth Sastry
The slow down of dynamics in glass forming liquids as the glass transition is approached has been characterised through the Adam-Gibbs relation, which relates relaxation time scales to the configurational entropy. The Adam-Gibbs relation cannot apply simultaneously to all relaxation times scales unless they are coupled, and exhibit closely related temperature dependences. The breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation presents an interesting situation to the contrary, and in analysing it, it has recently been shown that the Adam-Gibbs relation applies to diffusion coefficients rather than to viscosity or structural relaxation times related to the decay of density fluctuations...
August 8, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Francesco Prattichizzo, Valeria De Nigris, Stefano Micheloni, Lucia La Sala, Antonio Ceriello
Recent clinical trials have demonstrated a strong cardiovascular (CV) protective effect of sodium/glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors, a recently introduced class of hypoglycaemic agents. The improvement of glycated haemoglobin and other conventional risk factors explains only a portion of the observed CV risk reduction. A relevant feature of SGLT2-inhibitor-treated diabetic patients is the increase in circulating levels of ketone bodies, which has been proposed to mediate part of the beneficial effects of this class of drugs, mainly through their bioenergetic properties...
August 2, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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