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Manuel V Garnacho-Castaño, Lluis Albesa-Albiol, Noemí Serra-Payá, Manuel Gomis Bataller, Eulogio Pleguezuelos Cobo, Lluis Guirao Cano, Jesús Guodemar-Pérez, Teresa Carbonell, Raúl Domínguez, José Luis Maté-Muñoz
Garnacho-Castaño, MV, Albesa-Albiol, L, Serra-Payá, N, Gomis Bataller, M, Pleguezuelos Cobo, E, Guirao Cano, L, Guodemar-Pérez, J, Carbonell, T, Domínguez, R, and Maté-Muñoz, JL. Oxygen uptake slow component and the efficiency of resistance exercises. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study aimed to evaluate oxygen uptake slow component (V[Combining Dot Above]O2sc) and mechanical economy/efficiency in half squat (HS) exercise during constant-load tests conducted at lactate threshold (LT) intensity...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Sinan Guloksuz, Jim van Os
There had been a long way to go before we felt comfortable about even discussing the issues revolving around the concept of 'schizophrenia', let alone reckoning on mere semantic revision. In this editorial, we aim to extend our discussion on the reasons behind the slow death of the concept of 'schizophrenia' and the benefits of changing the name and embracing a spectrum approach with an umbrella psychosis spectrum disorder (PSD) category (similar to autism spectrum disorder) that goes further than a mere semantic revision...
October 18, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Ahsan Naveed, Sajjad Ur Rahman, Muhammad Imran Arshad, Bilal Aslam
The immunoprophylactic potential of anti-idiotype (anti-id) foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) antigen (Ag) was evaluated in the calves. The idiotype antibodies (Ab1) were produced in experimental goats by injecting inactivated FMD virus. The Fab (fragment antigen binding) of Ab1 was injected into the layer birds to raise anti-id antibodies (Ab2). The Ab2 was purified from egg yolks. The Fab component of Ab2 was emulsified in Montanide (1:1) and used as a surrogate of FMD virus. The immune response to Montanide adjuvanted monovalent and trivalent anti-id FMD virus antigen was determined in mice...
October 17, 2018: MSphere
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Viviana Versace, Luca Sebastianelli, Monica Christova, Stefan Golaszewski, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka
BACKGROUND: Several studies have applied electrophysiological techniques to physiologically characterize corticobasal degeneration (CBD). METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search of these studies and reviewed all 25 identified articles. RESULTS: Conventional electroencephalography (EEG) is usually normal even in the late stages of disease. Quantitative EEG (qEEG) with spectral analysis revealed mainly lateralized abnormalities, such as an increase of slow wave activity and occasionally the occurrence of sharp waves, and a significant increase of coherence between left parietal-right premotor areas...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Mareike A Jordan, Dennis R Diener, Ludek Stepanek, Gaia Pigino
Movement of cargos along microtubules plays key roles in diverse cellular processes, from signalling to mitosis. In cilia, rapid movement of ciliary components along the microtubules to and from the assembly site is essential for the assembly and disassembly of the structure itself1 . This bidirectional transport, known as intraflagellar transport (IFT)2 , is driven by the anterograde motor kinesin-23 and the retrograde motor dynein-1b (dynein-2 in mammals)4,5 . However, to drive retrograde transport, dynein-1b must first be delivered to the ciliary tip by anterograde IFT6 ...
October 15, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
Steve Seung-Young Lee, Vytautas P Bindokas, Stephen J Kron
Macromolecular cancer drugs such as therapeutic antibodies and nanoparticles are well known to display slow extravasation and incomplete penetration into tumors, potentially protecting cancer cells from therapeutic effects. Conventional assays to track macromolecular drug delivery are poorly matched to the heterogeneous tumor microenvironment, but recent progress on optical tissue clearing and three-dimensional (3D) tumor imaging offers a path to quantitative assays with cellular resolution. Here, we apply Transparent Tissue Tomography (T3) as a tool to track perfusion and delivery in the tumor and to evaluate target binding and vascular permeability...
October 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Ognjen Cukic, Milan B Jovanovic
Schwannomas are benign tumors originating from Schwann cells of the myelin sheath. The cystic appearance of a cervical vagal schwannoma is an extremely rare finding, with few patients reported in the literature. A 60-year-old female patient was seen at our service for a slow-growing, 9 × 6 cm left-sided cystic neck mass. Preoperative clinical and computed tomography evaluation suggested a diagnosis of a lateral neck cyst. The surgical exploration through the lateral cervicotomy revealed a large cystic mass and clearly identified that the tumor was originating from the left vagal nerve...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Kyuichi Niizeki, Tadashi Saitoh
Phase coupling of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been proposed to be an alternative measure for evaluating autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. The aim of this study was to analyze how phase coupling of RSA is altered during sleep, in order to explore whether this measure is a predictor of slow wave sleep (SWS). Overnight electroencephalograms (EEG), electrocardiograms (ECG), and breathing using inductance plethysmography were recorded from 30 healthy volunteers (six females, age range 21-64, 31...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yohko Maki, Takashi Sakurai, Jiro Okochi, Haruyasu Yamaguchi, Kenji Toba
The goal of dementia treatment is to improve the quality of life for both people with dementia and their families. Rehabilitation as a non-pharmacological approach, coordinated with pharmacological treatment, aims to allow patients to live better by slowing the progression, and relieving the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. In dementia, the manifestation of symptoms caused by neurological impairment is modified by various factors; thus, multidimensional assessment and approaches are effective based on the concept of the International Classification of Functioning, which emphasizes the healthy components of every person's functioning...
October 15, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Yoshifumi Nakazawa, Yoshihiko Matsui, Yusuke Hanamura, Koki Shinno, Nobutaka Shirasaki, Taku Matsushita
Because of the eminent adsorptive capacity and rate for dissolved organic molecules compared to conventionally-sized powdered activated carbon (PAC), super-fine powdered activated carbon (SPAC) is gathering momentum for use in not only the pretreatment for membrane filtration for drinking water purification but also the conventional water purification process consisting of coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation, and rapid sand-filtration (CSF). However, the probability of SPAC particles to leak through a sand bed is higher than that of PAC, and their strict leakage control is an issue to be challenged when applying SPAC to CSF...
October 5, 2018: Water Research
Indrani Bhowmick, Andrew J Roehl, James R Neilson, Anthony K Rappé, Matthew P Shores
Herein we report the first examples of single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour in S = 1/2 Ni(iii) complexes. We find that low-spin 3d7 trans -[NiIII (cyclam)(X)2 ]Y complexes (cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane; X and Y are singly charged anions) exhibit field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization for O-donor axial ligands (nitrate) but not for N-donor variants (isothiocyanate). Experimental and electronic structure computational investigations indicate that intrinsic spin polarisation of low-spin Ni(iii) is modulated significantly by local coordination geometry and supramolecular interactions...
August 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Jiacheng Yang, Patrick Roth, Christopher R Ruehl, Martin M Shafer, Dagmara S Antkiewicz, Thomas D Durbin, David Cocker, Akua Asa-Awuku, Georgios Karavalakis
We assessed the physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of particulate emissions from four light-duty gasoline direct injection vehicles when operated over the LA92 driving cycle. Our results showed that particle mass and number emissions increased markedly during accelerations. For three of the four vehicles tested, particulate matter (PM) mass and particle number emissions were markedly higher during cold-start and the first few accelerations following the cold-start period than during the hot running and hot-start segments of the LA92 cycle...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
T Cosby, Z Vicars, M Heres, K Tsunashima, J Sangoro
Mesoscopic aggregation in aprotic ionic liquids due to the microphase separation of polar and non-polar components is expected to correlate strongly with the physicochemical properties of ionic liquids and therefore their potential applications. The most commonly cited experimental evidence of such aggregation is the observation of a low-q pre-peak in the x-ray and neutron scattering profiles, attributed to the polarity alternation of polar and apolar phases. In this work, a homologous series of phosphonium ionic liquids with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion and systematically varying alkyl chain lengths on the phosphonium cation are investigated by small and wide-angle x-ray scattering, dynamic-mechanical spectroscopy, and broadband dielectric spectroscopy...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
C Rallière, A Branthonne, P Y Rescan
The formation of the intramuscular connective tissue was investigated in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss by combining histological and in situ gene-expression analysis. Laminin, a primary component of basement membranes, surrounded superficial slow and deep fast muscle fibres in O. mykiss as soon as the hatching stage (c. 30 days post fertilization (dpf)). In contrast, type I collagen, the primary fibrillar collagen in muscle of vertebrates, appeared at the surface of individual slow and fast muscle fibres only at c...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Karen F Urbancic, Karin Thursky, David C M Kong, Paul D R Johnson, Monica A Slavin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To outline key drivers and components of antifungal stewardship (AFS) programmes, the evidence for specific interventions, and methods to assess performance of programmes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent developments in antifungal resistance and breakthrough invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) have increased the urgency for effective AFS. In practice, however, few hospitals have dedicated AFS programmes. To date, AFS programmes have centred around the provision of expert bedside reviews and have reduced costs and consumption of antifungal agents...
October 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Jonas K Olofsson, Elmeri Syrjänen, Ingrid Ekström, Maria Larsson, Stefan Wiens
In psychological experiments, behavioral speed varies across trials, and this variation is often associated with corresponding fluctuations in cortical activity. Little is known about such cortical variations in semantic priming tasks where target words are matched with preceding sensory object cues. Here, two visually presented target words ("pear" and "lilac") were repeatedly cued by corresponding odors or pictures, and the participants were to indicate matching or nonmatching combinations...
October 8, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
William M Spees, Tsen-Hsuan Lin, Peng Sun, Chunyu Song, Ajit George, Sam E Gary, Hsin-Chieh Yang, Sheng-Kwei Song
Repetitive electrical activity produces microstructural alteration in myelinated axons, which may afford the opportunity to noninvasively monitor function of myelinated fibers in peripheral nervous system (PNS)/CNS pathways. Microstructural changes were assessed via two different magnetic-resonance-based approaches: diffusion fMRI and dynamic T2 spectroscopy in the ex vivo perfused bullfrog sciatic nerves. Using this robust, classical model as a platform for testing, we demonstrate that noninvasive diffusion fMRI, based on standard diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), can clearly localize the sites of axonal conduction blockage as might be encountered in neurotrauma or other lesion types...
October 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Niklas Jänsch, Christian Meyners, Marius Muth, Aleksandra Kopranovic, Olaf Witt, Ina Oehme, Franz-Josef Meyer-Almes
Enzymes from the histone deacetylase (HDAC) family are highly regulated by different mechanisms. However, only very limited knowledge exists about the regulation of HDAC8, an established target in multiple types of cancer. A previous dedicated study of HDAC class I enzymes identified no redox-sensitive cysteinyl thiol in HDAC8. This is in contrast to the observation that HDAC8 preparations show different enzyme activities depending on the addition of reducing agents. In the light of the importance of HDAC8 in tumorigenesis a possible regulation by redox signaling was investigated using biochemical and biophysical methods combined with site directed mutagenesis...
September 27, 2018: Redox Biology
Nicolas Schweighofer, Chunji Wang, Denis Mottet, Isabelle Laffont, Karima Bakthi, David J Reinkensmeyer, Olivier Rémy-Néris
BACKGROUND: A large number of robotic or gravity-supporting devices have been developed for rehabilitation of upper extremity post-stroke. Because these devices continuously monitor performance data during training, they could potentially help to develop predictive models of the effects of motor training on recovery. However, during training with such devices, patients must become adept at using the new "tool" of the exoskeleton, including learning the new forces and visuomotor transformations associated with the device...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Liesbeth F Mieras, Anna T Taal, Wim H van Brakel, Emmanuelle Cambau, Paul R Saunderson, W Cairns S Smith, Cita Rosita S Prakoeswa, Linda Astari, David M Scollard, Dejair Caitano do Nascimento, Jacques Grosset, Hemanta K Kar, Shinzo Izumi, Laura Gillini, Marcos C L Virmond, Marieke G G Sturkenboom
The ongoing transmission of Mycobacterium (M.) leprae reflected in a very slow decline in leprosy incidence, forces us to be innovative and conduct cutting-edge research. Single dose rifampicin (SDR) as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for contacts of leprosy patients, reduces their risk to develop leprosy by 60%. This is a promising new preventive measure that can be integrated into routine leprosy control programmes, as is being demonstrated in the Leprosy Post-Exposure Programme that is currently ongoing in eight countries...
October 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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