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slow component

Itamar Daniel Landau, Haim Sompolinsky
We present a simple model for coherent, spatially correlated chaos in a recurrent neural network. Networks of randomly connected neurons exhibit chaotic fluctuations and have been studied as a model for capturing the temporal variability of cortical activity. The dynamics generated by such networks, however, are spatially uncorrelated and do not generate coherent fluctuations, which are commonly observed across spatial scales of the neocortex. In our model we introduce a structured component of connectivity, in addition to random connections, which effectively embeds a feedforward structure via unidirectional coupling between a pair of orthogonal modes...
December 13, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Roman Rosipal, Natália Porubcová, Peter Barancok, Barbora Cimrová, Igor Farkas, Leonardo Jose Trejo
We provide direct electrophysiological evidence that Mirror Therapy (MT) can change brain activity and aid in recovery of motor function after stroke. In this longitudinal single-case study, the subject was a 58-year-old man with right-hand hemiplegia due to ischemic stroke. Over a nine-month period we treated him with MT twice a week and measured electroencephalograms (EEG) before, during, and after each therapy session. Using advanced signal processing methods, we identified five distinct movement-related oscillatory EEG components: one slow component designated as mu rhythm and four faster components designated as sensorimotor rhythms...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Julianne Skinner, Antimo Buonocore, Ziad M Hafed
Two main types of small eye movements occur during gaze fixation: microsaccades and slow ocular drifts. While microsaccade generation has been relatively well-studied, ocular drift control mechanisms are unknown. Here we explored the degree to which monkey smooth eye movements, on the velocity scale of slow ocular drifts, can be generated systematically. Two male rhesus macaque monkeys tracked a spot moving sinusoidally, but slowly, along the horizontal or vertical directions. Maximum target displacement in the motion trajectory was 30 min arc (0...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Roberto Mota, Matthew J Campen, Matthew E Cuellar, William S Garver, Jacob Hesterman, Mohammed Qutaish, Tamara Daniels, Monique Nysus, Carston R Wagner, Jeffrey P Norenberg
Atherosclerosis-related morbidity and mortality remain a global concern. Atherosclerotic disease follows a slow and silent progression, and the transition from early-stage lesions to vulnerable plaques remains difficult to diagnose. Inflammation is a key component of the development of atherosclerotic plaque and consequent life-threatening complications. This study assessed 111 In-DANBIRT as an in vivo , noninvasive SPECT/CT imaging probe targeting an inflammatory marker, Lymphocyte Function Associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1), in atherosclerotic plaques...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Florina D Ivan, Vera Balan, Ionel M Popa, Andrei Lobiuc, Aurora Antoniac, Iulian Vasile Antoniac, Liliana Verestiuc
Composites based on combination of biopolymers (chitosan, hyaluronic acid and bovine serum albumin or gelatin), calcium phosphates (CP) and magnetic nanoparticles have been prepared by a biomimetic co-precipitation method. The biomimetic strategy is inspired by natural mineralization processes, where the synthesized minerals are usually combined with proteins, polysaccharides or other mineral forms to form composite, in physiological conditions of temperature and pH. The morphology of the magnetic composites, studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated a macroporous structure, which influenced the retention of simulated biological fluids...
December 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Nguyet Thi Nguyen, Clint Douglas, Ann Bonner
AIMS: To examine the effectiveness of a self-management intervention compared with usual care in adults with chronic kidney disease on self-management, knowledge, self-efficacy, health-related quality of life and blood pressure. DESIGN: A parallel group randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with chronic kidney disease stages 3-5 were recruited between November 2015 - June 2016. Participants were randomly allocated into either the intervention (N = 68) or control group (N = 67)...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
F Pezo, F Romero, F Zambrano, R Sánchez
In the pork industry, artificial insemination and the storage of boar semen in liquid at 17°C are routinely applied to optimize the ejaculate and bring about rapid genetic changes that are reflected in the animal protein. Although the results are satisfactory, they are below what occurs with natural mating. It is currently possible to preserve boar semen with storage at 17°C and slow freezing, since to date there is only one study on vitrification, with negative results applicable only in the case of implementing an intracytoplasmic sperm injection...
December 8, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
S Allais, C Hennequet-Antier, C Berri, L Salles, O Demeure, E Le Bihan-Duval
Slow-growing chicken lines are valuable genetic resources for the development of well-perceived alternative free-range production. While there is no constraint on increasing growth rate, breeding programs have to evolve in order to include new traits improving the positioning of such lines in the growing market for parts and processed products. In this study, we used dense genotyping to fine map QTL for chicken growth, body composition, and meat quality traits in view of developing new tools for selection of a slow-growing line...
December 7, 2018: Poultry Science
Clara Santos-Cuevas, Guillermina Ferro-Flores, Francisco O García-Pérez, Nallely Jiménez-Mancilla, Gerardo Ramírez-Nava, Blanca Ocampo-García, Myrna Luna-Gutiérrez, Erika Azorín-Vega, Jenny Davanzo, Irma Soldevilla-Gallardo
SPECT/CT images in patients have demonstrated the ability of [99m Tc]Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Lys(Nal)-Urea-Glu ([99m Tc]Tc-iPSMA) to detect tumors and metastases of prostate cancer. Considering that theranostics combines the potential of therapeutic and diagnostic radionuclides in the same molecular probe, the aim of this research was to estimate the biokinetics and dosimetry of 177 Lu-DOTA-HYNIC-Lys(Nal)-Urea-Glu (177 Lu-iPSMA) in healthy subjects and analyze the response in patients receiving 177 Lu-iPSMA therapeutic doses...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Yuan-Yuei Chen, Tung-Wei Kao, Chung-Ching Wang, Ying-Jen Chen, Chen-Jung Wu, Wei-Liang Chen
Dysmobility syndrome (DMS) was considered as a comprehensive approach to evaluate the condition of musculoskeletal system and adverse health problems in older population. The objective of our study was to examine the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and DMS in a U.S. adult population. 1760 eligible participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 were enrolled in the study. The criteria of DMS consisted of six domains including increased body fat, declined muscle mass, reduced muscle strength, osteoporosis, slow gait speed, and balance problem...
2018: PloS One
Regina C Casper
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is uncommon as a syndrome, despite widespread dieting or voluntary food restriction, especially among female adolescents. This suggests that restriction of caloric intake might not be the only component driving weight loss in AN. Historical observations and experimental evidence from energy expenditure studies and recordings from movement sensors reviewed in this paper reveal that AN is associated with motor activity levels and with an energy output not significantly different from that in normal-weight healthy age-matched controls...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
David Heckmann, Daniel C Zielinski, Bernhard O Palsson
Systems biology describes cellular phenotypes as properties that emerge from the complex interactions of individual system components. Little is known about how these interactions have affected the evolution of metabolic enzymes. Here, we combine genome-scale metabolic modeling with population genetics models to simulate the evolution of enzyme turnover numbers (kcat s) from a theoretical ancestor with inefficient enzymes. This systems view of biochemical evolution reveals strong epistatic interactions between metabolic genes that shape evolutionary trajectories and influence the magnitude of evolved kcat s...
December 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Cai-Hong Xiong, Ming-Gang Liu, Lan-Xue Zhao, Mu-Wen Chen, Ling Tang, Ying-Hui Yan, Hong-Zhuan Chen, Yu Qiu
Cognitive flexibility is an important aspect of executive function. The cholinergic system, an important component of cognition, has been shown to modulate cognitive flexibility mainly through the striatum and prefrontal cortex. The role of M1 muscarinic receptors (M1 mAChRs), an important therapeutic target in the cholinergic system, in hippocampus-dependent cognitive flexibility is unclarified. In the present study, we demonstrated that selective activation of M1 mAChRs promoted extinction of initial learned response and facilitated acquisition of reversal learning in the Morris water maze, a behavior test that is mainly dependent on the hippocampus...
December 6, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Abdulrahman Altin, Ashokanand Vimalanandan, Adnan Sarfraz, Michael Rohwerder, Andreas Erbe
Metal pretreatment is typically the first step in a reliable corrosion protection system. This work explores the incorporation of complexes between the cyclic oligosaccharide β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and the molecular organic corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) into an oxide-based pretreatment layer on metallic zinc. The layers were produced by a precorrosion step in the presence of β-CD. Resulting films have a morphology dominated by spherical particles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigations of the surfaces show the sulfur atoms of MBT to be partially oxidized but mostly intact...
December 7, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Y Robin, E A Evropeitsev, T V Shubina, D A Kirilenko, V Yu Davydov, A N Smirnov, A A Toropov, I A Eliseyev, S Y Bae, M Kushimoto, S Nitta, S V Ivanov, H Amano
Transient photoluminescence (PL) characteristics and localization phenomena in InGaN/GaN core-shell nanorods (NRs) were investigated from 6 K up to 285 K. The NRs exhibit three well-defined PL bands in the near-UV, blue, and green range ascribed to the emission of quantum well (QW) areas situated at the (1.00) sidewalls, (10.1) top facets, and (00.1) tip, respectively. At low temperature, time-resolved PL shows a fast decay time of about 0.5 ns for the semi- and non-polar QWs, while the polar QWs exhibit at least a twice-longer time...
December 7, 2018: Nanoscale
Elena Kondratskaya, Oleksandr Ievglevskyi, Mark Züchner, Athina Samara, Joel C Glover, Jean-Luc Boulland
The spinal locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) in neonatal mice exhibits diverse output patterns, ranging from sub-rhythmic to multi-rhythmic to fictive locomotion, depending on its general level of excitation and neuromodulatory status (Sharples and Whelan, 2017). We have recently reported that the locomotor CPG in neonatal mice rapidly recovers the ability to produce neurochemically induced fictive locomotion following an upper lumbar spinal cord compression injury (Züchner et al., 2018). Here we address the question of recovery of multi-rhythmic activity and the serotonin-sensitivity of the CPG...
December 3, 2018: Brain Research
Christi W Miller, Joshua G W Bernstein, Xuyang Zhang, Yu-Hsiang Wu, Ruth A Bentler, Kelly Tremblay
Purpose: This study evaluated whether certain spectral ripple conditions were more informative than others in predicting ecologically relevant unaided and aided speech outcomes. Method: A quasi-experimental study design was used to evaluate 67 older adult hearing aid users with bilateral, symmetrical hearing loss. Speech perception in noise was tested under conditions of unaided and aided, auditory-only and auditory-visual, and 2 types of noise. Predictors included age, audiometric thresholds, audibility, hearing aid compression, and modulation depth detection thresholds for moving (4-Hz) or static (0-Hz) 2-cycle/octave spectral ripples applied to carriers of broadband noise or 2000-Hz low- or high-pass filtered noise...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Darshil R Patel, Robert S Weiss
Eukaryotic cells continuously experience DNA damage that can perturb key molecular processes like DNA replication. DNA replication forks that encounter DNA lesions typically slow and may stall, which can lead to highly detrimental fork collapse if appropriate protective measures are not executed. Stabilization and protection of stalled replication forks ensures the possibility of effective fork restart and prevents genomic instability. Recent efforts from multiple laboratories have highlighted several proteins involved in replication fork remodeling and DNA damage response pathways as key regulators of fork stability...
December 4, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Charles A Warwick, Leonid P Shutov, Andrew J Shepherd, Durga P Mohapatra, Yuriy M Usachev
The complement system significantly contributes to the development of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Recently, we identified the signaling pathway responsible for thermal hypersensitivity induced by the complement system component C5a. Here, we examine the mechanisms of another important action of C5a, induction of mechanical hypersensitivity. We found that intraplantar injection of C5a produced a dose-dependent mechanical sensitization, and that this effect was blocked by chemogenetic ablation of macrophages in both male and female mice...
November 29, 2018: Pain
Qi Han, Na Wang, Guangyin Yao, Chunhua Mu, Yue Wang, Jianli Sang
β-1,6-glucan is an important component of the fungal cell wall. The β-1,6-glucan synthase gene KRE6 was thought to be essential in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans because it could not be deleted in previous efforts. Also, the role of its homolog SKN1 was unclear because its deletion caused no defects. Here, we report the construction and characterization of kre6Δ/Δ, skn1Δ/Δ, and kre6Δ/Δ skn1Δ/Δ mutants in C. albicans. While deleting KRE6 or SKN1 had no obvious phenotypic consequence, deleting both caused slow growth, cell separation failure, cell wall abnormalities, diminished hyphal growth, poor biofilm formation, and loss of virulence in mice...
December 3, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
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